Abstract

We develop a comprehensive theory of the nonlinear propagation of optical pulses through silica waveguides doped with highly nonlinear silicon nanocrystals. Our theory describes the dynamics of arbitrarily polarized pump and Stokes fields by a system of four generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations for the slowly varying field amplitudes, coupled to the rate equation for the number density of free carriers. In deriving these equations, we use an analytic expression for the third-order effective susceptibility of the waveguide with randomly oriented nanocrystals, which takes into account both the weakening of the nonlinear optical response of silicon nanocrystals due to their embedment in fused silica and the change in the tensor properties of the response due to the modification of light interaction with electrons and phonons inside the silicon-nanocrystal waveguide. In order to facilitate the use of our theory by experimentalists, and for reasons of methodology, we provide a great deal of detail on the mathematical treatment throughout the paper, even though the derivation of the coupled-amplitude equations is quite straightforward. The developed theory can be applied for the solving of a wide variety of specific problems that require modeling of nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Soref and J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22, 873–879 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1, 162–235 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: Modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15, 16604–16644 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1678–1687 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, Hoboken, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Pavesi and D. Lockwood, eds., Silicon Photonics, vol. 94 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004).
  8. M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 498–499 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si photonic wires,” Opt. Express16, 1280–1299 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express.15, 5976–5990 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2617–2619 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Manolatou and M. Lipson, “All-optical silicon modulators based on carrier injection by two-photon absorption,” J. Lightwave Technol.24, 1433–1439 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express13, 1716–1723 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett.41, 320–321 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of pulse amplification in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 18324–18338 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Silicon Raman amplifiers with ring-resonator-enhanced pump power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 216–225 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express17, 5807–5814 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation,” Opt. Lett.34, 536–538 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Krause, H. Renner, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Gain enhancement in cladding-pumped silicon Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44, 692–704 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441, 960–963 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.29, 2755–2757 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4, 511–517 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics2, 170–174 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 5703–5710 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express12, 5269–5273 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with > 35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express17, 5193–5204 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, and R. M. Osgood, “Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowire,” Opt. Express17, 12987–12999 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators,” Opt. Express17, 22124–22137 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23, 064007 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express16, 1300–1320 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C.-Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express15, 15242–15249 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express13, 4341–4349 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2514–2516 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  36. I. D. Rukhlenko, W. Zhu, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective third-order susceptibility of silicon-nanocrystal-doped silica,” Opt. Express20, 26275–26284 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. L. Pavesi and R. Turan, eds., Silicon Nanocrystals: Fundamentals, Synthesis and Applications (WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, 2010).
  38. L. Khriachtchev, ed., Silicon Nanophotonics: Basic Principles, Present Status and Perspectives (Pan Stanford, Singapore, 2009).
  39. V. A. Belyakov, V. A. Burdov, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “Silicon nanocrystals: Fundamental theory and implications for stimulated emission,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 279502 (2008).
  40. F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  41. I. D. Rukhlenko and M. Premaratne, “Optimization of nonlinear performance of silicon-nanocrystal cylindrical nanowires,” IEEE Photonics J.4, 952–959 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  42. F. D. Leonardis and V. M. N. Passaro, “Dispersion engineered silicon nanocrystal slot waveguides for soliton ultrafast optical processing,” Adv. OptoElectron.2011, 751498 (2011).
  43. L. Sirleto, M. A. Ferrara, T. Nikitin, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun.3, 1220 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. K. Imakita, M. Ito, R. Naruiwa, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of ultrafast nonlinear optical response of silicon nanocrystals by boron-doping,” Opt. Lett.37, 1877–1879 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. R. J. Kashtiban, U. Bangert, I. F. Crowe, M. Halsall, A. J. Harvey, and M. Gass, “Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica,” J. Phys.: Conference Series241, 012097 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  46. R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4, 143–146 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  48. J. Wei, J. Price, T. Wang, C. Hessel, and M. C. Downer, “Size-dependent optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 04D112 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  49. T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  50. L. Ding, T. P. Chen, Y. Liu, C. Y. Ng, and S. Fung, “Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B72, 125419 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  51. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37, 2295–2297 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. F. Trani, D. Ninno, and G. Iadonisi, “Role of local fields in the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals using the tight binding approach,” Phys. Rev. B75, 033312 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  53. C. M. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.21, 1372–1374 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  54. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in silicon-based plasmonic waveguides from the standpoint of applications,” Opt. Express19, 206–217 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett.35, 55–57 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. B. A. Daniel and G. P. Agrawal, “Vectorial nonlinear propagation in silicon nanowire waveguides: Polarization effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27, 956–965 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  57. I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 226–233 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  58. I. D. Rukhlenko, I. Udagedara, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effect of free carriers on pump-to-signal noise transfer in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.35, 2343–2345 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. M. D. Turner, T. M. Monro, and S. Afshar V., “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part II: Stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express17, 11565–11581 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. L. Yin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optical switching using nonlinear polarization rotation inside silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.34, 476–478 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 3241–3248 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  62. D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of Raman effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett.28, 1954–1956 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part I: Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Express17, 2298–2318 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2008).
  65. X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 160–170 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  66. S. N. Volkov, J. J. Saarinen, and J. E. Sipe, “Effective medium theory for 2D disordered structures: A comparison to numerical simulations,” J. Mod. Opt.59, 954–961 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  67. X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B38, 10970–10973 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  68. W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2010).
  69. C. M. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, I. D. Rukhlenko, and G. P. Agrawal, “FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 21427–21448 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  70. F. Trojanek, K. Neudert, K. Zidek, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, and P. Maly, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Physica Status Solidi (c)3, 3873–3876 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  71. R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Giordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in silicon nanocrystals at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express17, 3941–3950 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  72. M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, S. N. Basu, L. D. Negro, and L. Sirleto, “Raman amplifier based on amorphous silicon nanoparticles,” Int. J. Photoenergy2012, 254946 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  73. M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, “Stimulated Raman scattering in quantum dots and nanocomposite silicon based materials,” in “Nonlinear Optics,” N. Kamanina, ed. (InTech, Rijeka, 2012), pp. 53–70.
  74. H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39, 625–629 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  75. I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58, 739–741 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  76. L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 157402 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  77. R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418, 159–162 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  78. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2007).
  79. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 200–215 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  80. I. D. Rukhlenko, I. L. Garanovich, M. Premaratne, A. A. Sukhorukov, G. P. Agrawal, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization rotation in silicon waveguides: Analytical modeling and applications,” IEEE Photonics J.2, 423–435 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (8)

