Abstract

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of high quality factor (Q ~103) and small mode volume (V ~0.75 (λ/n)3) planar photonic crystal cavities from cubic (3C) thin films (thickness ~200 nm) of silicon carbide (SiC) grown epitaxially on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate cavity resonances across the telecommunications band, with wavelengths from 1.25 – 1.6 μm. Finally, we discuss possible applications in nonlinear optics, optical interconnects, and quantum information science.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  26. G. Ferro, T. Chassagne, A. Leycuras, F. Cauwet, and Y. Monteil, “Strain tailoring in 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial layers grown on Si(100),” Chem. Vapor Depos. 12(8-9), 483–488 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1661 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  38. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  39. M. Khan, T. Babinec, M. W. McCutcheon, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality-factor silicon nitride nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 421–423 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. Y. Gong and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic crystal cavities in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031107 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2013 (7)

S.-Y. Lee, M. Widmann, T. Rendler, M. W. Doherty, T. M. Babinec, S. Yang, M. Eyer, P. Siyushev, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Loncar, Z. Bodrog, A. Gali, N. B. Manson, H. Fedder, and J. Wrachtrup, “Readout and control of a single nuclear spin with a metastable electron spin ancilla,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 487–492 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Diziain, R. Geiss, M. Zilk, F. Schrempel, E.-B. Kley, A. Tuennermann, and T. Pertsch, “Second harmonic generation in free-standing lithium niobate photonic crystal L3 cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051117 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. V. Trivino, U. Dharanipathy, J.-F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Buckley, M. Radulaski, K. Biermann, and J. Vuckovic, “Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211117 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. L. Falk, B. B. Buckley, G. Calusine, W. F. Koehl, V. V. Dobrovitski, A. Politi, C. A. Zorman, P. X.-L. Feng, and D. D. Awschalom, “Polytype control of spin qubits in silicon carbide,” Nat Commun 4, 1819 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cardenas, M. Zhang, C. T. Phare, S. Y. Shah, C. B. Poitras, B. Guha, and M. Lipson, “High Q SiC microresonators,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16882–16887 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lu, J. Y. Lee, P. X. Feng, and Q. Lin, “Silicon carbide microdisk resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1304–1306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

J.-H. Lee, I. Bargatin, J. Park, K. M. Milaninia, L. S. Theogarajan, R. Sinclair, and R. T. Howe, “Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(4), 042001 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated diamond networks for quantum nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Burek, N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, B. J. M. Hausmann, Y. Chu, Q. Quan, A. S. Zibrov, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, and M. Lončar, “Free-standing mechanical and photonic nanostructures in single-crystal diamond,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6084–6089 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Steger, K. Saeedi, M. L. W. Thewalt, J. J. L. Morton, H. Riemann, N. V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, and H.-J. Pohl, “Quantum information storage for over 180 s using donor spins in a 28Si “semiconductor vacuum”,” Science 336(6086), 1280–1283 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, V. M. Acosta, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers to photonic crystal cavities in monocrystalline diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033604 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (9)

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanged single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a color center in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Rivoire, S. Buckley, and J. Vučković, “Multiply resonant photonic crystal nanocavities for nonlinear frequency conversion,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22198–22207 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yamada, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Silicon carbide-based photonic crystal nanocavities for ultra-broadband operation from infrared to visible wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201102 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-S. Song, S. Yamada, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Demonstration of two-dimensional photonic crystals based on silicon carbide,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11084–11089 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, A. Majumdar, D. Englund, E. Kim, M. Bajcsy, and J. Vuckovic, “Integrated quantum optical networks based on quantum dots and photonic crystals,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 055025 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Khan, T. Babinec, M. W. McCutcheon, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality-factor silicon nitride nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 421–423 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

Y. Gong and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic crystal cavities in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031107 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466(7307), 730–734 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Loncar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 195–199 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, Z. Lin, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and J. Vucković, “Second harmonic generation in gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities with ultralow continuous wave pump power,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22609–22615 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. O'Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Rivoire, A. Faraon, and J. Vuckovic, “Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 063103 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Ferro, T. Chassagne, A. Leycuras, F. Cauwet, and Y. Monteil, “Strain tailoring in 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial layers grown on Si(100),” Chem. Vapor Depos. 12(8-9), 483–488 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1661 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. N. Rashkeev, W. R. L. Lambrecht, and B. Segall, “Second-harmonic generation in SiC polytypes,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), 9705–9715 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abrosimov, N. V.

