Abstract

Reflectarrays composed of resonant microstrip gold patches on a dielectric substrate are demonstrated for operation at terahertz frequencies. Based on the relation between the patch size and the reflection phase, a progressive phase distribution is implemented on the patch array to create a reflector able to deflect an incident beam towards a predefined angle off the specular direction. In order to confirm the validity of the design, a set of reflectarrays each with periodically distributed 360 × 360 patch elements are fabricated and measured. The experimental results obtained through terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) show that up to nearly 80% of the incident amplitude is deflected into the desired direction at an operation frequency close to 1 THz. The radiation patterns of the reflectarray in TM and TE polarizations are also obtained at different frequencies. This work presents an attractive concept for developing components able to efficiently manipulate terahertz radiation for emerging terahertz communications.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. C. Chang and M. C. Huang, “Multiple-polarization microstrip reflectarray antenna with high efficiency and low cross-polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 829–834 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Gianvittorio and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Reconfigurable patch antennas for steerable reflectarray applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.54, 1388–1392 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Ginn, B. Lail, J. Alda, and G. Boreman, “Planar infrared binary phase reflectarray,” Opt. Lett.33, 779–781 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Ginn, B. Lail, and G. Boreman, “Sub-millimeter and infrared reflectarray,” U.S. Patent 7623071 B2 (2009).
  9. R. D. Javor, X. D. Wu, and K. Chang, “Design and performance of a microstrip reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 932–939 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Encinar, M. Arrebola, L. F. de la Fuente, and G. Toso, “A transmit-receive reflectarray antenna for direct broadcast satellite applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.59, 3255–3264 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Moustafa, R. Gillard, F. Peris, R. Loison, H. Legay, and E. Girard, “The phoenix cell: a new reflectarray cell with large bandwidth and rebirth capabilities,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.10, 71–74 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Encinar, “Design of a dual frequency reflectarray using microstrip stacked patches of variable size,” Electron. Lett.32, 1049–1050 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Encinar, “Design of two-layer printed reflectarrays using patches of variable size,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.49, 1403–1410 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Encinar, “Recent advances in reflectarray antennas,” Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on (2010).
  15. W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Ghadarghadr, Z. Hao, and H. Mosallaei, “Plasmonic array nanoantennas on layered substrates: modeling and radiation characteristics,” Opt. Express17, 18556–18570 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Ahmadi, S. Ghadarghadr, and H. Mosallaei, “An optical reflectarray nanoantenna: The concept and design,” Opt. Express18, 123–133 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express21, 1344–1352 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2291–2301 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. N. Islam and M. Koch, “Terahertz patch antenna arrays for indoor communications,” Int. Conference on Next-Generation Wireless Systems (Dhaka, Bangladesh) (2006).
  21. K. Maki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz beam steering via tilted-phase difference-frequency mixing,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 022301 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Uematsu, K. Maki, and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering using interference of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Express20, 22914–22921 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Monnai, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam steering using structured MEMS surfaces for networked wireless sensing,” Ninth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS) (2012).
  24. Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151116 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves32, 143–171 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Lucyszyn, “Evaluating surface impedance models for terahertz frequencies at room temperature,” PIERS Online3, 554–559 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. D. Targonski and D. M. Pozar, “Analysis and design of a microstrip reflectarray using patches of variable size,” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1994. AP-S. Digest, 1820–1823 (1994).
  30. F. C. E. Tsai and M. E. Bialkowski, “Designing a 161-element Ku-band microstrip reflectarray of variable size patches using an equivalent unit cell waveguide approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.51, 2953–2962 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 513–533 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. Carrasco and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reflectarray Antenna at Terahertz Using Graphene,” Accepted for publication in IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.12 (2013).

2013 (2)

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express21, 1344–1352 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Carrasco and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reflectarray Antenna at Terahertz Using Graphene,” Accepted for publication in IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.12 (2013).

2012 (4)

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Uematsu, K. Maki, and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering using interference of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Express20, 22914–22921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves32, 143–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Encinar, M. Arrebola, L. F. de la Fuente, and G. Toso, “A transmit-receive reflectarray antenna for direct broadcast satellite applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.59, 3255–3264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Moustafa, R. Gillard, F. Peris, R. Loison, H. Legay, and E. Girard, “The phoenix cell: a new reflectarray cell with large bandwidth and rebirth capabilities,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.10, 71–74 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

