Abstract

In this work, we propose and demonstrate a stable and wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser. Here, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based silicon-micro-ring-resonator (SMRR) is used as the wavelength selective element inside the fiber ring cavity. A uniform period grating coupler (GC) is used to couple between the SMRR and single mode fiber (SMF) and serves also as a polarization dependent element in the cavity. The output lasing wavelength of the proposed fiber laser can be tuned at a tuning step of 2 nm (defined by the free spectral range (FSR) of the SMRR) in a bandwidth of 35.2 nm (1532.00 to 1567.20 nm), which is defined by the gain of the EDF. The optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) of each lasing wavelength is larger than 42.0 dB. In addition, the output stabilities of power and wavelength are also discussed.

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References

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  1. Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, and R. R. Chen, “Long-distance fiber Bragg grating sensor system with a high optical signal-to-noise ratio based on a tunable fiber ring laser configuration,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2684–2686 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(1), 41–43 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Wavelength-selectable single-longitudinal-mode Fabry-Perot laser source using inter-injection mode-locked technique,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(5), 271–273 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. Ummy, N. Madamopoulos, A. Joyo, M. Kouar, and R. Dorsinville, “Tunable multi-wavelength SOA based linear cavity dual-output port fiber laser using Lyot-Sagnac loop mirror,” Opt. Express19(4), 3202–3211 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
  13. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Zimmermann, H. Schröder, T. Tekin, W. Bogaerts, and P. Dumon, “g-Pack – a generic testbed package for silicon photonics devices,” Proc. Group IV Photonics 371–373 (2008).
  15. B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3561–3563 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Chu, N. Fujioka, S. Nakamura, M. Tokushima, and M. Ishizaka, “Compact, low power consumption wavelength tunable laser with silicon photonic-wire waveguide micro-ring resonators,” Proc. ECOC, 2009 Paper 7.2.1.

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Wavelength-selectable single-longitudinal-mode Fabry-Perot laser source using inter-injection mode-locked technique,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(5), 271–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

2009 (1)

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Raman lasers in silicon photonic wires: unidirectional ring lasing versus Fabry-Perot lasing,” Electron. Lett.45(1), 42–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

Y. Yu, L. Lui, H. Tam, and W. Chung, “Fiber-laser-based wavelength division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(7), 702–704 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(1), 41–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3561–3563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3561–3563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmeyer, E.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Raman lasers in silicon photonic wires: unidirectional ring lasing versus Fabry-Perot lasing,” Electron. Lett.45(1), 42–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. R.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Chi, S.

Chien, H.-C.

Chow, C. W.

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Wavelength-selectable single-longitudinal-mode Fabry-Perot laser source using inter-injection mode-locked technique,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(5), 271–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W.

Y. Yu, L. Lui, H. Tam, and W. Chung, “Fiber-laser-based wavelength division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(7), 702–704 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dorsinville, R.

Fathpour, S.

Fung, C. K. Y.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Huang, T.-T.

Ippen, E. P.

Jalali, B.

Joyo, A.

Kärtner, F. X.

Ko, C.-H.

Kouar, M.

Krause, M.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Raman lasers in silicon photonic wires: unidirectional ring lasing versus Fabry-Perot lasing,” Electron. Lett.45(1), 42–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Liu, B.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3561–3563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lo, S. M. G.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Lui, L.

Y. Yu, L. Lui, H. Tam, and W. Chung, “Fiber-laser-based wavelength division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(7), 702–704 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madamopoulos, N.

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, M.

S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(1), 41–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Popovíc, M. A.

Rakich, P. T.

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Renner, H.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Raman lasers in silicon photonic wires: unidirectional ring lasing versus Fabry-Perot lasing,” Electron. Lett.45(1), 42–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shakouri, A.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3561–3563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

Socci, L.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H.

Y. Yu, L. Lui, H. Tam, and W. Chung, “Fiber-laser-based wavelength division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(7), 702–704 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Ummy, M. A.

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(1), 41–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. H.

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Wavelength-selectable single-longitudinal-mode Fabry-Perot laser source using inter-injection mode-locked technique,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(5), 271–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.-H.

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, L. Lui, H. Tam, and W. Chung, “Fiber-laser-based wavelength division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(7), 702–704 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3561–3563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Raman lasers in silicon photonic wires: unidirectional ring lasing versus Fabry-Perot lasing,” Electron. Lett.45(1), 42–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(1), 41–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).

Y. Yu, L. Lui, H. Tam, and W. Chung, “Fiber-laser-based wavelength division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(7), 702–704 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Wavelength-selectable single-longitudinal-mode Fabry-Perot laser source using inter-injection mode-locked technique,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(5), 271–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Widely tunable fiber ring laser with EDFA/SOA,” Proc. of LEOS, 2001, Paper WC4.

T. Chu, N. Fujioka, S. Nakamura, M. Tokushima, and M. Ishizaka, “Compact, low power consumption wavelength tunable laser with silicon photonic-wire waveguide micro-ring resonators,” Proc. ECOC, 2009 Paper 7.2.1.

L. Zimmermann, H. Schröder, T. Tekin, W. Bogaerts, and P. Dumon, “g-Pack – a generic testbed package for silicon photonics devices,” Proc. Group IV Photonics 371–373 (2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup of proposed silicon photonics laser. The scanning-electron-microscope images of silicon-based devices for SMRR with (a) three ports (I: input-port, T: throughput-port, and D: drop-port) and (c) uniform-period grating coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic view of grating coupler on its tilt-view and side-view of grating coupler, (b) coupling loss (SMF-to-grating-to-SNW-to-grating-to-SMF), (c) misalignment tolerance in x-z plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Operation principle of fiber-to-waveguide and SMRR coupling (FC: fiber core; GC: grating coupler; CR: coupling region; SNW: straight nano-waveguide)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Output ASE spectrum of EDFA. (b) Output spectrum of SMRR with ~2 nm mode-spacing when ASE source is launched into I-port.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output spectra of the proposed fiber laser scheme in the wavelengths of 1532.0 to 1567.2 nm, when two PCs are properly adjusting.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The slope efficiency of the proposed laser, and (b) output wavelength variation and fluctuation of output power in the proposed fiber laser under 30 minutes observation time, when the lasing light is set at 1546.32 nm initially.

Equations (1)

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T r = T 0 1+ ( 2 π F) 2 sin 2 ( β r l r 2 )

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