M. Steger, K. Saeedi, M. L. W. Thewalt, J. J. L. Morton, H. Riemann, N. V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, and H.-J. Pohl, “Quantum information storage for over 180 s using donor spins in a 28Si “semiconductor vacuum”,” Science 336(6086), 1280–1283 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Achard, J.

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acosta, V. M.

A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, V. M. Acosta, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers to photonic crystal cavities in monocrystalline diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033604 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aharonovich, I.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1661 (2003).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

S. Yamada, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Silicon carbide-based photonic crystal nanocavities for ultra-broadband operation from infrared to visible wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201102 (2011).
[Crossref]

B.-S. Song, S. Yamada, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Demonstration of two-dimensional photonic crystals based on silicon carbide,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11084–11089 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1661 (2003).
[Crossref]

Awschalom, D. D.

A. L. Falk, B. B. Buckley, G. Calusine, W. F. Koehl, V. V. Dobrovitski, A. Politi, C. A. Zorman, P. X.-L. Feng, and D. D. Awschalom, “Polytype control of spin qubits in silicon carbide,” Nat Commun 4, 1819 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babinec, T.

Babinec, T. M.

S.-Y. Lee, M. Widmann, T. Rendler, M. W. Doherty, T. M. Babinec, S. Yang, M. Eyer, P. Siyushev, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Loncar, Z. Bodrog, A. Gali, N. B. Manson, H. Fedder, and J. Wrachtrup, “Readout and control of a single nuclear spin with a metastable electron spin ancilla,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 487–492 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated diamond networks for quantum nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanged single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Loncar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 195–199 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajcsy, M.

A. Faraon, A. Majumdar, D. Englund, E. Kim, M. Bajcsy, and J. Vuckovic, “Integrated quantum optical networks based on quantum dots and photonic crystals,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 055025 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balasubramanian, G.

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barclay, P. E.

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a color center in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bargatin, I.

J.-H. Lee, I. Bargatin, J. Park, K. M. Milaninia, L. S. Theogarajan, R. Sinclair, and R. T. Howe, “Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(4), 042001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

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M. J. Burek, N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, B. J. M. Hausmann, Y. Chu, Q. Quan, A. S. Zibrov, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, and M. Lončar, “Free-standing mechanical and photonic nanostructures in single-crystal diamond,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6084–6089 (2012).
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A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
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E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466(7307), 730–734 (2010).
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M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
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A. Faraon, A. Majumdar, D. Englund, E. Kim, M. Bajcsy, and J. Vuckovic, “Integrated quantum optical networks based on quantum dots and photonic crystals,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 055025 (2011).
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S.-Y. Lee, M. Widmann, T. Rendler, M. W. Doherty, T. M. Babinec, S. Yang, M. Eyer, P. Siyushev, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Loncar, Z. Bodrog, A. Gali, N. B. Manson, H. Fedder, and J. Wrachtrup, “Readout and control of a single nuclear spin with a metastable electron spin ancilla,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 487–492 (2013).
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A. L. Falk, B. B. Buckley, G. Calusine, W. F. Koehl, V. V. Dobrovitski, A. Politi, C. A. Zorman, P. X.-L. Feng, and D. D. Awschalom, “Polytype control of spin qubits in silicon carbide,” Nat Commun 4, 1819 (2013).
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A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, V. M. Acosta, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers to photonic crystal cavities in monocrystalline diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033604 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a color center in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
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A. Faraon, A. Majumdar, D. Englund, E. Kim, M. Bajcsy, and J. Vuckovic, “Integrated quantum optical networks based on quantum dots and photonic crystals,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 055025 (2011).
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Feng, P. X.-L.