I. D. Rukhlenko and M. Premaratne, “Optimization of nonlinear performance of silicon-nanocrystal cylindrical nanowires,” IEEE Photonics J.4, 952–959 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Sirleto, M. A. Ferrara, T. Nikitin, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun.3, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Volkov, J. J. Saarinen, and J. E. Sipe, “Effective medium theory for 2D disordered structures: A comparison to numerical simulations,” J. Mod. Opt.59, 954–961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, S. N. Basu, L. D. Negro, and L. Sirleto, “Raman amplifier based on amorphous silicon nanoparticles,” Int. J. Photoenergy2012, 254946 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Imakita, M. Ito, R. Naruiwa, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of ultrafast nonlinear optical response of silicon nanocrystals by boron-doping,” Opt. Lett.37, 1877–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37, 2295–2297 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, W. Zhu, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective third-order susceptibility of silicon-nanocrystal-doped silica,” Opt. Express20, 26275–26284 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in silicon-based plasmonic waveguides from the standpoint of applications,” Opt. Express19, 206–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wei, J. Price, T. Wang, C. Hessel, and M. C. Downer, “Size-dependent optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 04D112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. D. Leonardis and V. M. N. Passaro, “Dispersion engineered silicon nanocrystal slot waveguides for soliton ultrafast optical processing,” Adv. OptoElectron.2011, 751498 (2011).

2010 (14)

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Silicon Raman amplifiers with ring-resonator-enhanced pump power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4, 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Kashtiban, U. Bangert, I. F. Crowe, M. Halsall, A. J. Harvey, and M. Gass, “Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica,” J. Phys.: Conference Series241, 012097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 226–233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett.35, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Daniel and G. P. Agrawal, “Vectorial nonlinear propagation in silicon nanowire waveguides: Polarization effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27, 956–965 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. Udagedara, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effect of free carriers on pump-to-signal noise transfer in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.35, 2343–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of pulse amplification in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 18324–18338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, I. D. Rukhlenko, and G. P. Agrawal, “FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 21427–21448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 200–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. L. Garanovich, M. Premaratne, A. A. Sukhorukov, G. P. Agrawal, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization rotation in silicon waveguides: Analytical modeling and applications,” IEEE Photonics J.2, 423–435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (12)

S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part I: Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Express17, 2298–2318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optical switching using nonlinear polarization rotation inside silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.34, 476–478 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation,” Opt. Lett.34, 536–538 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Giordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in silicon nanocrystals at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express17, 3941–3950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with > 35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express17, 5193–5204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express17, 5807–5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Turner, T. M. Monro, and S. Afshar V., “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part II: Stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express17, 11565–11581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, and R. M. Osgood, “Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowire,” Opt. Express17, 12987–12999 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 3241–3248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators,” Opt. Express17, 22124–22137 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.21, 1372–1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1, 162–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics2, 170–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23, 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Belyakov, V. A. Burdov, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “Silicon nanocrystals: Fundamental theory and implications for stimulated emission,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 279502 (2008).

M. Krause, H. Renner, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Gain enhancement in cladding-pumped silicon Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44, 692–704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si photonic wires,” Opt. Express16, 1280–1299 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express16, 1300–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C.-Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express15, 15242–15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: Modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15, 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express.15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Trani, D. Ninno, and G. Iadonisi, “Role of local fields in the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals using the tight binding approach,” Phys. Rev. B75, 033312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441, 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Manolatou and M. Lipson, “All-optical silicon modulators based on carrier injection by two-photon absorption,” J. Lightwave Technol.24, 1433–1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Trojanek, K. Neudert, K. Zidek, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, and P. Maly, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Physica Status Solidi (c)3, 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express13, 1716–1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express13, 4341–4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett.41, 320–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4, 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, Y. Liu, C. Y. Ng, and S. Fung, “Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B72, 125419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of Raman effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett.28, 1954–1956 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418, 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B38, 10970–10973 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58, 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref and J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22, 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39, 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Afshar V., S.

Agrawal, G. P.

I. D. Rukhlenko, W. Zhu, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective third-order susceptibility of silicon-nanocrystal-doped silica,” Opt. Express20, 26275–26284 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37, 2295–2297 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in silicon-based plasmonic waveguides from the standpoint of applications,” Opt. Express19, 206–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, I. D. Rukhlenko, and G. P. Agrawal, “FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 21427–21448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Daniel and G. P. Agrawal, “Vectorial nonlinear propagation in silicon nanowire waveguides: Polarization effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27, 956–965 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. Udagedara, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effect of free carriers on pump-to-signal noise transfer in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.35, 2343–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 226–233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 200–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett.35, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. L. Garanovich, M. Premaratne, A. A. Sukhorukov, G. P. Agrawal, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization rotation in silicon waveguides: Analytical modeling and applications,” IEEE Photonics J.2, 423–435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of pulse amplification in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 18324–18338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.21, 1372–1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation,” Opt. Lett.34, 536–538 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators,” Opt. Express17, 22124–22137 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optical switching using nonlinear polarization rotation inside silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.34, 476–478 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 3241–3248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express17, 5807–5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: Modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15, 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2007).