S. Ghadarghadr, Z. Hao, and H. Mosallaei, “Plasmonic array nanoantennas on layered substrates: modeling and radiation characteristics,” Opt. Express17, 18556–18570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Maki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz beam steering via tilted-phase difference-frequency mixing,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 022301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ginn, B. Lail, J. Alda, and G. Boreman, “Planar infrared binary phase reflectarray,” Opt. Lett.33, 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Lucyszyn, “Evaluating surface impedance models for terahertz frequencies at room temperature,” PIERS Online3, 554–559 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. P. Gianvittorio and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Reconfigurable patch antennas for steerable reflectarray applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.54, 1388–1392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. C. E. Tsai and M. E. Bialkowski, “Designing a 161-element Ku-band microstrip reflectarray of variable size patches using an equivalent unit cell waveguide approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.51, 2953–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. A. Encinar, “Design of two-layer printed reflectarrays using patches of variable size,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.49, 1403–1410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. A. Encinar, “Design of a dual frequency reflectarray using microstrip stacked patches of variable size,” Electron. Lett.32, 1049–1050 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. D. Javor, X. D. Wu, and K. Chang, “Design and performance of a microstrip reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 932–939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Chang and M. C. Huang, “Multiple-polarization microstrip reflectarray antenna with high efficiency and low cross-polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 829–834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. D. Targonski and D. M. Pozar, “Analysis and design of a microstrip reflectarray using patches of variable size,” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1994. AP-S. Digest, 1820–1823 (1994).

1993 (1)

D. M. Pozar and T. A. Metzler, “Analysis of a reflectarray antenna using microstrip patches of variable size,” Electron. Lett.29, 657–658 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. G. Berry, R. G. Malech, and W. A. Kennedy, “The reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.11, 645–651 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ahmadi, A.

Alda, J.

Altmann, K.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Monnai, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam steering using structured MEMS surfaces for networked wireless sensing,” Ninth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS) (2012).

Arrebola, M.

J. Encinar, M. Arrebola, L. F. de la Fuente, and G. Toso, “A transmit-receive reflectarray antenna for direct broadcast satellite applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.59, 3255–3264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berry, D. G.

D. G. Berry, R. G. Malech, and W. A. Kennedy, “The reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.11, 645–651 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bhaskaran, M.

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express21, 1344–1352 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bialkowski, M. E.

F. C. E. Tsai and M. E. Bialkowski, “Designing a 161-element Ku-band microstrip reflectarray of variable size patches using an equivalent unit cell waveguide approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.51, 2953–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G.

J. Ginn, B. Lail, J. Alda, and G. Boreman, “Planar infrared binary phase reflectarray,” Opt. Lett.33, 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ginn, B. Lail, and G. Boreman, “Sub-millimeter and infrared reflectarray,” U.S. Patent 7623071 B2 (2009).

Cahill, R.

W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, E.

E. Carrasco and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reflectarray Antenna at Terahertz Using Graphene,” Accepted for publication in IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.12 (2013).

Chang, D. C.

D. C. Chang and M. C. Huang, “Multiple-polarization microstrip reflectarray antenna with high efficiency and low cross-polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 829–834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K.

R. D. Javor, X. D. Wu, and K. Chang, “Design and performance of a microstrip reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 932–939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de la Fuente, L. F.

J. Encinar, M. Arrebola, L. F. de la Fuente, and G. Toso, “A transmit-receive reflectarray antenna for direct broadcast satellite applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.59, 3255–3264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deibel, J. A.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dickie, R.

W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Encinar, J.

J. Encinar, M. Arrebola, L. F. de la Fuente, and G. Toso, “A transmit-receive reflectarray antenna for direct broadcast satellite applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.59, 3255–3264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang and J. Encinar, Reflectarray Antenna (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2008).

Encinar, J. A.

W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Encinar, “Design of two-layer printed reflectarrays using patches of variable size,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.49, 1403–1410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Encinar, “Design of a dual frequency reflectarray using microstrip stacked patches of variable size,” Electron. Lett.32, 1049–1050 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Encinar, “Recent advances in reflectarray antennas,” Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on (2010).

Froberg, N. M.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fumeaux, C.

Fusco, V.

W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gamble, H.

W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghadarghadr, S.

Gianvittorio, J. P.

J. P. Gianvittorio and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Reconfigurable patch antennas for steerable reflectarray applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.54, 1388–1392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gillard, R.

L. Moustafa, R. Gillard, F. Peris, R. Loison, H. Legay, and E. Girard, “The phoenix cell: a new reflectarray cell with large bandwidth and rebirth capabilities,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.10, 71–74 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ginn, J.

J. Ginn, B. Lail, J. Alda, and G. Boreman, “Planar infrared binary phase reflectarray,” Opt. Lett.33, 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ginn, B. Lail, and G. Boreman, “Sub-millimeter and infrared reflectarray,” U.S. Patent 7623071 B2 (2009).

Girard, E.

L. Moustafa, R. Gillard, F. Peris, R. Loison, H. Legay, and E. Girard, “The phoenix cell: a new reflectarray cell with large bandwidth and rebirth capabilities,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.10, 71–74 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grant, N.