A. L. Falk, B. B. Buckley, G. Calusine, W. F. Koehl, V. V. Dobrovitski, A. Politi, C. A. Zorman, P. X.-L. Feng, and D. D. Awschalom, “Polytype control of spin qubits in silicon carbide,” Nat Commun 4, 1819 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. Ferro, T. Chassagne, A. Leycuras, F. Cauwet, and Y. Monteil, “Strain tailoring in 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial layers grown on Si(100),” Chem. Vapor Depos. 12(8-9), 483–488 (2006).
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A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
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Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
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A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a color center in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
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S. Diziain, R. Geiss, M. Zilk, F. Schrempel, E.-B. Kley, A. Tuennermann, and T. Pertsch, “Second harmonic generation in free-standing lithium niobate photonic crystal L3 cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051117 (2013).
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N. V. Trivino, U. Dharanipathy, J.-F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
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I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
[Crossref]

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A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
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Hatami, F.

Hausmann, B. J. M.

S.-Y. Lee, M. Widmann, T. Rendler, M. W. Doherty, T. M. Babinec, S. Yang, M. Eyer, P. Siyushev, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Loncar, Z. Bodrog, A. Gali, N. B. Manson, H. Fedder, and J. Wrachtrup, “Readout and control of a single nuclear spin with a metastable electron spin ancilla,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 487–492 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Burek, N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, B. J. M. Hausmann, Y. Chu, Q. Quan, A. S. Zibrov, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, and M. Lončar, “Free-standing mechanical and photonic nanostructures in single-crystal diamond,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6084–6089 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated diamond networks for quantum nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanged single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
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T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Loncar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 195–199 (2010).
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T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Loncar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 195–199 (2010).
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G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
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N. V. Trivino, U. Dharanipathy, J.-F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
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J.-H. Lee, I. Bargatin, J. Park, K. M. Milaninia, L. S. Theogarajan, R. Sinclair, and R. T. Howe, “Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(4), 042001 (2012).
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A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, V. M. Acosta, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers to photonic crystal cavities in monocrystalline diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033604 (2012).
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Isoya, J.

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
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G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
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G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
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E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466(7307), 730–734 (2010).
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J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanged single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
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M. Khan, T. Babinec, M. W. McCutcheon, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality-factor silicon nitride nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 421–423 (2011).
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T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Loncar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 195–199 (2010).
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P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
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Kim, E.

A. Faraon, A. Majumdar, D. Englund, E. Kim, M. Bajcsy, and J. Vuckovic, “Integrated quantum optical networks based on quantum dots and photonic crystals,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 055025 (2011).
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Kley, E.-B.

S. Diziain, R. Geiss, M. Zilk, F. Schrempel, E.-B. Kley, A. Tuennermann, and T. Pertsch, “Second harmonic generation in free-standing lithium niobate photonic crystal L3 cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051117 (2013).
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A. L. Falk, B. B. Buckley, G. Calusine, W. F. Koehl, V. V. Dobrovitski, A. Politi, C. A. Zorman, P. X.-L. Feng, and D. D. Awschalom, “Polytype control of spin qubits in silicon carbide,” Nat Commun 4, 1819 (2013).
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G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
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M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
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B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated diamond networks for quantum nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
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A. Faraon, A. Majumdar, D. Englund, E. Kim, M. Bajcsy, and J. Vuckovic, “Integrated quantum optical networks based on quantum dots and photonic crystals,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 055025 (2011).
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K. Rivoire, S. Buckley, and J. Vučković, “Multiply resonant photonic crystal nanocavities for nonlinear frequency conversion,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22198–22207 (2011).
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Y. Gong and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic crystal cavities in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031107 (2010).
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J. O'Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 687–695 (2009).
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K. Rivoire, Z. Lin, F. Hatami, W. T. Masselink, and J. Vucković, “Second harmonic generation in gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities with ultralow continuous wave pump power,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22609–22615 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, A. Faraon, and J. Vuckovic, “Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 063103 (2008).
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Widmann, M.