Ahlgren, T.

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aitola, K.

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Astar, W.

Atwater, H. A.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4, 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bangert, U.

R. J. Kashtiban, U. Bangert, I. F. Crowe, M. Halsall, A. J. Harvey, and M. Gass, “Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica,” J. Phys.: Conference Series241, 012097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basu, S. N.

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, S. N. Basu, L. D. Negro, and L. Sirleto, “Raman amplifier based on amorphous silicon nanoparticles,” Int. J. Photoenergy2012, 254946 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Belyakov, V. A.

V. A. Belyakov, V. A. Burdov, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “Silicon nanocrystals: Fundamental theory and implications for stimulated emission,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 279502 (2008).

Bergman, D. J.

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B38, 10970–10973 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, J.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourianoff, G. I.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4, 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4, 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2008).

Boyraz, O.

Brinkmeyer, E.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Silicon Raman amplifiers with ring-resonator-enhanced pump power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Krause, H. Renner, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Gain enhancement in cladding-pumped silicon Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44, 692–704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 5703–5710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burdov, V. A.

V. A. Belyakov, V. A. Burdov, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “Silicon nanocrystals: Fundamental theory and implications for stimulated emission,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 279502 (2008).

Cai, W.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2010).

Campbell, I. H.

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58, 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cantele, G.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, G. M.

Cazzanelli, M.

Chen, T. P.

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, Y. Liu, C. Y. Ng, and S. Fung, “Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B72, 125419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1, 162–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si photonic wires,” Opt. Express16, 1280–1299 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C.-Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express15, 15242–15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-Y.

Claps, R.

Cohen, O.

Crowe, I. F.

R. J. Kashtiban, U. Bangert, I. F. Crowe, M. Halsall, A. J. Harvey, and M. Gass, “Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica,” J. Phys.: Conference Series241, 012097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J.

Dadap, J. I.

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1, 162–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, and R. M. Osgood, “Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowire,” Opt. Express17, 12987–12999 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si photonic wires,” Opt. Express16, 1280–1299 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C.-Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express15, 15242–15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.29, 2755–2757 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daldosso, N.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Giordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in silicon nanocrystals at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express17, 3941–3950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniel, B. A.

Degiorgio, V.

Degoli, E.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

Ding, L.

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, Y. Liu, C. Y. Ng, and S. Fung, “Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B72, 125419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dissanayake, C.

Dissanayake, C. M.

C. M. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, I. D. Rukhlenko, and G. P. Agrawal, “FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 21427–21448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.21, 1372–1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dohnalova, K.

F. Trojanek, K. Neudert, K. Zidek, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, and P. Maly, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Physica Status Solidi (c)3, 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

J. Wei, J. Price, T. Wang, C. Hessel, and M. C. Downer, “Size-dependent optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 04D112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, J. B.

Dulkeith, E.

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1, 162–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si photonic wires,” Opt. Express16, 1280–1299 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett.41, 320–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R.

Espinola, R. L.

Fathpour, S.

M. Krause, H. Renner, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Gain enhancement in cladding-pumped silicon Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44, 692–704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

L. Yin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optical switching using nonlinear polarization rotation inside silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.34, 476–478 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58, 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Giordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in silicon nanocrystals at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express17, 3941–3950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferraioli, L.

Ferrara, M. A.

L. Sirleto, M. A. Ferrara, T. Nikitin, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun.3, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, S. N. Basu, L. D. Negro, and L. Sirleto, “Raman amplifier based on amorphous silicon nanoparticles,” Int. J. Photoenergy2012, 254946 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, “Stimulated Raman scattering in quantum dots and nanocomposite silicon based materials,” in “Nonlinear Optics,” N. Kamanina, ed. (InTech, Rijeka, 2012), pp. 53–70.

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express16, 1300–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441, 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express.15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett.41, 320–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

Fung, S.

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, Y. Liu, C. Y. Ng, and S. Fung, “Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B72, 125419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express16, 1300–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441, 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galan, J. V.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garanovich, I. L.

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. L. Garanovich, M. Premaratne, A. A. Sukhorukov, G. P. Agrawal, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization rotation in silicon waveguides: Analytical modeling and applications,” IEEE Photonics J.2, 423–435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of pulse amplification in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 18324–18338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Ruperez, J.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrido, B.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gass, M.

R. J. Kashtiban, U. Bangert, I. F. Crowe, M. Halsall, A. J. Harvey, and M. Gass, “Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica,” J. Phys.: Conference Series241, 012097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, P.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with > 35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express17, 5193–5204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giordana, E.

Green, W. M.

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1, 162–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C.-Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express15, 15242–15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

Grein, M. E.

Guider, R.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hak, D.

Halsall, M.

R. J. Kashtiban, U. Bangert, I. F. Crowe, M. Halsall, A. J. Harvey, and M. Gass, “Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica,” J. Phys.: Conference Series241, 012097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, A. J.

R. J. Kashtiban, U. Bangert, I. F. Crowe, M. Halsall, A. J. Harvey, and M. Gass, “Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica,” J. Phys.: Conference Series241, 012097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

Hernandez, S.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hessel, C.

J. Wei, J. Price, T. Wang, C. Hessel, and M. C. Downer, “Size-dependent optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 04D112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418, 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houshmand, B.

Hsieh, I.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I.-W.

