Abstract

A detailed study on the optical cavity modes of zinc oxide microspheres under the optical excitation is presented. The zinc oxide microspheres with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 µm are prepared using hydrothermal growth technique. The photoluminescence measurement of a single microsphere shows prominent resonances of whispering gallery modes at room temperature. The experimentally observed whispering gallery modes in the photoluminescence spectrum are compared with theoretical calculations using analytical and finite element methods in order to clarify resonance properties of these modes. The comparison between theoretical analysis and experiment suggests that the dielectric constant of the ZnO microsphere is somewhat different from that for bulk ZnO. The sharp resonances of whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide microspheres cover the entire visible window. They may be utilized in realizations of optical resonators, light emitting devices, and lasers for future chip integrations with micro/nano optoelectronic circuits, and developments of optical biosensors.

© 2013 OSA

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2012

A. B. Djurisic, X. Chen, Y. H. Leung, and A. M. C. Ng, “ZnO nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem.22(14), 6526–6535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Liu, G. X. Shao, J. F. Zhao, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Liang, X. G. Liu, H. S. Jia, and B. S. Xu, “Worm-like Ag/ZnO core-shell heterostructural composites: fabrication, characterization, and Photocatalysis,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(30), 16182–16190 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Tang, G. Meng, Q. Huang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, and C. Zhu, “Arrays of cone-shaped ZnO nanorods decorated with Ag nanoparticles as 3D surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates for rapid detection of trace polychlorinated biphenyls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(1), 218–224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tseng, M. H. Liu, Y. W. Kuo, P. Chen, C. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Mou, “Biomimetic ZnO plate twin-crystals periodical arrays,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(26), 3215–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, K. Gao, Z. Hu, W. Yu, N. Xu, J. Sun, and J. Wu, “Photoluminescence and lasing properties of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod arrays fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(3), 2330–2335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. J. Kim, S. H. Hahn, and S. G. Seong, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 101906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

D. J. Gargas, H. Gao, H. Wang, and P. Yang, “High quantum efficiency of band-edge emission from ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3792–3796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Yang, Y. Zhang, N. W. Wang, C. X. Wang, B. J. Li, and G. W. Yang, “ZnO nanocone: application in fabrication of the smallest whispering gallery optical resonator,” Nanoscale3(2), 592–597 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cho, J. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, J. S. Lee, and K. H. Lee, “A method for modifying the crystalline nature and texture of ZnO nanostructure surfaces,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(12), 5615–5620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Q. Cao, K. Sakai, D. Nakamura, I. A. Palani, H. B. Gong, H. Y. Xu, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Stimulated optical emission from ZnO nanobelts grown with a simple carbothermal evaporation method,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Herring, K. AbouZeid, M. B. Mohamed, J. Pinsk, and M. S. El-Shall, “Formation mechanisms of gold-zinc oxide hexagonal nanopyramids by heterogeneous nucleation using microwave synthesis,” Langmuir27(24), 15146–15154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. X. Zhu, Y. J. Liu, H. Xu, Y. Chen, X. P. Shen, and Z. Xu, “Photochemical deposition of Ag nanocrystals on hierarchical ZnO microspheres and their enhanced gas-sensing properties,” CrystEngComm14(2), 719–725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Chen, C. K. Chen, C. C. Lin, R. S. Liu, H. Yang, W. S. Chang, K. H. Chen, T. S. Chan, J. F. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Multi-bandgap-sensitized ZnO nanorod photoelectrode arrays for water splitting: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach for the electronic evolution under solar illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(44), 21971–21980 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, Z. Liu, J. Chen, J. C. Shen, T. H. Li, P. H. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Green light stimulates terahertz emission from mesocrystal microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(2), 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu and Z. L. Wang, “One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures: Solution growth and functional properties,” Nano Res.4(11), 1013–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Wang, S. W. Chang, C. C. Chen, C. H. Chiu, M. Y. Kuo, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Room temperature lasing with high group index in metal-coated GaN nanoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, J. W. Jang, A. Jung, S. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. S. Lee, and K. H. Lee, “Formation of amorphous zinc citrate spheres and their conversion to crystalline ZnO nanostructures,” Langmuir27(1), 371–378 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Chang, “Full frequency-domain approach to reciprocal microlasers and nanolasers-perspective from Lorentz reciprocity,” Opt. Express19(22), 21116–21134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

