Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate tunable radiation from a periodic array of plasmonic nanoscatterers, tailored to convert surface plasmon polaritons into directive leaky modes. Extending our previous studies on efficient directional beaming based on leaky-wave radiation from periodic gratings driven by a subwavelength slit, we experimentally show dynamic beam sweeping by tuning the directional leaky-wave mechanism in real-time. Two alternative tuning mechanisms, wavelength- and index-mediated beam sweeping, are employed to modify the relative phase of scattered light at each grating edge and provide the required modification of the radiation angle.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245403 (2007).
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  2. T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
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  3. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys.9(7), 217 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Opt. Express16(14), 10858–6 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Pellegrini, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Tunable, directional and wavelength selective plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Nanotechnology20(6), 065201 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4228–4233 (2009).
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  8. T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. X. Liu and A. Alù, “Subwavelength leaky-wave optical nanoantennas: Directive radiation from linear array of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B82(14), 144305 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Hao, R. Wang, and J. Wang, “A design methodology for directional beaming control by metal slit–grooves structure,” J. Opt.13(1), 015002 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics4(2), 153–159 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).
  24. J. Y. Laluet, A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105014 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 263902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys.2(8), 551–556 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A23, 2135–2136 (1968).

2012 (1)

Y. Lee, K. Hoshino, A. Alù, and X. J. Zhang, “Efficient directional beaming from small apertures using surface-plasmon diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

F. Hao, R. Wang, and J. Wang, “A design methodology for directional beaming control by metal slit–grooves structure,” J. Opt.13(1), 015002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, A. Alù, and J. X. Zhang, “Efficient apertureless scanning probes using patterned plasmonic surfaces,” Opt. Express19(27), 25990–25999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Liu and A. Alù, “Subwavelength leaky-wave optical nanoantennas: Directive radiation from linear array of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B82(14), 144305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J.2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics4(2), 153–159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

G. Pellegrini, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Tunable, directional and wavelength selective plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Nanotechnology20(6), 065201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4228–4233 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Opt. Express16(14), 10858–6 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Laluet, A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys.9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys.2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Alù, A.

Y. Lee, K. Hoshino, A. Alù, and X. J. Zhang, “Efficient directional beaming from small apertures using surface-plasmon diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, A. Alù, and J. X. Zhang, “Efficient apertureless scanning probes using patterned plasmonic surfaces,” Opt. Express19(27), 25990–25999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. X. Liu and A. Alù, “Subwavelength leaky-wave optical nanoantennas: Directive radiation from linear array of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B82(14), 144305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F.

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J.2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chaturvedi, P.

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

Chen, P.

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J.2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coenen, T.

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezet, A.

J. Y. Laluet, A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

J. Y. Laluet, A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N. X.

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

Gan, Q.

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J.2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

J. Y. Laluet, A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

González, M. U.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, R. Wang, and J. Wang, “A design methodology for directional beaming control by metal slit–grooves structure,” J. Opt.13(1), 015002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, H. F.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys.9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, K.

Y. Lee, K. Hoshino, A. Alù, and X. J. Zhang, “Efficient directional beaming from small apertures using surface-plasmon diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys.2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Islam, M. S.

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

Kadoya, Y.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys.9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics4(2), 153–159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N. P.

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

Koenderink, A. F.

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4228–4233 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosako, T.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys.9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys.2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laluet, J. Y.

J. Y. Laluet, A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics4(2), 153–159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, K. Hoshino, A. Alù, and X. J. Zhang, “Efficient directional beaming from small apertures using surface-plasmon diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, A. Alù, and J. X. Zhang, “Efficient apertureless scanning probes using patterned plasmonic surfaces,” Opt. Express19(27), 25990–25999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. X.

X. X. Liu and A. Alù, “Subwavelength leaky-wave optical nanoantennas: Directive radiation from linear array of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B82(14), 144305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

López-Tejeira, F.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mattei, G.