Hui, P. M.

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B38, 10970–10973 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Iadonisi, G.

F. Trani, D. Ninno, and G. Iadonisi, “Role of local fields in the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals using the tight binding approach,” Phys. Rev. B75, 033312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imakita, K.

Iori, F.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

Jacome, L.

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express.15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

Jones, R.

Jordana, E.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashtiban, R. J.

R. J. Kashtiban, U. Bangert, I. F. Crowe, M. Halsall, A. J. Harvey, and M. Gass, “Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica,” J. Phys.: Conference Series241, 012097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418, 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khriachtchev, L.

T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Sirleto, M. A. Ferrara, T. Nikitin, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun.3, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. L. Garanovich, M. Premaratne, A. A. Sukhorukov, G. P. Agrawal, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization rotation in silicon waveguides: Analytical modeling and applications,” IEEE Photonics J.2, 423–435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, Hoboken, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express.15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krause, M.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Silicon Raman amplifiers with ring-resonator-enhanced pump power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Krause, H. Renner, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Gain enhancement in cladding-pumped silicon Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44, 692–704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 5703–5710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahtinen, J.

T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lebour, Y.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics2, 170–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lennon, D. M.

Leonardis, F. D.

F. D. Leonardis and V. M. N. Passaro, “Dispersion engineered silicon nanocrystal slot waveguides for soliton ultrafast optical processing,” Adv. OptoElectron.2011, 751498 (2011).

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express.15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ley, L.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39, 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4, 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Littler, I.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett.41, 320–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23, 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, Y. Liu, C. Y. Ng, and S. Fung, “Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B72, 125419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, R.

V. A. Belyakov, V. A. Burdov, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “Silicon nanocrystals: Fundamental theory and implications for stimulated emission,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 279502 (2008).

Lorenzo, J.

R. Soref and J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22, 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with > 35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express17, 5193–5204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Magri, R.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maly, P.

F. Trojanek, K. Neudert, K. Zidek, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, and P. Maly, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Physica Status Solidi (c)3, 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

Marri, I.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, S.

McNab, S. J.

Meldrum, A.

V. A. Belyakov, V. A. Burdov, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “Silicon nanocrystals: Fundamental theory and implications for stimulated emission,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 279502 (2008).

Mizohata, K.

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett.41, 320–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nabet, B.

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naruiwa, R.

Negro, L. D.

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, S. N. Basu, L. D. Negro, and L. Sirleto, “Raman amplifier based on amorphous silicon nanoparticles,” Int. J. Photoenergy2012, 254946 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neudert, K.

F. Trojanek, K. Neudert, K. Zidek, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, and P. Maly, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Physica Status Solidi (c)3, 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, C. Y.

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, Y. Liu, C. Y. Ng, and S. Fung, “Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B72, 125419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, T.

L. Sirleto, M. A. Ferrara, T. Nikitin, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun.3, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ninno, D.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Trani, D. Ninno, and G. Iadonisi, “Role of local fields in the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals using the tight binding approach,” Phys. Rev. B75, 033312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, S.

L. Sirleto, M. A. Ferrara, T. Nikitin, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun.3, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, J. R. M.

Osgood, R.

Osgood, R. M.

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1, 162–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, and R. M. Osgood, “Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowire,” Opt. Express17, 12987–12999 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C.-Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express15, 15242–15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.29, 2755–2757 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ossicini, S.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

Paniccia, M.

M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics2, 170–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express13, 1716–1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1, 162–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si photonic wires,” Opt. Express16, 1280–1299 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C.-Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express15, 15242–15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M. N.

F. D. Leonardis and V. M. N. Passaro, “Dispersion engineered silicon nanocrystal slot waveguides for soliton ultrafast optical processing,” Adv. OptoElectron.2011, 751498 (2011).

Pavesi, L.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Giordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in silicon nanocrystals at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express17, 3941–3950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelant, I.

F. Trojanek, K. Neudert, K. Zidek, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, and P. Maly, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Physica Status Solidi (c)3, 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C.

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express.15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Premaratne, M.

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37, 2295–2297 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, W. Zhu, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective third-order susceptibility of silicon-nanocrystal-doped silica,” Opt. Express20, 26275–26284 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko and M. Premaratne, “Optimization of nonlinear performance of silicon-nanocrystal cylindrical nanowires,” IEEE Photonics J.4, 952–959 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in silicon-based plasmonic waveguides from the standpoint of applications,” Opt. Express19, 206–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, I. D. Rukhlenko, and G. P. Agrawal, “FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 21427–21448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. Udagedara, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effect of free carriers on pump-to-signal noise transfer in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.35, 2343–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 200–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 226–233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of pulse amplification in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 18324–18338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. L. Garanovich, M. Premaratne, A. A. Sukhorukov, G. P. Agrawal, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization rotation in silicon waveguides: Analytical modeling and applications,” IEEE Photonics J.2, 423–435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett.35, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.21, 1372–1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation,” Opt. Lett.34, 536–538 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators,” Opt. Express17, 22124–22137 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 3241–3248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express17, 5807–5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, J.

J. Wei, J. Price, T. Wang, C. Hessel, and M. C. Downer, “Size-dependent optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 04D112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pulci, O.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raday, O.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics2, 170–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Räsänen, M.

T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, Hoboken, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, S. N. Basu, L. D. Negro, and L. Sirleto, “Raman amplifier based on amorphous silicon nanoparticles,” Int. J. Photoenergy2012, 254946 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, “Stimulated Raman scattering in quantum dots and nanocomposite silicon based materials,” in “Nonlinear Optics,” N. Kamanina, ed. (InTech, Rijeka, 2012), pp. 53–70.