R. Schmidt-Grund, H. Hilmer, A. Hinkel, C. Sturm, B. Rheinlander, V. Gottschalch, M. Lange, J. Zuniga-Perez, and M. Grundmann, “Two-dimensional confined photonic wire resonators- strong light-matter coupling,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1351–1364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Eletron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, V. E. Sandana, and M. Razeghi, “ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications,” Proc. SPIE7605, 76050K, 76050K-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lo and D. Huang, “Morphological variation and Raman spectroscopy of ZnO hollow microspheres prepared by a chemical colloidal process,” Langmuir26(9), 6762–6766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dong, Z. Chen, L. Sun, W. Xie, H. H. Tan, J. Lu, C. Jagadish, and X. Shen, “Single-crystalline hexagonal ZnO microtube optical resonator,” J. Mater. Chem.20(26), 5510–5515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from zinc oxide hexagonal nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

N. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Wu, R. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Yin, and L. Guo, “Hexagonal ZnO bipyramids: synthesis, morphological evolution, and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(52), 21471–21476 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

X. W. Sun, J. Z. Huang, J. X. Wang, and Z. Xu, “A ZnO nanorod inorganic/organic heterostructure light-emitting diode emitting at 342 nm,” Nano Lett.8(4), 1219–1223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Lu, H. Zhang, Y. Ni, Q. Zhang, and J. Chen, “Porous nanosheet-based ZnO microspheres for the construction of direct electrochemical biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(1), 93–98 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pang, R. E. Beckham, and K. E. Meissner, “Quantum dot-embedded microspheres for remote refractive index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

R. Cuscó, E. A. Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Heebner, T. C. Bond, and J. S. Kallman, “Generalized formulation for performance degradations due to bending and edge scattering loss in microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express15(8), 4452–4473 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. Fan and J. G. Lu, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: synthesis and properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.5(10), 1561–1573 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisic, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(21), 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

AbouZeid, K.

N. P. Herring, K. AbouZeid, M. B. Mohamed, J. Pinsk, and M. S. El-Shall, “Formation mechanisms of gold-zinc oxide hexagonal nanopyramids by heterogeneous nucleation using microwave synthesis,” Langmuir27(24), 15146–15154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(21), 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Artús, L.

R. Cuscó, E. A. Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenov, N.

R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beckham, R. E.

S. Pang, R. E. Beckham, and K. E. Meissner, “Quantum dot-embedded microspheres for remote refractive index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benndorf, G.

R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bond, T. C.

Bozack, M. J.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093112 (2006).
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R. Cuscó, E. A. Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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B. Q. Cao, K. Sakai, D. Nakamura, I. A. Palani, H. B. Gong, H. Y. Xu, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Stimulated optical emission from ZnO nanobelts grown with a simple carbothermal evaporation method,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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N. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Wu, R. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Yin, and L. Guo, “Hexagonal ZnO bipyramids: synthesis, morphological evolution, and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(52), 21471–21476 (2009).
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H. M. Chen, C. K. Chen, C. C. Lin, R. S. Liu, H. Yang, W. S. Chang, K. H. Chen, T. S. Chan, J. F. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Multi-bandgap-sensitized ZnO nanorod photoelectrode arrays for water splitting: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach for the electronic evolution under solar illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(44), 21971–21980 (2011).
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D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisic, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. G. Wang, S. W. Chang, C. C. Chen, C. H. Chiu, M. Y. Kuo, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Room temperature lasing with high group index in metal-coated GaN nanoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251111 (2011).
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D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from zinc oxide hexagonal nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. M. Chen, C. K. Chen, C. C. Lin, R. S. Liu, H. Yang, W. S. Chang, K. H. Chen, T. S. Chan, J. F. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Multi-bandgap-sensitized ZnO nanorod photoelectrode arrays for water splitting: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach for the electronic evolution under solar illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(44), 21971–21980 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Y. G. Wang, S. W. Chang, C. C. Chen, C. H. Chiu, M. Y. Kuo, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Room temperature lasing with high group index in metal-coated GaN nanoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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H. M. Chen, C. K. Chen, C. C. Lin, R. S. Liu, H. Yang, W. S. Chang, K. H. Chen, T. S. Chan, J. F. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Multi-bandgap-sensitized ZnO nanorod photoelectrode arrays for water splitting: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach for the electronic evolution under solar illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(44), 21971–21980 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Y. H. Tseng, M. H. Liu, Y. W. Kuo, P. Chen, C. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Mou, “Biomimetic ZnO plate twin-crystals periodical arrays,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(26), 3215–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. M. Chen, C. K. Chen, C. C. Lin, R. S. Liu, H. Yang, W. S. Chang, K. H. Chen, T. S. Chan, J. F. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Multi-bandgap-sensitized ZnO nanorod photoelectrode arrays for water splitting: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach for the electronic evolution under solar illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(44), 21971–21980 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, Z. Liu, J. Chen, J. C. Shen, T. H. Li, P. H. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Green light stimulates terahertz emission from mesocrystal microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(2), 103–106 (2011).
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X. Lu, H. Zhang, Y. Ni, Q. Zhang, and J. Chen, “Porous nanosheet-based ZnO microspheres for the construction of direct electrochemical biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(1), 93–98 (2008).
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Chen, K. H.