S.-Y. Lee, M. Widmann, T. Rendler, M. W. Doherty, T. M. Babinec, S. Yang, M. Eyer, P. Siyushev, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Loncar, Z. Bodrog, A. Gali, N. B. Manson, H. Fedder, and J. Wrachtrup, “Readout and control of a single nuclear spin with a metastable electron spin ancilla,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 487–492 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wrachtrup, J.

S.-Y. Lee, M. Widmann, T. Rendler, M. W. Doherty, T. M. Babinec, S. Yang, M. Eyer, P. Siyushev, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Loncar, Z. Bodrog, A. Gali, N. B. Manson, H. Fedder, and J. Wrachtrup, “Readout and control of a single nuclear spin with a metastable electron spin ancilla,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 487–492 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
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Xiong, C.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
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C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
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Yacoby, A.

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated diamond networks for quantum nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
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J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanged single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
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B.-S. Song, S. Yamada, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Demonstration of two-dimensional photonic crystals based on silicon carbide,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11084–11089 (2011).
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S. Yamada, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Silicon carbide-based photonic crystal nanocavities for ultra-broadband operation from infrared to visible wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201102 (2011).
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Yang, S.

S.-Y. Lee, M. Widmann, T. Rendler, M. W. Doherty, T. M. Babinec, S. Yang, M. Eyer, P. Siyushev, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Loncar, Z. Bodrog, A. Gali, N. B. Manson, H. Fedder, and J. Wrachtrup, “Readout and control of a single nuclear spin with a metastable electron spin ancilla,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 487–492 (2013).
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Zhang, M.

Zhang, Y.

T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Loncar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 195–199 (2010).
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Zibrov, A. S.

M. J. Burek, N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, B. J. M. Hausmann, Y. Chu, Q. Quan, A. S. Zibrov, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, and M. Lončar, “Free-standing mechanical and photonic nanostructures in single-crystal diamond,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6084–6089 (2012).
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E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466(7307), 730–734 (2010).
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Zilk, M.

S. Diziain, R. Geiss, M. Zilk, F. Schrempel, E.-B. Kley, A. Tuennermann, and T. Pertsch, “Second harmonic generation in free-standing lithium niobate photonic crystal L3 cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051117 (2013).
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Zorman, C. A.

A. L. Falk, B. B. Buckley, G. Calusine, W. F. Koehl, V. V. Dobrovitski, A. Politi, C. A. Zorman, P. X.-L. Feng, and D. D. Awschalom, “Polytype control of spin qubits in silicon carbide,” Nat Commun 4, 1819 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
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S. Diziain, R. Geiss, M. Zilk, F. Schrempel, E.-B. Kley, A. Tuennermann, and T. Pertsch, “Second harmonic generation in free-standing lithium niobate photonic crystal L3 cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051117 (2013).
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S. Yamada, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Silicon carbide-based photonic crystal nanocavities for ultra-broadband operation from infrared to visible wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Rivoire, A. Faraon, and J. Vuckovic, “Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 063103 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Buckley, M. Radulaski, K. Biermann, and J. Vuckovic, “Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211117 (2013).
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N. V. Trivino, U. Dharanipathy, J.-F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
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M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
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Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1661 (2003).
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P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
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Y. Gong and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic crystal cavities in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031107 (2010).
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Chem. Vapor Depos. (1)

G. Ferro, T. Chassagne, A. Leycuras, F. Cauwet, and Y. Monteil, “Strain tailoring in 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial layers grown on Si(100),” Chem. Vapor Depos. 12(8-9), 483–488 (2006).
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J.-H. Lee, I. Bargatin, J. Park, K. M. Milaninia, L. S. Theogarajan, R. Sinclair, and R. T. Howe, “Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(4), 042001 (2012).
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Nano Lett. (2)