Renner, H.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Silicon Raman amplifiers with ring-resonator-enhanced pump power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Krause, H. Renner, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Gain enhancement in cladding-pumped silicon Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44, 692–704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 5703–5710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, H.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39, 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

Rukhlenko, I. D.

I. D. Rukhlenko, W. Zhu, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective third-order susceptibility of silicon-nanocrystal-doped silica,” Opt. Express20, 26275–26284 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37, 2295–2297 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko and M. Premaratne, “Optimization of nonlinear performance of silicon-nanocrystal cylindrical nanowires,” IEEE Photonics J.4, 952–959 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in silicon-based plasmonic waveguides from the standpoint of applications,” Opt. Express19, 206–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, I. D. Rukhlenko, and G. P. Agrawal, “FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 21427–21448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. Udagedara, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effect of free carriers on pump-to-signal noise transfer in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.35, 2343–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 226–233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 200–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of pulse amplification in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 18324–18338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. L. Garanovich, M. Premaratne, A. A. Sukhorukov, G. P. Agrawal, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization rotation in silicon waveguides: Analytical modeling and applications,” IEEE Photonics J.2, 423–435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett.35, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.21, 1372–1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation,” Opt. Lett.34, 536–538 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 3241–3248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators,” Opt. Express17, 22124–22137 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express17, 5807–5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saarinen, J. J.

S. N. Volkov, J. J. Saarinen, and J. E. Sipe, “Effective medium theory for 2D disordered structures: A comparison to numerical simulations,” J. Mod. Opt.59, 954–961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sainio, J.

T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441, 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekaric, L.

Shalaev, V.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2010).

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441, 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sih, V.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics2, 170–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

S. N. Volkov, J. J. Saarinen, and J. E. Sipe, “Effective medium theory for 2D disordered structures: A comparison to numerical simulations,” J. Mod. Opt.59, 954–961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sirleto, L.

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, S. N. Basu, L. D. Negro, and L. Sirleto, “Raman amplifier based on amorphous silicon nanoparticles,” Int. J. Photoenergy2012, 254946 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Sirleto, M. A. Ferrara, T. Nikitin, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun.3, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, “Stimulated Raman scattering in quantum dots and nanocomposite silicon based materials,” in “Nonlinear Optics,” N. Kamanina, ed. (InTech, Rijeka, 2012), pp. 53–70.

Soref, R.

R. Soref and J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22, 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spanier, J. E.

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spano, R.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Giordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in silicon nanocrystals at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express17, 3941–3950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with > 35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express17, 5193–5204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, D.

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B38, 10970–10973 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of pulse amplification in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 18324–18338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. L. Garanovich, M. Premaratne, A. A. Sukhorukov, G. P. Agrawal, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization rotation in silicon waveguides: Analytical modeling and applications,” IEEE Photonics J.2, 423–435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tartara, L.

Taubner, T.

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418, 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trani, F.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Trani, D. Ninno, and G. Iadonisi, “Role of local fields in the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals using the tight binding approach,” Phys. Rev. B75, 033312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trojanek, F.

F. Trojanek, K. Neudert, K. Zidek, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, and P. Maly, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Physica Status Solidi (c)3, 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23, 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express16, 1300–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441, 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, M. D.

Udagedara, I.

Velagapudi, R.

T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Volkov, S. N.

S. N. Volkov, J. J. Saarinen, and J. E. Sipe, “Effective medium theory for 2D disordered structures: A comparison to numerical simulations,” J. Mod. Opt.59, 954–961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4, 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

J. Wei, J. Price, T. Wang, C. Hessel, and M. C. Downer, “Size-dependent optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 04D112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. P.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39, 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

J. Wei, J. Price, T. Wang, C. Hessel, and M. C. Downer, “Size-dependent optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 04D112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Xu, S.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics2, 170–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

Yoon, J. U.

Yu, J.

Zeng, X. C.

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B38, 10970–10973 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhu, W.

Zidek, K.

F. Trojanek, K. Neudert, K. Zidek, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, and P. Maly, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Physica Status Solidi (c)3, 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1, 162–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

V. A. Belyakov, V. A. Burdov, R. Lockwood, and A. Meldrum, “Silicon nanocrystals: Fundamental theory and implications for stimulated emission,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 279502 (2008).

Adv. OptoElectron. (1)

F. D. Leonardis and V. M. N. Passaro, “Dispersion engineered silicon nanocrystal slot waveguides for soliton ultrafast optical processing,” Adv. OptoElectron.2011, 751498 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett.41, 320–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Krause, H. Renner, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Gain enhancement in cladding-pumped silicon Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44, 692–704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref and J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22, 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 200–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Silicon Raman amplifiers with ring-resonator-enhanced pump power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 226–233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order dispersion and ultrafast-pulse propagation in silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

I. D. Rukhlenko and M. Premaratne, “Optimization of nonlinear performance of silicon-nanocrystal cylindrical nanowires,” IEEE Photonics J.4, 952–959 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. L. Garanovich, M. Premaratne, A. A. Sukhorukov, G. P. Agrawal, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization rotation in silicon waveguides: Analytical modeling and applications,” IEEE Photonics J.2, 423–435 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. M. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.21, 1372–1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Photoenergy (1)

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, S. N. Basu, L. D. Negro, and L. Sirleto, “Raman amplifier based on amorphous silicon nanoparticles,” Int. J. Photoenergy2012, 254946 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Nikitin, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, M. Räsänen, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of SiOx films grown by molecular beam deposition: Effect of the Si concentration and annealing temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 094316–094316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. N. Volkov, J. J. Saarinen, and J. E. Sipe, “Effective medium theory for 2D disordered structures: A comparison to numerical simulations,” J. Mod. Opt.59, 954–961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys.: Conference Series (1)