H. M. Chen, C. K. Chen, C. C. Lin, R. S. Liu, H. Yang, W. S. Chang, K. H. Chen, T. S. Chan, J. F. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Multi-bandgap-sensitized ZnO nanorod photoelectrode arrays for water splitting: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach for the electronic evolution under solar illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(44), 21971–21980 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Y. H. Tseng, M. H. Liu, Y. W. Kuo, P. Chen, C. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Mou, “Biomimetic ZnO plate twin-crystals periodical arrays,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(26), 3215–3217 (2012).
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Chen, R.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
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Chen, X.

A. B. Djurisic, X. Chen, Y. H. Leung, and A. M. C. Ng, “ZnO nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem.22(14), 6526–6535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

G. X. Zhu, Y. J. Liu, H. Xu, Y. Chen, X. P. Shen, and Z. Xu, “Photochemical deposition of Ag nanocrystals on hierarchical ZnO microspheres and their enhanced gas-sensing properties,” CrystEngComm14(2), 719–725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. H. Tseng, M. H. Liu, Y. W. Kuo, P. Chen, C. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Mou, “Biomimetic ZnO plate twin-crystals periodical arrays,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(26), 3215–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

H. Dong, Z. Chen, L. Sun, W. Xie, H. H. Tan, J. Lu, C. Jagadish, and X. Shen, “Single-crystalline hexagonal ZnO microtube optical resonator,” J. Mater. Chem.20(26), 5510–5515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chernyak, L.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiasera, A.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

Y. G. Wang, S. W. Chang, C. C. Chen, C. H. Chiu, M. Y. Kuo, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Room temperature lasing with high group index in metal-coated GaN nanoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

S. Cho, J. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, J. S. Lee, and K. H. Lee, “A method for modifying the crystalline nature and texture of ZnO nanostructure surfaces,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(12), 5615–5620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, J. W. Jang, A. Jung, S. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. S. Lee, and K. H. Lee, “Formation of amorphous zinc citrate spheres and their conversion to crystalline ZnO nanostructures,” Langmuir27(1), 371–378 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y. S.

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Eletron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. K.

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, Z. Liu, J. Chen, J. C. Shen, T. H. Li, P. H. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Green light stimulates terahertz emission from mesocrystal microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(2), 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, S. L.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from zinc oxide hexagonal nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y. P.

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cuscó, R.

R. Cuscó, E. A. Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Czakai, W.

R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Czekalla, C.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Djurisic, A. B.

A. B. Djurisic, X. Chen, Y. H. Leung, and A. M. C. Ng, “ZnO nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Mater. Chem.22(14), 6526–6535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisic, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, H.

H. Dong, Z. Chen, L. Sun, W. Xie, H. H. Tan, J. Lu, C. Jagadish, and X. Shen, “Single-crystalline hexagonal ZnO microtube optical resonator,” J. Mater. Chem.20(26), 5510–5515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dumeige, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

El-Shall, M. S.

N. P. Herring, K. AbouZeid, M. B. Mohamed, J. Pinsk, and M. S. El-Shall, “Formation mechanisms of gold-zinc oxide hexagonal nanopyramids by heterogeneous nucleation using microwave synthesis,” Langmuir27(24), 15146–15154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faltermeier, D.

R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Fan and J. G. Lu, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: synthesis and properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.5(10), 1561–1573 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Féron, P.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

D. J. Gargas, H. Gao, H. Wang, and P. Yang, “High quantum efficiency of band-edge emission from ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3792–3796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, K.

Q. Li, K. Gao, Z. Hu, W. Yu, N. Xu, J. Sun, and J. Wu, “Photoluminescence and lasing properties of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod arrays fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(3), 2330–2335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gargas, D. J.

D. J. Gargas, H. Gao, H. Wang, and P. Yang, “High quantum efficiency of band-edge emission from ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3792–3796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from zinc oxide hexagonal nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, H. B.

