Abstract

Time-series of marine inherent optical properties (IOPs) from ocean color satellite instruments provide valuable data records for studying long-term time changes in ocean ecosystems. Semi-analytical algorithms (SAAs) provide a common method for estimating IOPs from radiometric measurements of the marine light field. Most SAAs assign constant spectral values for seawater absorption and backscattering, assume spectral shape functions of the remaining constituent absorption and scattering components (e.g., phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and colored dissolved organic matter), and retrieve the magnitudes of each remaining constituent required to match the spectral distribution of measured radiances. Here, we explore the use of temperature- and salinity-dependent values for seawater backscattering in lieu of the constant spectrum currently employed by most SAAs. Our results suggest that use of temperature- and salinity-dependent seawater spectra elevate the SAA-derived particle backscattering, reduce the non-algal particles plus colored dissolved organic matter absorption, and leave the derived absorption by phytoplankton unchanged.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

2011 (1)

M. Szeto, P. J. Werdell, T. S. Moore, and J. W. Campbell, “Are the world’s oceans opticall different?” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H04 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Z.P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115, C09012, doi:1029/2009JC005865 (2010).

S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Estimation of near-infrared water-leaving reflectance for satellite ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express18(7), 7521–7527 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: effect of salinity,” Opt. Express17(7), 5698–5710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Henson, J. P. Dunne, and J. L. Sarmiento, “Decadal variability in North Atlantic phytoplankton blooms,” J. Geophys. Res.114(C4), C04013 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci.1(1), 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4(6), 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Nelson, “Interdependence and interdependencies among global ocean color properties: Reassessing the bio-optical assumption,” J. Geophys. Res.110(C7), C07011 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christiansen, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr.51(1-3), 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. W. Reynolds, N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, “An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate,” J. Clim.15(13), 1609–1625 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z.-P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt.41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations in light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1968 (1)

A. Morel, “Note au sujet des constantes de diffusion de la lumiere pour l’eau et l’eau de mer optiquement pures,” Cah. Oceanogr.20, 157–162 (1968).

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations in light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z.-P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt.52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, R.

Z.P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115, C09012, doi:1029/2009JC005865 (2010).

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations in light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z.-P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt.52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Estimation of near-infrared water-leaving reflectance for satellite ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express18(7), 7521–7527 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200-800 nm),” Appl. Opt.20(2), 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, A. H.

Behrenfeld, M. J.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Bontempi, P. S.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

Boss, E. S.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brando, V. E.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations in light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Buiteveld, H.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

M. Szeto, P. J. Werdell, T. S. Moore, and J. W. Campbell, “Are the world’s oceans opticall different?” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H04 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Christiansen, J. R.

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christiansen, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr.51(1-3), 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4(6), 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations in light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implication for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

d’Andon, O. H. F.

Davis, C. O.

Devred, E.

Dierssen, H. M.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Donaghay, P. L.

Doney, S. C.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Donze, M.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dowell, M.

Dunne, J. P.

S. A. Henson, J. P. Dunne, and J. L. Sarmiento, “Decadal variability in North Atlantic phytoplankton blooms,” J. Geophys. Res.114(C4), C04013 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Eplee, R. E.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z.-P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt.52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
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D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z.-P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt.52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
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S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Estimation of near-infrared water-leaving reflectance for satellite ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express18(7), 7521–7527 (2010).
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M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4(6), 1041–1058 (2007).
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Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt.33(3), 443–452 (1994).
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H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
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Hakvoort, J. H. M.

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Henson, S. A.

S. A. Henson, J. P. Dunne, and J. L. Sarmiento, “Decadal variability in North Atlantic phytoplankton blooms,” J. Geophys. Res.114(C4), C04013 (2009), doi:.
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Hu, C.

Z.P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115, C09012, doi:1029/2009JC005865 (2010).

Hu, L.

Huot, Y.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4(6), 1041–1058 (2007).
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Jamet, C.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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Kuring, N. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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Lavender, S. J.

Lee, Z.P.

Z.P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115, C09012, doi:1029/2009JC005865 (2010).

Lee, Z.-P.

Lewis, M.

Z.P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115, C09012, doi:1029/2009JC005865 (2010).

Li, Y.

Z.P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115, C09012, doi:1029/2009JC005865 (2010).

Loisel, H.

Lubac, B.

Z.P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115, C09012, doi:1029/2009JC005865 (2010).

Mangin, A.

Maritorena, S.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z.-P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt.52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
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D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Nelson, “Interdependence and interdependencies among global ocean color properties: Reassessing the bio-optical assumption,” J. Geophys. Res.110(C7), C07011 (2005), doi:.
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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McClain, C. R.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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Mélin, F.

Mengelt, C.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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Moore, T. S.

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Nelson, N.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Nelson, “Interdependence and interdependencies among global ocean color properties: Reassessing the bio-optical assumption,” J. Geophys. Res.110(C7), C07011 (2005), doi:.
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Nelson, N. B.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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Patt, F. S.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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Peacock, T. G.