R. J. Kashtiban, U. Bangert, I. F. Crowe, M. Halsall, A. J. Harvey, and M. Gass, “Study of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silica,” J. Phys.: Conference Series241, 012097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. Wei, J. Price, T. Wang, C. Hessel, and M. C. Downer, “Size-dependent optical properties of Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous SiO2 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 04D112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Sirleto, M. A. Ferrara, T. Nikitin, S. Novikov, and L. Khriachtchev, “Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Commun.3, 1220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater.4, 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4, 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics2, 170–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441, 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418, 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (19)

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express12, 5269–5273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 5703–5710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators,” Opt. Express17, 22124–22137 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express13, 1716–1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express13, 4341–4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Giordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in silicon nanocrystals at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express17, 3941–3950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with > 35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express17, 5193–5204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express17, 5807–5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Turner, T. M. Monro, and S. Afshar V., “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part II: Stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express17, 11565–11581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, and R. M. Osgood, “Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowire,” Opt. Express17, 12987–12999 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C.-Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express15, 15242–15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: Modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15, 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si photonic wires,” Opt. Express16, 1280–1299 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express16, 1300–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part I: Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Express17, 2298–2318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, W. Zhu, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective third-order susceptibility of silicon-nanocrystal-doped silica,” Opt. Express20, 26275–26284 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, I. L. Garanovich, A. A. Sukhorukov, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of pulse amplification in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express18, 18324–18338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, I. D. Rukhlenko, and G. P. Agrawal, “FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 21427–21448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in silicon-based plasmonic waveguides from the standpoint of applications,” Opt. Express19, 206–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express. (1)

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express.15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

L. Yin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optical switching using nonlinear polarization rotation inside silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.34, 476–478 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, “Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation,” Opt. Lett.34, 536–538 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Analytical study of optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett.35, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.29, 2755–2757 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imakita, M. Ito, R. Naruiwa, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of ultrafast nonlinear optical response of silicon nanocrystals by boron-doping,” Opt. Lett.37, 1877–1879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37, 2295–2297 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of Raman effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett.28, 1954–1956 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, I. Udagedara, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effect of free carriers on pump-to-signal noise transfer in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.35, 2343–2345 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B38, 10970–10973 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, T. P. Chen, Y. Liu, C. Y. Ng, and S. Fung, “Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B72, 125419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Trani, D. Ninno, and G. Iadonisi, “Role of local fields in the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals using the tight binding approach,” Phys. Rev. B75, 033312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, “Engineering silicon nanocrystals: Theoretical study of the effect of codoping with boron and phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (a) (1)

T. Nikitin, K. Aitola, S. Novikov, M. Räsänen, R. Velagapudi, J. Sainio, J. Lahtinen, K. Mizohata, T. Ahlgren, and L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon-rich silicon oxide films: Comparison of ion implantation and molecular beam deposition methods,” Phys. Status Solidi (a)208, 2176–2181 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Physica Status Solidi (c) (1)

F. Trojanek, K. Neudert, K. Zidek, K. Dohnalova, I. Pelant, and P. Maly, “Femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystals,” Physica Status Solidi (c)3, 3873–3876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23, 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (2)

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39, 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58, 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

M. A. Ferrara, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, “Stimulated Raman scattering in quantum dots and nanocomposite silicon based materials,” in “Nonlinear Optics,” N. Kamanina, ed. (InTech, Rijeka, 2012), pp. 53–70.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2010).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2007).

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, Hoboken, 2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi and D. Lockwood, eds., Silicon Photonics, vol. 94 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2008).

L. Pavesi and R. Turan, eds., Silicon Nanocrystals: Fundamentals, Synthesis and Applications (WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, 2010).

L. Khriachtchev, ed., Silicon Nanophotonics: Basic Principles, Present Status and Perspectives (Pan Stanford, Singapore, 2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Equations (52)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