B. Q. Cao, K. Sakai, D. Nakamura, I. A. Palani, H. B. Gong, H. Y. Xu, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Stimulated optical emission from ZnO nanobelts grown with a simple carbothermal evaporation method,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gottschalch, V.

R. Schmidt-Grund, H. Hilmer, A. Hinkel, C. Sturm, B. Rheinlander, V. Gottschalch, M. Lange, J. Zuniga-Perez, and M. Grundmann, “Two-dimensional confined photonic wire resonators- strong light-matter coupling,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1351–1364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greene, L. E.

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundmann, M.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmidt-Grund, H. Hilmer, A. Hinkel, C. Sturm, B. Rheinlander, V. Gottschalch, M. Lange, J. Zuniga-Perez, and M. Grundmann, “Two-dimensional confined photonic wire resonators- strong light-matter coupling,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1351–1364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

N. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Wu, R. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Yin, and L. Guo, “Hexagonal ZnO bipyramids: synthesis, morphological evolution, and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(52), 21471–21476 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, S. H.

M. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. J. Kim, S. H. Hahn, and S. G. Seong, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 101906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

Herring, N. P.

N. P. Herring, K. AbouZeid, M. B. Mohamed, J. Pinsk, and M. S. El-Shall, “Formation mechanisms of gold-zinc oxide hexagonal nanopyramids by heterogeneous nucleation using microwave synthesis,” Langmuir27(24), 15146–15154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higashihata, M.

B. Q. Cao, K. Sakai, D. Nakamura, I. A. Palani, H. B. Gong, H. Y. Xu, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Stimulated optical emission from ZnO nanobelts grown with a simple carbothermal evaporation method,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hilmer, H.

R. Schmidt-Grund, H. Hilmer, A. Hinkel, C. Sturm, B. Rheinlander, V. Gottschalch, M. Lange, J. Zuniga-Perez, and M. Grundmann, “Two-dimensional confined photonic wire resonators- strong light-matter coupling,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1351–1364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hinkel, A.

R. Schmidt-Grund, H. Hilmer, A. Hinkel, C. Sturm, B. Rheinlander, V. Gottschalch, M. Lange, J. Zuniga-Perez, and M. Grundmann, “Two-dimensional confined photonic wire resonators- strong light-matter coupling,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1351–1364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hochmuth, H.

R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Q. Li, K. Gao, Z. Hu, W. Yu, N. Xu, J. Sun, and J. Wu, “Photoluminescence and lasing properties of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod arrays fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(3), 2330–2335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

S. S. Lo and D. Huang, “Morphological variation and Raman spectroscopy of ZnO hollow microspheres prepared by a chemical colloidal process,” Langmuir26(9), 6762–6766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. Z.

X. W. Sun, J. Z. Huang, J. X. Wang, and Z. Xu, “A ZnO nanorod inorganic/organic heterostructure light-emitting diode emitting at 342 nm,” Nano Lett.8(4), 1219–1223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

H. Tang, G. Meng, Q. Huang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, and C. Zhu, “Arrays of cone-shaped ZnO nanorods decorated with Ag nanoparticles as 3D surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates for rapid detection of trace polychlorinated biphenyls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(1), 218–224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

H. Tang, G. Meng, Q. Huang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, and C. Zhu, “Arrays of cone-shaped ZnO nanorods decorated with Ag nanoparticles as 3D surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates for rapid detection of trace polychlorinated biphenyls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(1), 218–224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D. K.

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Eletron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ibáñez, J.

R. Cuscó, E. A. Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

H. Dong, Z. Chen, L. Sun, W. Xie, H. H. Tan, J. Lu, C. Jagadish, and X. Shen, “Single-crystalline hexagonal ZnO microtube optical resonator,” J. Mater. Chem.20(26), 5510–5515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. W.

S. Cho, J. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, J. S. Lee, and K. H. Lee, “A method for modifying the crystalline nature and texture of ZnO nanostructure surfaces,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(12), 5615–5620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, J. W. Jang, A. Jung, S. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. S. Lee, and K. H. Lee, “Formation of amorphous zinc citrate spheres and their conversion to crystalline ZnO nanostructures,” Langmuir27(1), 371–378 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jestin, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jia, H. S.

H. R. Liu, G. X. Shao, J. F. Zhao, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Liang, X. G. Liu, H. S. Jia, and B. S. Xu, “Worm-like Ag/ZnO core-shell heterostructural composites: fabrication, characterization, and Photocatalysis,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(30), 16182–16190 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, J.

