Abstract

Control of the sidewall angle of diamond microstructures was achieved by varying the gas mixture, bias power and mask shape during inductively coupled plasma etching. Different etch mechanisms were responsible for the angle of the lower and upper part of the sidewall formed during diamond etching. These angles could to some extent be controlled separately. The developed etch process was used to fabricate wideband antireflective structures with an average transmission of 96.4% for wavelengths between 10 and 50 µm. Smooth facetted edges for coupling light through waveguides from above were also demonstrated.

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2010

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Obraztsov, P. G. Kopylov, B. A. Loginov, M. A. Dolganov, R. R. Ismagilov, and N. V. Savenko, “Single crystal diamond tips for scanning probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(1), 013703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

N. Moldovan, R. Divan, H. Zeng, and J. A. Carlisle, “Nanofabrication of sharp diamond tips by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3125–3131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2003

1999

V. G. Ralchenko, A. V. Khomich, A. V. Baranov, I. I. Vlasov, and V. I. Konov, “Fabrication of CVD Diamond Optics with Antireflective Surface Structures,” Phys. Status Solidi174(1), 171–176 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

O. Dorsch, M. Werner, and E. Obermeier, “Dry etching of undoped and boron doped polycrystalline diamond films,” Diamond Related Materials4(4), 456–459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

S. J. Pearton, A. Katz, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “ECR plasma etching of chemically vapour deposited diamond thin films,” Electron. Lett.28(9), 822–824 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, A. V.

V. G. Ralchenko, A. V. Khomich, A. V. Baranov, I. I. Vlasov, and V. I. Konov, “Fabrication of CVD Diamond Optics with Antireflective Surface Structures,” Phys. Status Solidi174(1), 171–176 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Carlisle, J. A.

N. Moldovan, R. Divan, H. Zeng, and J. A. Carlisle, “Nanofabrication of sharp diamond tips by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3125–3131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. H.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Divan, R.

N. Moldovan, R. Divan, H. Zeng, and J. A. Carlisle, “Nanofabrication of sharp diamond tips by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3125–3131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolganov, M. A.

A. N. Obraztsov, P. G. Kopylov, B. A. Loginov, M. A. Dolganov, R. R. Ismagilov, and N. V. Savenko, “Single crystal diamond tips for scanning probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(1), 013703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorsch, O.

O. Dorsch, M. Werner, and E. Obermeier, “Dry etching of undoped and boron doped polycrystalline diamond films,” Diamond Related Materials4(4), 456–459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ganesan, K.

Ganguly, A.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garnov, S. V.

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B. C.

Hiscocks, M. P.

Huang, Y. F.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S. T.

Ismagilov, R. R.

A. N. Obraztsov, P. G. Kopylov, B. A. Loginov, M. A. Dolganov, R. R. Ismagilov, and N. V. Savenko, “Single crystal diamond tips for scanning probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(1), 013703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, Y. J.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

Katz, A.

S. J. Pearton, A. Katz, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “ECR plasma etching of chemically vapour deposited diamond thin films,” Electron. Lett.28(9), 822–824 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Khomich, A. V.

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ralchenko, A. V. Khomich, A. V. Baranov, I. I. Vlasov, and V. I. Konov, “Fabrication of CVD Diamond Optics with Antireflective Surface Structures,” Phys. Status Solidi174(1), 171–176 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Kononenko, T. V.

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kononenko, V. V.

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Konov, V. I.

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ralchenko, A. V. Khomich, A. V. Baranov, I. I. Vlasov, and V. I. Konov, “Fabrication of CVD Diamond Optics with Antireflective Surface Structures,” Phys. Status Solidi174(1), 171–176 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Kopylov, P. G.

A. N. Obraztsov, P. G. Kopylov, B. A. Loginov, M. A. Dolganov, R. R. Ismagilov, and N. V. Savenko, “Single crystal diamond tips for scanning probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(1), 013703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ladouceur, F.

Li, L.

Loginov, B. A.

A. N. Obraztsov, P. G. Kopylov, B. A. Loginov, M. A. Dolganov, R. R. Ismagilov, and N. V. Savenko, “Single crystal diamond tips for scanning probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(1), 013703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lothian, J. R.

S. J. Pearton, A. Katz, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “ECR plasma etching of chemically vapour deposited diamond thin films,” Electron. Lett.28(9), 822–824 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moldovan, N.

N. Moldovan, R. Divan, H. Zeng, and J. A. Carlisle, “Nanofabrication of sharp diamond tips by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3125–3131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

Nikolajeff, F.

Obermeier, E.

O. Dorsch, M. Werner, and E. Obermeier, “Dry etching of undoped and boron doped polycrystalline diamond films,” Diamond Related Materials4(4), 456–459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Obraztsov, A. N.

