Abstract

This work experimentally demonstrates a long-range optical fiber sensing network for the multiplexing of fiber sensors based on photonic crystal fibers. Specifically, six photonic crystal fiber sensors which are based on a Sagnac interferometer that includes a suspended-core fiber have been used. These sensors offer a high sensitivity for micro-displacement measurements. The fiber sensor network presents a ladder structure and its operation mode is based on a fiber ring laser which combines Raman and Erbium doped fiber amplification. Thus, we show the first demonstration of photonic crystal fiber sensors for remote measurement applications up to 75 km.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. H. Li, D. Li, and G. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Fernandez-Vallejo and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel)12(4), 3929–3951 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Diaz, S. Abad, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Fiber-optic sensor active networking with distributed erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(6), 480–497 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Achaerandio, S. Jarabo, S. Abad, and M. López-Amo, “New WDM amplified network for optical sensor multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(12), 1644–1646 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).
  6. J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 569–570 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, “Distributed-temperature sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical silica fibers,” Opt. Lett.15(18), 1038–1040 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Tanaka, M. Kinoshita, A. Takahashi, and T. Kurokawa, “A wide-area sensor network based on fiber optic power supply,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(11), 112501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Lopez-Higuera, ed., Handbook of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology (Wiley, New York2002), Chap. 1.
  11. A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens.2012598178, (2012).
  12. D. Barrera, J. Villatoro, V. P. Finazzi, G. A. Cárdenas-Sevilla, V. P. Minkovich, S. Sales, and V. Pruneri, “Low-loss photonic crystal fiber interferometers for sensor networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(24), 3542–3547 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. A. Cárdenas-Sevilla, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Photonic crystal fiber sensor array based on modes overlapping,” Opt. Express19(8), 7596–7602 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express17(21), 18501–18512 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Bravo, A. M. R. Pinto, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “High precision micro-displacement fiber sensor through a suspended-core Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett.37(2), 202–204 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Rota-Rodrigo, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Remote (250 km) fiber Bragg grating multiplexing system,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8711–8720 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. Fernandez-Vallejo and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel)12(4), 3929–3951 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens.2012598178, (2012).

M. Bravo, A. M. R. Pinto, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “High precision micro-displacement fiber sensor through a suspended-core Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett.37(2), 202–204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

G. A. Cárdenas-Sevilla, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, “Photonic crystal fiber sensor array based on modes overlapping,” Opt. Express19(8), 7596–7602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Rota-Rodrigo, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Remote (250 km) fiber Bragg grating multiplexing system,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8711–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, M. Kinoshita, A. Takahashi, and T. Kurokawa, “A wide-area sensor network based on fiber optic power supply,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(11), 112501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

D. Barrera, J. Villatoro, V. P. Finazzi, G. A. Cárdenas-Sevilla, V. P. Minkovich, S. Sales, and V. Pruneri, “Low-loss photonic crystal fiber interferometers for sensor networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(24), 3542–3547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

S. Diaz, S. Abad, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Fiber-optic sensor active networking with distributed erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(6), 480–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Li, D. Li, and G. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Achaerandio, S. Jarabo, S. Abad, and M. López-Amo, “New WDM amplified network for optical sensor multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(12), 1644–1646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

1985

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abad, S.

S. Diaz, S. Abad, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Fiber-optic sensor active networking with distributed erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(6), 480–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Achaerandio, S. Jarabo, S. Abad, and M. López-Amo, “New WDM amplified network for optical sensor multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(12), 1644–1646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Achaerandio, E.

E. Achaerandio, S. Jarabo, S. Abad, and M. López-Amo, “New WDM amplified network for optical sensor multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(12), 1644–1646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barrera, D.

Bibby, G. W.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bravo, M.

Cárdenas-Sevilla, G. A.

Childs, P. A.

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, S.

S. Diaz, S. Abad, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Fiber-optic sensor active networking with distributed erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(6), 480–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Díaz, S.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

Dong, X.