R. Cuscó, E. A. Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. C.

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, A.

S. Cho, J. W. Jang, A. Jung, S. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. S. Lee, and K. H. Lee, “Formation of amorphous zinc citrate spheres and their conversion to crystalline ZnO nanostructures,” Langmuir27(1), 371–378 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kallman, J. S.

Kang, J. W.

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Eletron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(21), 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. J.

M. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. J. Kim, S. H. Hahn, and S. G. Seong, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 101906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. G. Wang, S. W. Chang, C. C. Chen, C. H. Chiu, M. Y. Kuo, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Room temperature lasing with high group index in metal-coated GaN nanoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251111 (2011).
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Kuo, M. Y.

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H. Dong, Z. Chen, L. Sun, W. Xie, H. H. Tan, J. Lu, C. Jagadish, and X. Shen, “Single-crystalline hexagonal ZnO microtube optical resonator,” J. Mater. Chem.20(26), 5510–5515 (2010).
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C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
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R. Schmidt-Grund, H. Hilmer, A. Hinkel, C. Sturm, B. Rheinlander, V. Gottschalch, M. Lange, J. Zuniga-Perez, and M. Grundmann, “Two-dimensional confined photonic wire resonators- strong light-matter coupling,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1351–1364 (2010).
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A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(3), 457–482 (2010).
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B. Q. Cao, K. Sakai, D. Nakamura, I. A. Palani, H. B. Gong, H. Y. Xu, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Stimulated optical emission from ZnO nanobelts grown with a simple carbothermal evaporation method,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
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Schmidt-Grund, R.

R. Schmidt-Grund, H. Hilmer, A. Hinkel, C. Sturm, B. Rheinlander, V. Gottschalch, M. Lange, J. Zuniga-Perez, and M. Grundmann, “Two-dimensional confined photonic wire resonators- strong light-matter coupling,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1351–1364 (2010).
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C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
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R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, Z. Liu, J. Chen, J. C. Shen, T. H. Li, P. H. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Green light stimulates terahertz emission from mesocrystal microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(2), 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Dong, Z. Chen, L. Sun, W. Xie, H. H. Tan, J. Lu, C. Jagadish, and X. Shen, “Single-crystalline hexagonal ZnO microtube optical resonator,” J. Mater. Chem.20(26), 5510–5515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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G. X. Zhu, Y. J. Liu, H. Xu, Y. Chen, X. P. Shen, and Z. Xu, “Photochemical deposition of Ag nanocrystals on hierarchical ZnO microspheres and their enhanced gas-sensing properties,” CrystEngComm14(2), 719–725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisic, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. G. Wang, S. W. Chang, C. C. Chen, C. H. Chiu, M. Y. Kuo, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Room temperature lasing with high group index in metal-coated GaN nanoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery-mode microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmidt-Grund, H. Hilmer, A. Hinkel, C. Sturm, B. Rheinlander, V. Gottschalch, M. Lange, J. Zuniga-Perez, and M. Grundmann, “Two-dimensional confined photonic wire resonators- strong light-matter coupling,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1351–1364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

Q. Li, K. Gao, Z. Hu, W. Yu, N. Xu, J. Sun, and J. Wu, “Photoluminescence and lasing properties of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod arrays fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(3), 2330–2335 (2012).
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H. Dong, Z. Chen, L. Sun, W. Xie, H. H. Tan, J. Lu, C. Jagadish, and X. Shen, “Single-crystalline hexagonal ZnO microtube optical resonator,” J. Mater. Chem.20(26), 5510–5515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Sun, J. Z. Huang, J. X. Wang, and Z. Xu, “A ZnO nanorod inorganic/organic heterostructure light-emitting diode emitting at 342 nm,” Nano Lett.8(4), 1219–1223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tallant, D. R.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

H. Dong, Z. Chen, L. Sun, W. Xie, H. H. Tan, J. Lu, C. Jagadish, and X. Shen, “Single-crystalline hexagonal ZnO microtube optical resonator,” J. Mater. Chem.20(26), 5510–5515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

H. Tang, G. Meng, Q. Huang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, and C. Zhu, “Arrays of cone-shaped ZnO nanorods decorated with Ag nanoparticles as 3D surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates for rapid detection of trace polychlorinated biphenyls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(1), 218–224 (2012).
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D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, V. E. Sandana, and M. Razeghi, “ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications,” Proc. SPIE7605, 76050K, 76050K-11 (2010).
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F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(21), 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tin, C. C.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

H. M. Chen, C. K. Chen, C. C. Lin, R. S. Liu, H. Yang, W. S. Chang, K. H. Chen, T. S. Chan, J. F. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Multi-bandgap-sensitized ZnO nanorod photoelectrode arrays for water splitting: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach for the electronic evolution under solar illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(44), 21971–21980 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, Y. H.