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Integrated diamond networks for quantum nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Burek, N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, B. J. M. Hausmann, Y. Chu, Q. Quan, A. S. Zibrov, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, and M. Lončar, “Free-standing mechanical and photonic nanostructures in single-crystal diamond,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6084–6089 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

A. L. Falk, B. B. Buckley, G. Calusine, W. F. Koehl, V. V. Dobrovitski, A. Politi, C. A. Zorman, P. X.-L. Feng, and D. D. Awschalom, “Polytype control of spin qubits in silicon carbide,” Nat Commun 4, 1819 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

S.-Y. Lee, M. Widmann, T. Rendler, M. W. Doherty, T. M. Babinec, S. Yang, M. Eyer, P. Siyushev, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Loncar, Z. Bodrog, A. Gali, N. B. Manson, H. Fedder, and J. Wrachtrup, “Readout and control of a single nuclear spin with a metastable electron spin ancilla,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 487–492 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Babinec, B. J. M. Hausmann, M. Khan, Y. Zhang, J. R. Maze, P. R. Hemmer, and M. Loncar, “A diamond nanowire single-photon source,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 195–199 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. O'Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vuckovic, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanged single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a color center in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 301–305 (2011).
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Nature (2)

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466(7307), 730–734 (2010).
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M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
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New J. Phys. (1)

A. Faraon, A. Majumdar, D. Englund, E. Kim, M. Bajcsy, and J. Vuckovic, “Integrated quantum optical networks based on quantum dots and photonic crystals,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 055025 (2011).
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Opt. Express (5)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, V. M. Acosta, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers to photonic crystal cavities in monocrystalline diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033604 (2012).
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I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
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Science (2)

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
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M. Steger, K. Saeedi, M. L. W. Thewalt, J. J. L. Morton, H. Riemann, N. V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, and H.-J. Pohl, “Quantum information storage for over 180 s using donor spins in a 28Si “semiconductor vacuum”,” Science 336(6086), 1280–1283 (2012).
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S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, N. Stavrias, T. Umeda, and T. Ohshima, “Efficiently engineered room temperature single photons in silicon carbide,” arXiv:1210:5047.

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G. L. Harris, Properties of Silicon Carbide (INSPEC, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The process flow to generate suspended photonic crystal structures in 3C-SiC films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photonic crystal cavities fabricated from 3C-SiC films on a silicon substrate using the process flow in Fig. 1. (a) Photonic crystal waveguides. (b) Planar L3 photonic crystal cavity. (c) 1D nanobeam photonic crystal cavity. (d) Crossbeam photonic crystal cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM of fabricated 3C-SiC shifted L3 cavity from (a) orthogonal incidence, and (b) 40-degree tilt. (c) FDTD simulation of the dominant (Ey) electric field component of the fundamental mode, with the outlines of the holes indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross-polarized reflectivity setup scheme, (b) characterized fundamental mode resonance at telecommunications wavelength, blue dots represent data points, red line shows fit to a Fano-resonance with quality factor of Q ~800, (c) resonance intensity dependence on polarization angle of incoming light, blue dots represent data points, red line shows fit to sin(4θ), where θ is half-wave plate rotation angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical analysis of the wavelemgths and the quality factors of SiC L3 photonic crystal cavities as a function of the hole radius (r) shown in green triangles and slab thickness (t) shown in yellow squares. The optimal parameters (t = 210 nm, r = 0.30 a) are represented by the red dot and the corresponding experimental result is indicated by the black star.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Fundamental mode resonance scaling with lattice constant a, shown with Fano-resonance fit with quality factors in range 630 to 920; all cavities are shifted L3 cavities made in 210 nm thick slab of 3C-SiC. (b) Experimentally measured linear dependence of resonant wavelength on lattice constant. Red circles are measured data points and black line is a linear fit to the data.

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