× E ˜ μ ( 0 ) ( r , ω ) = i ω μ 0 H ˜ μ ( 0 ) ( r , ω )
× H ˜ μ ( 0 ) ( r , ω ) = i ω ε 0 ε L ( r , ω ) E ˜ μ ( 0 ) ( r , ω ) ,
E ˜ μ ( r , ω ) = ν a ˜ μ ν ( z , ω ω μ ) e μ ν ( r , ω μ ) N μ ν e i β μ ν z
H ˜ μ ( r , ω ) = ν a ˜ μ ν ( z , ω ω μ ) h μ ν ( r , ω μ ) N μ ν e i β μ ν z ,
( e μ ν * × h μ ν + c . c . ) d r = δ ν ν ( e μ ν * × h μ ν + c . c . ) d r = 4 N μ ν ,
P μ = 1 2 Re ( E ˜ μ × H ˜ μ * ) d r = ν | a ˜ μ ν | 2 .
× E ˜ μ ( r , ω ) = i ω μ 0 H ˜ μ ( r , ω )
× H ˜ μ ( r , ω ) = i ω ε 0 ε L ( r , ω ) E ˜ μ ( r , ω ) i ω P ˜ μ NL ( r , ω ) .
z ( E ˜ μ ( 0 ) × H ˜ μ * + E ˜ μ * × H ˜ μ ( 0 ) ) d r = ( E ˜ μ ( 0 ) × H ˜ μ * + E ˜ μ * × H ˜ μ ( 0 ) ) d r .
( E ˜ μ ( 0 ) × H ˜ μ * + E ˜ μ * × H ˜ μ ( 0 ) ) = i ω ( E ˜ μ ( 0 ) P ˜ μ N L * ) .
E ˜ μ ( 0 ) = e μ ν ( r , ω μ ) N μ ν e i β ν ( ω ) z and H ˜ μ ( 0 ) = h μ ν ( r , ω μ ) N μ ν e i β ν ( ω ) z
z { a ˜ μ ν ( z , ω ω μ ) e i [ β ν ( ω μ ) β ν ( ω ) ] z } = i ω 4 N μ ν e μ ν * ( r , ω μ ) P ˜ μ NL ( r , ω ) e i β ν ( ω ) z d r .
( z + i n = 1 1 n ! β ν ω | ω μ ( ω ω μ ) n ) a ˜ μ ν ( z , ω ω μ ) = i ω 4 N μ ν e μ ν * ( r , ω μ ) P ˜ μ NL ( r , ω ) e i β ν ( ω μ ) z d r .
( z + n = 1 i n + 1 n ! β ν ω | ω μ n t n ) a μ ν ( z , t ) = e i β μ ν z 4 N μ ν e μ ν * ( r , ω μ ) P μ NL ( r , t ) t e i ω μ t d r ,
a μ ν ( z , t ) = 1 2 π + a ˜ μ ν ( z , ω ) e i ω t d ω and P μ NL ( r , t ) = 1 2 π + P ˜ μ NL ( r , ω ) e i ω t d ω .
a μ ν z + n = 1 i n + 1 β μ ν ( n ) n ! n a μ ν t n = i ω μ 4 N μ ν ( 1 + i ω μ t ) e i β μ ν z ( e μ ν * P ω μ NL ) d r ,
P ω μ NL ( r , t ) = P ω μ K ( r , t ) + P ω μ R ( r , t ) + P ω μ FC ( r , t ) ,
P ω μ K ( r , t ) = ε 0 χ K ( 3 ) ( ω μ ; ω μ , ω μ , ω μ ) E ω μ ( r , t ) E ω μ * ( r , t ) E ω μ ( r , t ) ,
χ K ( 3 ) ( ω μ ; ω μ , ω μ , ω μ ) = χ μ ( 8 + 7 ρ 45 ( δ k l δ m n + δ k m δ ln + δ k n δ l m ) + 1 ρ 9 δ k l δ l m δ m n ) ,
χ μ = c ε 0 ε eff [ n 2 + i β TPA / ( 2 k μ ) ] ξ ,
ξ = 1 f ( ε eff ε 1 ) 2 = [ ( 3 f 1 ) ε eff + ε 2 ] 2 f ( u 2 + 8 ε 1 ε 2 )
P ω μ K = ε 0 χ μ [ 8 + 7 ρ 45 ( 2 | E ω μ | 2 E ω μ + E ω μ 2 E ω μ * ) + 1 ρ 9 η E η 2 E η * η ^ ] ,
E ω μ = ν = x , y a μ ν e μ ν N μ ν e i β μ ν z ,
e i β μ ν z N μ ν ( e μ ν * P ω μ K ) d r = ε 0 χ μ [ 8 + 7 ρ 45 ( 2 a μ ν ν Γ ν ν ( μ ) | a μ ν | 2 + a μ ν * ν a μ ν 2 Λ ν ν ( μ ) e 2 i ( β μ ν β μ ν ) z ) + 1 ρ 9 Γ ν ν ( μ ) a μ ν | a μ ν | 2 ] ,
Γ ν ν ( μ ) = 1 N μ ν N μ ν | e μ ν | 2 | e μ ν | 2 d r
Λ ν ν ( μ ) = 1 N μ ν N μ ν e μ ν * 2 e μ ν 2 d r .
N μ ν = β μ ν 2 μ 0 ω μ | e μ ν | 2 d r .
P ω μ R ( r , t ) = e i ω μ t t d t 1 t d t 2 t d t 3 ε 0 χ R ( 3 ) ( t t 1 , t t 2 , t t 3 ) × ( E ω μ ( r , t 1 ) E ω μ * ( r , t 2 ) E ω μ ( r , t 3 ) e i ( ω μ t 1 ω μ t 2 + ω μ t 3 ) + E ω μ ( r , t 1 ) E ω μ * ( r , t 2 ) E ω μ ( r , t 3 ) e i ( ω μ t 1 ω μ t 2 + ω μ t 3 ) ) ,
χ R ( 3 ) ( t 1 , t 2 , t 3 ) = 1 2 [ δ ( t 1 t 2 ) δ ( t 3 ) k l m n + δ ( t 1 ) δ ( t 2 t 3 ) k n m l ] ξ H ( t 2 ) ,
k l m n = 29 45 ( δ k m δ ln + δ k n δ l m ) 16 45 δ k l δ m n 2 9 δ k l δ l m δ m n ,