Y. H. Tseng, M. H. Liu, Y. W. Kuo, P. Chen, C. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Mou, “Biomimetic ZnO plate twin-crystals periodical arrays,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(26), 3215–3217 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzeng, Y.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, J. A.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(21), 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. Cuscó, E. A. Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. X.

Y. H. Yang, Y. Zhang, N. W. Wang, C. X. Wang, B. J. Li, and G. W. Yang, “ZnO nanocone: application in fabrication of the smallest whispering gallery optical resonator,” Nanoscale3(2), 592–597 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

D. J. Gargas, H. Gao, H. Wang, and P. Yang, “High quantum efficiency of band-edge emission from ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3792–3796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. X.

X. W. Sun, J. Z. Huang, J. X. Wang, and Z. Xu, “A ZnO nanorod inorganic/organic heterostructure light-emitting diode emitting at 342 nm,” Nano Lett.8(4), 1219–1223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

N. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Wu, R. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Yin, and L. Guo, “Hexagonal ZnO bipyramids: synthesis, morphological evolution, and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(52), 21471–21476 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. J. Kim, S. H. Hahn, and S. G. Seong, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 101906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

N. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Wu, R. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Yin, and L. Guo, “Hexagonal ZnO bipyramids: synthesis, morphological evolution, and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(52), 21471–21476 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N. W.

Y. H. Yang, Y. Zhang, N. W. Wang, C. X. Wang, B. J. Li, and G. W. Yang, “ZnO nanocone: application in fabrication of the smallest whispering gallery optical resonator,” Nanoscale3(2), 592–597 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. G.

Y. G. Wang, S. W. Chang, C. C. Chen, C. H. Chiu, M. Y. Kuo, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Room temperature lasing with high group index in metal-coated GaN nanoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

S. Xu and Z. L. Wang, “One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures: Solution growth and functional properties,” Nano Res.4(11), 1013–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. L.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. R.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Q. Li, K. Gao, Z. Hu, W. Yu, N. Xu, J. Sun, and J. Wu, “Photoluminescence and lasing properties of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod arrays fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(3), 2330–2335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P. H.

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, Z. Liu, J. Chen, J. C. Shen, T. H. Li, P. H. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Green light stimulates terahertz emission from mesocrystal microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(2), 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

N. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Wu, R. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Yin, and L. Guo, “Hexagonal ZnO bipyramids: synthesis, morphological evolution, and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(52), 21471–21476 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, Z. Liu, J. Chen, J. C. Shen, T. H. Li, P. H. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Green light stimulates terahertz emission from mesocrystal microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(2), 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, M. H.

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisic, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.

H. Dong, Z. Chen, L. Sun, W. Xie, H. H. Tan, J. Lu, C. Jagadish, and X. Shen, “Single-crystalline hexagonal ZnO microtube optical resonator,” J. Mater. Chem.20(26), 5510–5515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, S. J.

X. L. Wu, S. J. Xiong, Z. Liu, J. Chen, J. C. Shen, T. H. Li, P. H. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Green light stimulates terahertz emission from mesocrystal microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(2), 103–106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, B. S.

H. R. Liu, G. X. Shao, J. F. Zhao, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Liang, X. G. Liu, H. S. Jia, and B. S. Xu, “Worm-like Ag/ZnO core-shell heterostructural composites: fabrication, characterization, and Photocatalysis,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(30), 16182–16190 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. X.

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

G. X. Zhu, Y. J. Liu, H. Xu, Y. Chen, X. P. Shen, and Z. Xu, “Photochemical deposition of Ag nanocrystals on hierarchical ZnO microspheres and their enhanced gas-sensing properties,” CrystEngComm14(2), 719–725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Y.

B. Q. Cao, K. Sakai, D. Nakamura, I. A. Palani, H. B. Gong, H. Y. Xu, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Stimulated optical emission from ZnO nanobelts grown with a simple carbothermal evaporation method,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N.

Q. Li, K. Gao, Z. Hu, W. Yu, N. Xu, J. Sun, and J. Wu, “Photoluminescence and lasing properties of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod arrays fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(3), 2330–2335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

S. Xu and Z. L. Wang, “One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures: Solution growth and functional properties,” Nano Res.4(11), 1013–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. J.