Pope, R. M.

Rayner, N. A.

R. W. Reynolds, N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, “An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate,” J. Clim.15(13), 1609–1625 (2002).
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Reynolds, R. W.

R. W. Reynolds, N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, “An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate,” J. Clim.15(13), 1609–1625 (2002).
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Rhoades, B.

Robinson, W. D.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ruddick, K. G.

Sarmiento, J. L.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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S. A. Henson, J. P. Dunne, and J. L. Sarmiento, “Decadal variability in North Atlantic phytoplankton blooms,” J. Geophys. Res.114(C4), C04013 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Shang, S.

Z.P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.115, C09012, doi:1029/2009JC005865 (2010).

Shea, D.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
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Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Nelson, “Interdependence and interdependencies among global ocean color properties: Reassessing the bio-optical assumption,” J. Geophys. Res.110(C7), C07011 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Signorini, S. R.

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christiansen, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr.51(1-3), 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
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R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200-800 nm),” Appl. Opt.20(2), 177–184 (1981).
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Smith, T. M.

R. W. Reynolds, N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, “An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate,” J. Clim.15(13), 1609–1625 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, T. J.

Stokes, D. C.

R. W. Reynolds, N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, “An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate,” J. Clim.15(13), 1609–1625 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4(6), 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

Swan, C. M.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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Szeto, M.

M. Szeto, P. J. Werdell, T. S. Moore, and J. W. Campbell, “Are the world’s oceans opticall different?” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H04 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

Wang, M.

Wang, W.

R. W. Reynolds, N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, “An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate,” J. Clim.15(13), 1609–1625 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z.-P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt.52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Szeto, P. J. Werdell, T. S. Moore, and J. W. Campbell, “Are the world’s oceans opticall different?” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H04 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Estimation of near-infrared water-leaving reflectance for satellite ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express18(7), 7521–7527 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Westberry, T. K.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Westberry, E. Boss, and Z.-P. Lee, “Influence of Raman scattering on ocean color inversion models,” Appl. Opt.52(22), 5552–5561 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilding, J. G.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessment of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ.135, 77–91 (2013).
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Yoder, J. A.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratios of bbw(λ,T,S) to bbw(λ,20,38.4) for 443 nm (left panel) and 547 nm (right panel) for the temperature and salinity ranges −2 ≤ T ≤ 40°C and 0 ≤ S ≤ 40 g kg−1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modeled (GIOP) versus in situ (NOMAD) IOPs using bbwc(λ) (A-C) and bbwTS(λ) (D-F). The solid line shows a 1:1 relationship.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency of ratios of IOPs derived from GIOP-TS and GIOP-C run on NOMAD Rrs(λ). The solid and dotted lines show unity and the distribution median. Bin sizes are 0.01.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratios of IOPs from GIOP-TS and GIOP-C run on NOMAD Rrs(λ) as a function of their corresponding in situ Ca. We considered ten equally spaced (log10) bins for the range 0.05 ≤ Ca ≤ 30 mg m−3. The black circles show the median and are placed at the bin center. The solid vertical lines show the standard deviations for each Ca bin.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MODISA Level-3 monthly IOPs for May 2010. Panels (A) to (C) show aph(443) from GIOP-C, aph(443) from GIOP-TS, and the ratio of the two (GIOP-TS / GIOP-C), respectively. Panels (D) to (F) show adg(443) from GIOP-C, adg(443) from GIOP-TS, and the ratio of the two (GIOP-TS / GIOP-C), respectively. Panels (G) to (I) show bbp(443) from GIOP-C, bbp(443) from GIOP-TS, and the ratio of the two (GIOP-TS / GIOP-C), respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OISST and WOA-SSS long-term climatologies for May, less 20°C (left) and 38.4 g kg−1 (right), respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

MODISA Level-3 monthly time-series for 2010 in the North Atlantic and South Pacific Gyre. Black and red circles indicate GIOP-C and GIOP-TS, respectively. Blue circles how the ratio of the two (GIOP-TS / GIOP-C).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Frequency of ratios of IOPs and u(443) from Eq. (2) derived from GIOP-TS and GIOP-C run on NOMAD Rrs(λ). The solid and dotted lines show unity and the distribution median, respectively. Bin sizes are 0.01.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ordinary linear regression statistics for modeled (GIOP) versus in situ (NOMAD) IOPs at MODISA visible wavelengths using bbwc(λ) and bbwTS(λ)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r rs (λ, 0 )= R rs (λ) 0.52+1.7 R rs (λ) .
r rs (λ, 0 )= g 1 u(λ)+ g 2 u (λ) 2 u(λ)= b b (λ) a(λ)+ b b (λ) .
a(l)= a w (l)+ M ph a * ph (l)+ M dg a * dg (l).
b b (l)= b bw (l)+ M bp b * bp (l).

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