H ( t ) = 2 χ R Γ R Ω R ( Ω R 2 Γ R 2 ) 1 / 2 e t / τ 2 sin ( t / τ 1 ) ,
P ω μ R ( r , t ) = ε 0 ξ t d t 1 H ( t t 1 ) k l m n E ω μ ( r , t 1 ) E ω μ * ( r , t 1 ) E ω μ ( r , t ) e i ( ω μ ω μ ) ( t t 1 ) .
e i β μ ν z ε 0 ξ N μ ν ( e μ ν * P ω μ R ) d r = 29 45 ν Λ ν ν μ μ exp ( i β μ ν μ ν μ ν μ ν z ) a μ ν ( t ) t a μ ν * ( t 1 ) a μ ν ( t 1 ) H ( t t 1 ) e i ω μ μ ( t t 1 ) d t 1 + 29 45 ν Ψ ν ν μ μ exp ( i β μ ν μ ν μ ν μ ν z ) a μ ν ( t ) t a μ ν * ( t 1 ) a μ ν ( t 1 ) H ( t t 1 ) e i ω μ μ ( t t 1 ) d t 1 16 45 ν Γ ν ν μ μ a μ ν ( t ) t a μ ν * ( t 1 ) a μ ν ( t 1 ) H ( t t 1 ) e i ω μ μ ( t t 1 ) d t 1 2 9 Λ ν ν μ μ a μ ν t t a μ ν * ( t 1 ) a μ ν ( t 1 ) H ( t t 1 ) e i ω μ μ ( t t 1 ) d t 1 ,
Λ ν ν μ μ = ( e μ ν * e μ ν * ) ( e μ ν e μ ν ) N μ ν N μ ν N μ ν N μ ν d r ,
Ψ ν ν μ μ = ( e μ ν * e μ ν ) ( e μ ν e μ ν * ) N μ ν N μ ν N μ ν N μ ν d r ,
Γ ν ν μ μ = 1 N μ ν N μ ν | e μ ν | 2 | e μ ν | 2 d r .
P ω μ FC ( r , t ) = 2 ζ ε 0 n eff [ Δ n FC + i c / ( 2 ω μ ) Δ α FC ] E ω μ ( r , t ) ,
ζ = n eff n 1 = ( ε 1 ε eff ) 1 / 2 ( 3 f 1 ) ε eff + ε 2 u 2 + 8 ε 1 ε 2
Δ n FC = σ n ( ω 0 / ω μ ) 2 ( 1 + ς N 0.2 ) N 0.8 and Δ α FC = σ α ( ω 0 / ω μ ) 2 N ,
e i β μ ν z N μ ν ( e μ ν * P ω μ FC ) d r = 4 ( ζ / c ) ( n eff / n μ ν ) [ Δ n FC + i c / ( 2 ω μ ) Δ α FC ] a μ ν ,
N t = N τ c μ 1 2 h ¯ ω μ A eff P μ z ,
P μ z = ν ( a μ ν a μ ν * z + a μ ν * a μ ν z ) = 1 4 ξ c 2 ε 0 2 ε eff β TPA ν ( 8 + 7 ρ 45 ν 2 Γ ν ν ( μ ) | a μ ν | 2 | a μ ν | 2 + 13 + 2 ρ 45 Γ ν ν ( μ ) | a μ ν | 4 ) .
A eff μ ν = ( | e μ ν | 2 d r ) 2 / | e μ ν | 4 d r .
A eff = μ , ν ( A eff μ ν ) 1 / 4 .
𝒜 eff μ ν = 𝒜 NL | e μ ν | 2 d r / NL | e μ ν | 2 d r ,
a μ ν z + n = 1 i n + 1 β μ ν ( n ) n ! n a μ ν t n + α μ ν 2 a μ ν = 1 8 ξ c 2 ε 0 2 ε eff ( β TPA 2 i n 2 k μ ) ( 8 + 7 ρ 45 2 Γ ν ν ( μ ) | a μ ν | 2 + 29 + 16 ρ 45 Γ ν ν ( μ ) | a μ ν | 2 ) a μ ν + 8 i ε 0 ω μ 45 ξ Γ ν ν μ μ a μ ν ( t ) t a μ ν * ( t 1 ) a μ ν ( t 1 ) H ( t t 1 ) e i ω μ μ ( t t 1 ) d t 1 4 i ε 0 ω μ 45 ξ Γ ν ν μ μ a μ ν ( t ) t a μ ν * ( t 1 ) a μ ν ( t 1 ) H ( t t 1 ) e i ω μ μ ( t t 1 ) d t 1 ζ n eff n μ ν ( ω 0 ω μ ) 2 ( i σ n k μ ( 1 + ς N 0.2 ) + σ α 2 N 0.2 ) N 0.8 a μ ν ,
N t = N τ c + ξ c 2 ε 0 2 ε eff 4 A eff μ , ν β TPA 2 h ¯ ω μ ( 8 + 7 ρ 45 2 Γ ν ν ( μ ) | a μ ν | 2 + 29 + 16 ρ 45 Γ ν ν ( μ ) | a μ ν | 2 ) | a μ ν | 2 .
4 i ε 0 ω μ 45 ξ H ˜ ( ω μ μ ) ( 2 Γ ν ν μ μ | a μ ν | 2 Γ ν ν μ μ | a μ ν | 2 ) a μ ν ,
H ˜ ( ω ) = 0 H ( t ) e i ω t d t = 2 χ R Γ R Ω R Ω R 2 + 2 i Γ R ω ω 2
ln a μ ν z + α μ ν 2 = ξ ( β TPA 2 i n 2 k μ ) ( 8 + 7 ρ 45 2 γ ν ν ( μ ) I μ ν + 29 + 16 ρ 45 γ ν ν ( μ ) I μ ν ) + 32 45 ξ g ˜ R ( ω μ μ ) ( 2 γ ν ν μ μ I μ ν γ ν ν μ μ I μ ν ) ζ ξ τ c n eff n μ ν ( ω 0 ω μ ) 2 ( σ α 2 + i σ ¯ n k μ ) × μ , ν β TPA 2 h ¯ ω μ ( 8 + 7 ρ 45 2 γ ν ν ( μ ) I μ ν + 29 + 16 ρ 45 γ ν ν ( μ ) I μ ν ) I μ ν ,
γ ν ν μ μ = n eff 2 n μ ν n μ ν A eff | e μ ν | 2 | e μ ν | 2 d r | e μ ν | 2 d r | e μ ν | 2 d r ,
g ˜ R ( ω ) = 2 i g R Γ R Ω R Ω R 2 + 2 i Γ R ω ω 2 .

Metrics