A. N. Obraztsov, P. G. Kopylov, B. A. Loginov, M. A. Dolganov, R. R. Ismagilov, and N. V. Savenko, “Single crystal diamond tips for scanning probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(1), 013703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

S. J. Pearton, A. Katz, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “ECR plasma etching of chemically vapour deposited diamond thin films,” Electron. Lett.28(9), 822–824 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pimenov, S. M.

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prawer, S.

Prokhorov, A. M.

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raguin, D. H.

Ralchenko, V. G.

V. G. Ralchenko, A. V. Khomich, A. V. Baranov, I. I. Vlasov, and V. I. Konov, “Fabrication of CVD Diamond Optics with Antireflective Surface Structures,” Phys. Status Solidi174(1), 171–176 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

S. J. Pearton, A. Katz, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “ECR plasma etching of chemically vapour deposited diamond thin films,” Electron. Lett.28(9), 822–824 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Savenko, N. V.

A. N. Obraztsov, P. G. Kopylov, B. A. Loginov, M. A. Dolganov, R. R. Ismagilov, and N. V. Savenko, “Single crystal diamond tips for scanning probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(1), 013703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tishchenko, A. V.

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, I. I.

V. G. Ralchenko, A. V. Khomich, A. V. Baranov, I. I. Vlasov, and V. I. Konov, “Fabrication of CVD Diamond Optics with Antireflective Surface Structures,” Phys. Status Solidi174(1), 171–176 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Werner, M.

O. Dorsch, M. Werner, and E. Obermeier, “Dry etching of undoped and boron doped polycrystalline diamond films,” Diamond Related Materials4(4), 456–459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

N. Moldovan, R. Divan, H. Zeng, and J. A. Carlisle, “Nanofabrication of sharp diamond tips by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3125–3131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

T. V. Kononenko, V. V. Kononenko, V. I. Konov, S. M. Pimenov, S. V. Garnov, A. V. Tishchenko, A. M. Prokhorov, and A. V. Khomich, “Formation of antireflective surface structures on diamond films by laser patterning,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(1), 99–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Related Materials

O. Dorsch, M. Werner, and E. Obermeier, “Dry etching of undoped and boron doped polycrystalline diamond films,” Diamond Related Materials4(4), 456–459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. J. Pearton, A. Katz, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “ECR plasma etching of chemically vapour deposited diamond thin films,” Electron. Lett.28(9), 822–824 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

N. Moldovan, R. Divan, H. Zeng, and J. A. Carlisle, “Nanofabrication of sharp diamond tips by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3125–3131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Status Solidi

V. G. Ralchenko, A. V. Khomich, A. V. Baranov, I. I. Vlasov, and V. I. Konov, “Fabrication of CVD Diamond Optics with Antireflective Surface Structures,” Phys. Status Solidi174(1), 171–176 (1999) (a).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. N. Obraztsov, P. G. Kopylov, B. A. Loginov, M. A. Dolganov, R. R. Ismagilov, and N. V. Savenko, “Single crystal diamond tips for scanning probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(1), 013703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The progression of etching and the origin of the two angles of inclination of the sidewall. (a) The initial mask profile is vertical. (b) and (c) In early etching, before the mask is fully faceted, the edge of the mask does not move. The sidewall etched in diamond is slightly inclined because some ions are deflected instead of etching the wall. (d) Once the mask is fully faceted the edge starts receding. The angle etched in diamond then depends on the etch rate ratio between the mask material and diamond.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM micrographs showing the pre-etching of the mask and its effect on the diamond etching. (a) Al mask before, (b) after five minutes and (c) after ten minutes of etching in pure Ar plasma. (d) and (e) show pyramidal structures in diamond etched with masks like those shown in (a) and (c) respectively. The sample in (e) is the same as that shown in cross section in Fig. 3(b). The sample is tilted 30° in all micrographs and the magnification is consistent between them.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Test etchings for controlling the sidewall angle. The Al masks were pre-etched with Ar, such as that shown in Fig. 2(c). Flows of O2 (40 sccm) and Ar (20 sccm) as well as pressure (5 mTorr) and ICP power (900 W) were the same for all the etchings in the figure. The samples in the upper row (a-d) were etched with a bias power of 220 W and in the lower (e-h) with a power of 100 W. The SF6 flow was 5 sccm in (a) and (e) and 1 sccm in (b) and (f). In (c) and (g) the SF6 flow was 1 sccm for 2 s, then turned off for 8 s. Finally in (d) and (h) the flow was 1 sccm for 2 s and then off for 28 s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Broadband AR structures in diamond. (a) SEM micrographs of the etched structures, tilted 30° and side view of cracked sample. (b) Measured and calculated transmission of a sample structured on both sides. (c) Pyramid shape approximating the structure on one side of the sample for the RCWA calculation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Waveguides. Left: SEM micrograph of the end of a 100 µm wide free-hanging waveguide. Upper right: optical micrograph of laser light going through a 250 µm wide waveguide. Lower right: schematic showing the dimensions of the waveguide.

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