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisic, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

G. X. Zhu, Y. J. Liu, H. Xu, Y. Chen, X. P. Shen, and Z. Xu, “Photochemical deposition of Ag nanocrystals on hierarchical ZnO microspheres and their enhanced gas-sensing properties,” CrystEngComm14(2), 719–725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Sun, J. Z. Huang, J. X. Wang, and Z. Xu, “A ZnO nanorod inorganic/organic heterostructure light-emitting diode emitting at 342 nm,” Nano Lett.8(4), 1219–1223 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H. Q.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, G. W.

Y. H. Yang, Y. Zhang, N. W. Wang, C. X. Wang, B. J. Li, and G. W. Yang, “ZnO nanocone: application in fabrication of the smallest whispering gallery optical resonator,” Nanoscale3(2), 592–597 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. M. Chen, C. K. Chen, C. C. Lin, R. S. Liu, H. Yang, W. S. Chang, K. H. Chen, T. S. Chan, J. F. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Multi-bandgap-sensitized ZnO nanorod photoelectrode arrays for water splitting: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach for the electronic evolution under solar illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(44), 21971–21980 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

D. J. Gargas, H. Gao, H. Wang, and P. Yang, “High quantum efficiency of band-edge emission from ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3792–3796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from zinc oxide hexagonal nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
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M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 455–459 (2005).
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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. H.

Y. H. Yang, Y. Zhang, N. W. Wang, C. X. Wang, B. J. Li, and G. W. Yang, “ZnO nanocone: application in fabrication of the smallest whispering gallery optical resonator,” Nanoscale3(2), 592–597 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, P.

N. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Wu, R. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Yin, and L. Guo, “Hexagonal ZnO bipyramids: synthesis, morphological evolution, and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(52), 21471–21476 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

Q. Li, K. Gao, Z. Hu, W. Yu, N. Xu, J. Sun, and J. Wu, “Photoluminescence and lasing properties of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod arrays fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(3), 2330–2335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

X. Lu, H. Zhang, Y. Ni, Q. Zhang, and J. Chen, “Porous nanosheet-based ZnO microspheres for the construction of direct electrochemical biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(1), 93–98 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

X. Lu, H. Zhang, Y. Ni, Q. Zhang, and J. Chen, “Porous nanosheet-based ZnO microspheres for the construction of direct electrochemical biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(1), 93–98 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

N. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Wu, R. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Yin, and L. Guo, “Hexagonal ZnO bipyramids: synthesis, morphological evolution, and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(52), 21471–21476 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. R. Liu, G. X. Shao, J. F. Zhao, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Liang, X. G. Liu, H. S. Jia, and B. S. Xu, “Worm-like Ag/ZnO core-shell heterostructural composites: fabrication, characterization, and Photocatalysis,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(30), 16182–16190 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. J. Kim, S. H. Hahn, and S. G. Seong, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 101906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Yang, Y. Zhang, N. W. Wang, C. X. Wang, B. J. Li, and G. W. Yang, “ZnO nanocone: application in fabrication of the smallest whispering gallery optical resonator,” Nanoscale3(2), 592–597 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

H. Tang, G. Meng, Q. Huang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, and C. Zhu, “Arrays of cone-shaped ZnO nanorods decorated with Ag nanoparticles as 3D surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates for rapid detection of trace polychlorinated biphenyls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(1), 218–224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from zinc oxide hexagonal nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. X.

H. R. Liu, G. X. Shao, J. F. Zhao, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Liang, X. G. Liu, H. S. Jia, and B. S. Xu, “Worm-like Ag/ZnO core-shell heterostructural composites: fabrication, characterization, and Photocatalysis,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(30), 16182–16190 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. F.

H. R. Liu, G. X. Shao, J. F. Zhao, Z. X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Liang, X. G. Liu, H. S. Jia, and B. S. Xu, “Worm-like Ag/ZnO core-shell heterostructural composites: fabrication, characterization, and Photocatalysis,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(30), 16182–16190 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

M. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. J. Kim, S. H. Hahn, and S. G. Seong, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 101906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

H. Tang, G. Meng, Q. Huang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, and C. Zhu, “Arrays of cone-shaped ZnO nanorods decorated with Ag nanoparticles as 3D surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates for rapid detection of trace polychlorinated biphenyls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(1), 218–224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G. P.

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G. X.

G. X. Zhu, Y. J. Liu, H. Xu, Y. Chen, X. P. Shen, and Z. Xu, “Photochemical deposition of Ag nanocrystals on hierarchical ZnO microspheres and their enhanced gas-sensing properties,” CrystEngComm14(2), 719–725 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zuniga-Perez, J.