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Vallejo, M.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel)12(4), 3929–3951 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Rota-Rodrigo, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Remote (250 km) fiber Bragg grating multiplexing system,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8711–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

Finazzi, V.

Finazzi, V. P.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. Y.

Higuera, J. M. L.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

Horiguchi, T.

Jarabo, S.

E. Achaerandio, S. Jarabo, S. Abad, and M. López-Amo, “New WDM amplified network for optical sensor multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(12), 1644–1646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, M.

Y. Tanaka, M. Kinoshita, A. Takahashi, and T. Kurokawa, “A wide-area sensor network based on fiber optic power supply,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(11), 112501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobelke, J.

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurashima, T.

Kurokawa, T.

Y. Tanaka, M. Kinoshita, A. Takahashi, and T. Kurokawa, “A wide-area sensor network based on fiber optic power supply,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(11), 112501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

H. Li, D. Li, and G. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, D. Li, and G. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y. B.

Lopez-Amo, M.

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens.2012598178, (2012).

M. Fernandez-Vallejo and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel)12(4), 3929–3951 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bravo, A. M. R. Pinto, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “High precision micro-displacement fiber sensor through a suspended-core Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett.37(2), 202–204 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Rota-Rodrigo, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Remote (250 km) fiber Bragg grating multiplexing system,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8711–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

S. Diaz, S. Abad, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Fiber-optic sensor active networking with distributed erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(6), 480–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

López-Amo, M.

E. Achaerandio, S. Jarabo, S. Abad, and M. López-Amo, “New WDM amplified network for optical sensor multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(12), 1644–1646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Lu, F.

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minkovich, V. P.

Passaro, D.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Herrera, R. A.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

Pinto, A. M. R.

Pratt, D. J.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quintela, M. A.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

Ross, J. N.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rota-Rodrigo, S.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Rota-Rodrigo, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Remote (250 km) fiber Bragg grating multiplexing system,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8711–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sales, S.

Schuster, K.

Selleri, S.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

Shi, Q.

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, G.

H. Li, D. Li, and G. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, A.

Y. Tanaka, M. Kinoshita, A. Takahashi, and T. Kurokawa, “A wide-area sensor network based on fiber optic power supply,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(11), 112501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, M. Kinoshita, A. Takahashi, and T. Kurokawa, “A wide-area sensor network based on fiber optic power supply,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(11), 112501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

Villatoro, J.

Wai, P. K. A.

Wang, Z.

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. C. L.

Zhang, H.

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Eng. Structures

H. Li, D. Li, and G. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. Achaerandio, S. Jarabo, S. Abad, and M. López-Amo, “New WDM amplified network for optical sensor multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(12), 1644–1646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1329–1331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. Barrera, J. Villatoro, V. P. Finazzi, G. A. Cárdenas-Sevilla, V. P. Minkovich, S. Sales, and V. Pruneri, “Low-loss photonic crystal fiber interferometers for sensor networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(24), 3542–3547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Sens.

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens.2012598178, (2012).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Tanaka, M. Kinoshita, A. Takahashi, and T. Kurokawa, “A wide-area sensor network based on fiber optic power supply,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(11), 112501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

S. Diaz, S. Abad, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Fiber-optic sensor active networking with distributed erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(6), 480–497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Díaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, M. A. Quintela, J. M. L. Higuera, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Resilient long-distance sensor system using a multiwavelength Raman laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21 094017 (2010).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sensors (Basel)

M. Fernandez-Vallejo, S. Rota-Rodrigo, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Remote (250 km) fiber Bragg grating multiplexing system,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8711–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernandez-Vallejo and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel)12(4), 3929–3951 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. M. Lopez-Higuera, ed., Handbook of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology (Wiley, New York2002), Chap. 1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Micro-displacement PCF sensing head structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental set up for the proposed remote multiplexing PCF sensor system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the output power vs. the filter bandwidth

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Different lasing channels spectrum overview.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser condition characterization and stability overview for 30 minutes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PCF sensor behavior for the best (right) and the worst case (left).

Equations (1)

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Δλ= λ 2 BL

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