W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z.

Hillmer, H.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Monnai, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam steering using structured MEMS surfaces for networked wireless sensing,” Ninth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS) (2012).

Hu, B. B.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang and J. Encinar, Reflectarray Antenna (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2008).

Huang, M. C.

D. C. Chang and M. C. Huang, “Multiple-polarization microstrip reflectarray antenna with high efficiency and low cross-polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 829–834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam and M. Koch, “Terahertz patch antenna arrays for indoor communications,” Int. Conference on Next-Generation Wireless Systems (Dhaka, Bangladesh) (2006).

Jansen, C.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Monnai, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam steering using structured MEMS surfaces for networked wireless sensing,” Ninth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS) (2012).

Javor, R. D.

R. D. Javor, X. D. Wu, and K. Chang, “Design and performance of a microstrip reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 932–939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

K. Maki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz beam steering via tilted-phase difference-frequency mixing,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 022301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, W. A.

D. G. Berry, R. G. Malech, and W. A. Kennedy, “The reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.11, 645–651 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Khodasevych, I. E.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves32, 143–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Monnai, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam steering using structured MEMS surfaces for networked wireless sensing,” Ninth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS) (2012).

M. N. Islam and M. Koch, “Terahertz patch antenna arrays for indoor communications,” Int. Conference on Next-Generation Wireless Systems (Dhaka, Bangladesh) (2006).

Lail, B.

J. Ginn, B. Lail, J. Alda, and G. Boreman, “Planar infrared binary phase reflectarray,” Opt. Lett.33, 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ginn, B. Lail, and G. Boreman, “Sub-millimeter and infrared reflectarray,” U.S. Patent 7623071 B2 (2009).

Legay, H.

L. Moustafa, R. Gillard, F. Peris, R. Loison, H. Legay, and E. Girard, “The phoenix cell: a new reflectarray cell with large bandwidth and rebirth capabilities,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.10, 71–74 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loison, R.

L. Moustafa, R. Gillard, F. Peris, R. Loison, H. Legay, and E. Girard, “The phoenix cell: a new reflectarray cell with large bandwidth and rebirth capabilities,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.10, 71–74 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lucyszyn, S.

S. Lucyszyn, “Evaluating surface impedance models for terahertz frequencies at room temperature,” PIERS Online3, 554–559 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maki, K.

K. Uematsu, K. Maki, and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering using interference of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Express20, 22914–22921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz beam steering via tilted-phase difference-frequency mixing,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 022301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malech, R. G.

D. G. Berry, R. G. Malech, and W. A. Kennedy, “The reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.11, 645–651 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Metzler, T. A.

D. M. Pozar and T. A. Metzler, “Analysis of a reflectarray antenna using microstrip patches of variable size,” Electron. Lett.29, 657–658 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express21, 1344–1352 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Monnai, Y.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Monnai, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam steering using structured MEMS surfaces for networked wireless sensing,” Ninth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS) (2012).

Montgomery, J. P.

J. P. Montgomery, “A microstrip reflectarray antenna element,” Antenna Applications Symposium, University of Illinois (1978).

Mosallaei, H.

Moustafa, L.

L. Moustafa, R. Gillard, F. Peris, R. Loison, H. Legay, and E. Girard, “The phoenix cell: a new reflectarray cell with large bandwidth and rebirth capabilities,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.10, 71–74 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves32, 143–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

K. Uematsu, K. Maki, and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering using interference of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Express20, 22914–22921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz beam steering via tilted-phase difference-frequency mixing,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 022301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peris, F.

L. Moustafa, R. Gillard, F. Peris, R. Loison, H. Legay, and E. Girard, “The phoenix cell: a new reflectarray cell with large bandwidth and rebirth capabilities,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.10, 71–74 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perruisseau-Carrier, J.

E. Carrasco and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reflectarray Antenna at Terahertz Using Graphene,” Accepted for publication in IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.12 (2013).

Pozar, D. M.

S. D. Targonski and D. M. Pozar, “Analysis and design of a microstrip reflectarray using patches of variable size,” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1994. AP-S. Digest, 1820–1823 (1994).

D. M. Pozar and T. A. Metzler, “Analysis of a reflectarray antenna using microstrip patches of variable size,” Electron. Lett.29, 657–658 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rahmat-Samii, Y.

J. P. Gianvittorio and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Reconfigurable patch antennas for steerable reflectarray applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.54, 1388–1392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, M.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, W. S. T.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scheller, M.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scherger, B.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shah, C. M.

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express21, 1344–1352 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, T.

K. Maki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz beam steering via tilted-phase difference-frequency mixing,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 022301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, H.

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Monnai, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam steering using structured MEMS surfaces for networked wireless sensing,” Ninth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS) (2012).

Sriram, S.