G. Pellegrini, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Tunable, directional and wavelength selective plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Nanotechnology20(6), 065201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazzoldi, P.

G. Pellegrini, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Tunable, directional and wavelength selective plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Nanotechnology20(6), 065201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrini, G.

G. Pellegrini, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Tunable, directional and wavelength selective plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Nanotechnology20(6), 065201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radko, I. P.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Rodier, J. C.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S. G.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salandrino, A.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stefani, F. D.

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Opt. Express16(14), 10858–6 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Opt. Express16(14), 10858–6 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vesseur, E. J. R.

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

VJ, L.

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

F. Hao, R. Wang, and J. Wang, “A design methodology for directional beaming control by metal slit–grooves structure,” J. Opt.13(1), 015002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

F. Hao, R. Wang, and J. Wang, “A design methodology for directional beaming control by metal slit–grooves structure,” J. Opt.13(1), 015002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Y.

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

Weeber, J. C.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. S.

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

Zhang, J. X.

Zhang, X. J.

Y. Lee, K. Hoshino, A. Alù, and X. J. Zhang, “Efficient directional beaming from small apertures using surface-plasmon diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J.2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, K. Hoshino, A. Alù, and X. J. Zhang, “Efficient directional beaming from small apertures using surface-plasmon diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

P. Chen, Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and L. Zhu, “Near-field-resonance-enhanced plasmonic light beaming,” IEEE Photon. J.2(1), 8–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

F. Hao, R. Wang, and J. Wang, “A design methodology for directional beaming control by metal slit–grooves structure,” J. Opt.13(1), 015002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4228–4233 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. VJ, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver film deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett.9, 178–182 (2009).

Nanotechnology (1)

G. Pellegrini, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Tunable, directional and wavelength selective plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Nanotechnology20(6), 065201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys.2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (2)

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys.9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Laluet, A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Liu and A. Alù, “Subwavelength leaky-wave optical nanoantennas: Directive radiation from linear array of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B82(14), 144305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Unidirectional surface plasmon polariton excitation on single slit with oblique backside illumination,” Plasmonics4(2), 153–159 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Naturforsch. A (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Other (2)

A. A. Oliner and D. R. Jackson, Antenna Engineering Handbook, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2007).

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a tunable directional optical antenna: a subwavelength slit with a left-side array of periodic gratings, consisting of corrugations in a plasmonic screen. Note that ε D , ε M , and ε SUB indicate the relative permittivity of surrounding medium, metal, and supporting substrate (BK7), respectively. Directive radiation at a specific angle θ can be achieved by a proper choice of surrounding medium ε D and wavelength λ of operation; and its directivity can be further enhanced by optimizing illumination angle ϕ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the optical setup to measure far-field radiation patterns. Embedded pictures: a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fabricated device (top) and microscope image of PDMS spacer (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radiation pattern profiles from CCD images captured at various angles for λ= 630 nm and no index matching fluid in the spacer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured far-field radiation patterns from the proposed configuration with (a) various index matching fluids and (b) various wavelengths of operation. TM polarized light with spectral FWHM of 10 nm was used throughout experiments. Note that each recorded radiation pattern is normalized to its peak intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak radiation angle as a function of wavelength (black) and the refractive index of surrounding medium (red). Each dashed line is a fitting curve for varying peak radiation angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured radiation patterns of the configuration shown in Fig. 1 for normal illumination (black curve, open circle) and tilted illumination (blue curve, filled box) for enhanced directive radiation. Index matching fluid with a refractive index of 1.34 was introduced and TM polarized light at 630 nm was used to excite the slit. Measured FWHM for normal incidence was 36.0°; whereas the case for tilted illumination was 19.1°.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p( Re[ k SP ]+ k D sinθ )=2π,
i[ w ( β 2 + k D 2 ) 1/2 mπ ]= 2tan h 1 [ i ε D ( β 2 ε M k D 2 ) 1/2 / ε M ( β 2 + k D 2 ) 1/2 ].

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