R. Schmidt-Grund, H. Hilmer, A. Hinkel, C. Sturm, B. Rheinlander, V. Gottschalch, M. Lange, J. Zuniga-Perez, and M. Grundmann, “Two-dimensional confined photonic wire resonators- strong light-matter coupling,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1351–1364 (2010).
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Zúñiga-Pérez, J.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode lasing from zinc oxide hexagonal nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

H. Tang, G. Meng, Q. Huang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, and C. Zhu, “Arrays of cone-shaped ZnO nanorods decorated with Ag nanoparticles as 3D surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates for rapid detection of trace polychlorinated biphenyls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(1), 218–224 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Conf. Proc.

R. Schmidt-Grund, N. Ashkenov, M. M. Schubert, W. Czakai, D. Faltermeier, G. Benndorf, H. Hochmuth, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Temperature‐dependence of the refractive index and the optical transitions at the fundamental band‐gap of ZnO,” AIP Conf. Proc.893, 271–272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. G. Wang, S. W. Chang, C. C. Chen, C. H. Chiu, M. Y. Kuo, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Room temperature lasing with high group index in metal-coated GaN nanoring,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisic, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, and W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(9), 1601–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. J. Kim, S. H. Hahn, and S. G. Seong, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 101906 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(21), 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Pang, R. E. Beckham, and K. E. Meissner, “Quantum dot-embedded microspheres for remote refractive index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 221108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

X. Lu, H. Zhang, Y. Ni, Q. Zhang, and J. Chen, “Porous nanosheet-based ZnO microspheres for the construction of direct electrochemical biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(1), 93–98 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

Y. H. Tseng, M. H. Liu, Y. W. Kuo, P. Chen, C. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Mou, “Biomimetic ZnO plate twin-crystals periodical arrays,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(26), 3215–3217 (2012).
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Cryst. Growth Des.

S. Cho, J. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, J. S. Lee, and K. H. Lee, “A method for modifying the crystalline nature and texture of ZnO nanostructure surfaces,” Cryst. Growth Des.11(12), 5615–5620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

CrystEngComm

G. X. Zhu, Y. J. Liu, H. Xu, Y. Chen, X. P. Shen, and Z. Xu, “Photochemical deposition of Ag nanocrystals on hierarchical ZnO microspheres and their enhanced gas-sensing properties,” CrystEngComm14(2), 719–725 (2011).
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IEEE Trans. Eletron. Dev.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The SEM image of annealed ZnO microspheres on Si Substrate. (b) XRD pattern and (c) corresponding EDX spectrum from a single microsphere. (d) The room-temperature Raman scattering spectra of the as-prepared ZnO microspheres.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL spectra of a single ZnO microsphere placed on the Si substrate with diameters (a) 2.7 µm, (b) 2.5 µm, (c) 1.87 µm, and (d) 1.52 µm respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The indicator function D(l,l′) versus mode number l for the ZnO microsphere with D = 2.7 μm. Function values under assignments parameterized by different lmin are shown for (a) ∆n = 0 and (b) ∆n = −0.1852.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The indicator function D(l,l′) versus mode number l for the ZnO microsphere with D = 2.5 μm. Function values under assignments parameterized by different lmin are shown for (a) ∆n = 0 and (b) ∆n = −0.1964.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The schematic of a single ZnO microsphere on the Si substrate. (b) The top view of the WGM field profile near 522.83nm (l = 25) on the equatorial plane of the microsphere (z = R). (c) The side view on the vertical cross section (y = 0).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Resonances obtained from FEM calculations for different mode numbers l. The spectra are aimed at the TEr-like fundamental modes of the ZnO microsphere with D = 2.7 µm. (b) The mode assignments to the corresponding resonances on the PL spectrum.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparisons between the experimental resonance wavelengths and those obtained from analytical estimations and FEM calculations for the fundamental TEr-like WGMs of the microsphere with D = 2.7 μm.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparisons between the experimental resonance wavelengths and those obtained from analytical estimations for the fundamental TEr-like WGMs of the microsphere with D = 2.5 μm.

Equations (3)

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n 12b 1 z j l (z) d[z j l (z)] dz | z=nkR 1 z h l (1) (z) d[z h l (1) (z)] dz | z=kR =0,
D=2R= x l λ l π Re[ x l ]Re[ λ l ] π ,
D(l,l') Re[ x l ] λ Exp,l' π , l'=l l min +1,

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