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express21, 1344–1352 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suizu, K.

K. Maki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz beam steering via tilted-phase difference-frequency mixing,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 022301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Targonski, S. D.

S. D. Targonski and D. M. Pozar, “Analysis and design of a microstrip reflectarray using patches of variable size,” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1994. AP-S. Digest, 1820–1823 (1994).

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toso, G.

J. Encinar, M. Arrebola, L. F. de la Fuente, and G. Toso, “A transmit-receive reflectarray antenna for direct broadcast satellite applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.59, 3255–3264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. C. E.

F. C. E. Tsai and M. E. Bialkowski, “Designing a 161-element Ku-band microstrip reflectarray of variable size patches using an equivalent unit cell waveguide approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.51, 2953–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uematsu, K.

Ung, B. S. Y.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Viereck, V.

Y. Monnai, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam steering using structured MEMS surfaces for networked wireless sensing,” Ninth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS) (2012).

Vieweg, N.

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Withayachumnankul, W.

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express21, 1344–1352 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. D.

R. D. Javor, X. D. Wu, and K. Chang, “Design and performance of a microstrip reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 932–939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zou, L.

Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1994. AP-S. Digest (1)

S. D. Targonski and D. M. Pozar, “Analysis and design of a microstrip reflectarray using patches of variable size,” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1994. AP-S. Digest, 1820–1823 (1994).

Appl. Phy. Lett. (1)

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phy. Lett.100, 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

K. Maki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz beam steering via tilted-phase difference-frequency mixing,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 022301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Monnai, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, H. Hillmer, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam focusing based on plasmonic waveguide scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. M. Pozar and T. A. Metzler, “Analysis of a reflectarray antenna using microstrip patches of variable size,” Electron. Lett.29, 657–658 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Encinar, “Design of a dual frequency reflectarray using microstrip stacked patches of variable size,” Electron. Lett.32, 1049–1050 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

L. Moustafa, R. Gillard, F. Peris, R. Loison, H. Legay, and E. Girard, “The phoenix cell: a new reflectarray cell with large bandwidth and rebirth capabilities,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.10, 71–74 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28, 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (8)

J. A. Encinar, “Design of two-layer printed reflectarrays using patches of variable size,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.49, 1403–1410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, R. Cahill, J. A. Encinar, R. Dickie, H. Gamble, V. Fusco, and N. Grant, “Design and measurement of reconfigurable millimeter wave reflectarray cells with nematic liquid crystal,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.56, 3112–3117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Chang and M. C. Huang, “Multiple-polarization microstrip reflectarray antenna with high efficiency and low cross-polarization,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 829–834 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gianvittorio and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Reconfigurable patch antennas for steerable reflectarray applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.54, 1388–1392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Berry, R. G. Malech, and W. A. Kennedy, “The reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.11, 645–651 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Javor, X. D. Wu, and K. Chang, “Design and performance of a microstrip reflectarray antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.43, 932–939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Encinar, M. Arrebola, L. F. de la Fuente, and G. Toso, “A transmit-receive reflectarray antenna for direct broadcast satellite applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.59, 3255–3264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. C. E. Tsai and M. E. Bialkowski, “Designing a 161-element Ku-band microstrip reflectarray of variable size patches using an equivalent unit cell waveguide approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.51, 2953–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves (1)

B. Scherger, M. Reuter, M. Scheller, K. Altmann, N. Vieweg, R. Dabrowski, J. A. Deibel, and M. Koch, “Discrete terahertz beam steering with an electrically controlled liquid crystal device,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 1117–1122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (1)

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves32, 143–171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5, 513–533 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

PIERS Online (1)

S. Lucyszyn, “Evaluating surface impedance models for terahertz frequencies at room temperature,” PIERS Online3, 554–559 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Propag. Lett. (1)

E. Carrasco and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reflectarray Antenna at Terahertz Using Graphene,” Accepted for publication in IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.12 (2013).

Other (6)

Y. Monnai, V. Viereck, H. Hillmer, K. Altmann, C. Jansen, M. Koch, and H. Shinoda, “Terahertz beam steering using structured MEMS surfaces for networked wireless sensing,” Ninth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS) (2012).

J. Ginn, B. Lail, and G. Boreman, “Sub-millimeter and infrared reflectarray,” U.S. Patent 7623071 B2 (2009).

J. Huang and J. Encinar, Reflectarray Antenna (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2008).

J. P. Montgomery, “A microstrip reflectarray antenna element,” Antenna Applications Symposium, University of Illinois (1978).

J. A. Encinar, “Recent advances in reflectarray antennas,” Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on (2010).

M. N. Islam and M. Koch, “Terahertz patch antenna arrays for indoor communications,” Int. Conference on Next-Generation Wireless Systems (Dhaka, Bangladesh) (2006).

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