Abstract

This paper discusses the architecture and provides performance studies of a silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for scalable interconnect network in high performance computing systems. The proposed switch exploits optical wavelength parallelism and wavelength routing characteristics of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router (AWGR) to allow contention resolution in the wavelength domain. Simulation results from a cycle-accurate network simulator indicate that, even with only two transmitter/receiver pairs per node, the switch exhibits lower end-to-end latency and higher throughput at high (>90%) input loads compared with electronic switches. On the device integration level, we propose to integrate all the components (ring modulators, photodetectors and AWGR) on a CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform to ensure a compact, energy efficient and cost-effective device. We successfully demonstrate proof-of-concept routing functions on an 8 × 8 prototype fabricated using foundry services provided by OpSIS-IME.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, D. Po, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-Optical Comb Switch for Multiwavelength Message Routing in Silicon Photonic Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(10), 767–769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (3)

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Yang and S. J. B. Yoo, “Combined input and output all-optical variable buffered switch architecture for future optical routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1292–1294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32× 32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett.33(22), 1865–1866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Takada, Y. Inoue, K. Okamoto, and S. Mitachi, “Low-crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with phase compensating plate,” Electron. Lett.33(20), 1698–1699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Akella, V.

R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, Y. Runxiang, C. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “An All-Optical Token Technique Enabling a Fully-Distributed Control Plane in AWGR-Based Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(3), 414–422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ye, Y. Yin, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Mejia, R. Proietti, and V. Akella, “DOS: A scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems. 2010. ACM.
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baets, R. G.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, D. Po, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-Optical Comb Switch for Multiwavelength Message Routing in Silicon Photonic Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(10), 767–769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, D. Po, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-Optical Comb Switch for Multiwavelength Message Routing in Silicon Photonic Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(10), 767–769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheben, P.

Chen, J.

Cohen, O.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fathpour, S.

Feng, D.

Giziewicz, W.

Hasegawa, T.

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32× 32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett.33(22), 1865–1866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, A.

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32× 32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett.33(22), 1865–1866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

Inoue, Y.

H. Yamada, K. Takada, Y. Inoue, K. Okamoto, and S. Mitachi, “Low-crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with phase compensating plate,” Electron. Lett.33(20), 1698–1699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, O.

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32× 32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett.33(22), 1865–1866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jaenen, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Janz, S.

Jones, R.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kimerling, L. C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, D. Po, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-Optical Comb Switch for Multiwavelength Message Routing in Silicon Photonic Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(10), 767–769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Liu, J.

Manipatruni, S.

Mejia, P.

X. Ye, Y. Yin, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Mejia, R. Proietti, and V. Akella, “DOS: A scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems. 2010. ACM.
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Mitachi, S.

H. Yamada, K. Takada, Y. Inoue, K. Okamoto, and S. Mitachi, “Low-crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with phase compensating plate,” Electron. Lett.33(20), 1698–1699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, C.

Ohmori, Y.

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32× 32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett.33(22), 1865–1866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32× 32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett.33(22), 1865–1866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Takada, Y. Inoue, K. Okamoto, and S. Mitachi, “Low-crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with phase compensating plate,” Electron. Lett.33(20), 1698–1699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Po, D.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, D. Po, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-Optical Comb Switch for Multiwavelength Message Routing in Silicon Photonic Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(10), 767–769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

Proietti, R.

R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, Y. Runxiang, C. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “An All-Optical Token Technique Enabling a Fully-Distributed Control Plane in AWGR-Based Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(3), 414–422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ye, Y. Yin, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Mejia, R. Proietti, and V. Akella, “DOS: A scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems. 2010. ACM.
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Runxiang, Y.

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B.

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

H. Yamada, K. Takada, Y. Inoue, K. Okamoto, and S. Mitachi, “Low-crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with phase compensating plate,” Electron. Lett.33(20), 1698–1699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, Q.

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, K. Takada, Y. Inoue, K. Okamoto, and S. Mitachi, “Low-crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with phase compensating plate,” Electron. Lett.33(20), 1698–1699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang and S. J. B. Yoo, “Combined input and output all-optical variable buffered switch architecture for future optical routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1292–1294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yawei, Y.

Ye, X.

X. Ye, Y. Yin, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Mejia, R. Proietti, and V. Akella, “DOS: A scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems. 2010. ACM.
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

X. Ye, Y. Yin, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Mejia, R. Proietti, and V. Akella, “DOS: A scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems. 2010. ACM.
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, Y. Runxiang, C. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “An All-Optical Token Technique Enabling a Fully-Distributed Control Plane in AWGR-Based Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(3), 414–422 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang and S. J. B. Yoo, “Combined input and output all-optical variable buffered switch architecture for future optical routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1292–1294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Ye, Y. Yin, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Mejia, R. Proietti, and V. Akella, “DOS: A scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems. 2010. ACM.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32× 32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett.33(22), 1865–1866 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Takada, Y. Inoue, K. Okamoto, and S. Mitachi, “Low-crosstalk arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with phase compensating plate,” Electron. Lett.33(20), 1698–1699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, “Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1394–1401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

H. Yang and S. J. B. Yoo, “Combined input and output all-optical variable buffered switch architecture for future optical routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(6), 1292–1294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A Hybrid AlGaInAs-Silicon Evanescent Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(4), 230–232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, D. Po, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-Optical Comb Switch for Multiwavelength Message Routing in Silicon Photonic Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(10), 767–769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (6)

Other (12)

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, C. Mineo, and S. J. B. Yoo, “AWGR-based all-to-all optical interconnects using limited number of wavelengths,” in Optical Interconnects Conference, 2013 IEEE. 2013.
[CrossRef]

X. Ye, Y. Yin, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Mejia, R. Proietti, and V. Akella, “DOS: A scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems. 2010. ACM.
[CrossRef]

K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep.(2010).

J. Gripp, J. Simsarian, J. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference. 2010. Optical Society of America.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The routing property and (b) the routing table of an 8 × 8 cyclic-frequency AWGR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The proposed interconnect architecture for chip-scale high performance computing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Performance study on (a) end-to-end latency, (b) throughput and (c) packet loss rate as functions of the offered load for uniform random traffic distribution on proposed architecture with 8 nodes. Left: no VOQ, right with VOQ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Performance study on (a) end-to-end latency, (b) throughput and (c) packet loss rate as functions of the offered load for uniform random traffic distribution on proposed architecture with 64 nodes. Left: no VOQ, right with VOQ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Device mask layout showing only the waveguide layer and the metal layer (b) rings on one of the input bus waveguides, (c) rings and PDs on one of the output bus waveguides, (d) Photo of fabricated device.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured transmission spectra of (a) the 8x8 AWGR (b) the ring resonator under different forward bias.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Layout of the ring modulator (a) in all-pass-filter configuration (without top waveguide), (b) in add-drop configuration (with top waveguide) and (c) Germanium photo-detector (only waveguide and metal layers are shown).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for the routing demonstration on the fabricated chip. BPF: optical band-pass fiber; ATT: optical attenuator; PPG: pulsed pattern generator.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Experimental configuration for 4-by-1 routing demonstration (b) measured BER.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Experimental configuration for 1-by-4 routing demonstration (b) measured BER.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) AWGR transmission spectra over three FSRs, (b) experimental configuration for transmission using multiple FSRs, (c) measured BER.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The mapping between the input nodes and receivers.

Tables Icon

Table 2 OpSIS-IME Process overview.

Metrics