Abstract

We experimentally investigate the performance of burst-mode EDFA in an optical packet and circuit integrated system. In such networks, packets and light paths can be dynamically assigned to the same fibers, resulting in gain transients in EDFAs throughout the network that can limit network performance. Here, we compare the performance of a ‘burst-mode’ EDFA (BM-EDFA), employing transient suppression techniques and optical feedback, with conventional EDFAs, and those using automatic gain control and previous BM-EDFA implementations. We first measure gain transients and other impairments in a simplified set-up before making frame error-rate measurements in a network demonstration.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Wada, “Photonic technologies for new generation network,” Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2010 Asia, pp.463–464 (Shanghai, China, December, 2010).
  2. H. Harai, “Optical packet and circuit integrated networks,” in 17th International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (Brest, France, April, 2013), pp.76–81.
  3. Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, and L. Zhang, “Analytical formula for the transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Opt.38(9), 1682–1685 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Neto, A. Klingler, C. Reis, J. P. Girao, A. Teixeira, and P. S. Andre, “EDFA transient assessment for bursty traffic,” in 3rd ICTON Mediterranean Winter Conference MW2009, (Angers, France, December, 2009), no.FrP.6.
  5. C. Tian and S. Kinoshita, “Analysis and control of transient dynamics of EDFA pumped by 1480- and 980-nm lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(8), 1728–1734 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Nagaeda, Y. Horiuchi, Y. Tanaka, N. Shiga, Y. Fukada, K. Suzuki, N. Yoshimoto, and M. Tsubokawa, “Burst-mode optical amplifier for signals with various burst lengths from 500 ns to 50 us,” in Proceedings of ECOC (Brussels, Belgium, September, 2008), no.P.1.13.
  7. N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC (Los Angeles, U.S.A., March, 2011), no.OMH3.
  8. K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, K. Tanizawa, S. Namiki, N. Sato, K. Ota, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Suppression of transients in an EDFA chain using feed-forward pump control and a high-speed VOA,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2012 (Los Angeles, U.S.A., March, 2012), no.OW4D.
  9. M. Zirngibl, “Gain control in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop,” Electron. Lett.27(7), 560–561 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Zannin and K. Ennser, “Impact of burst size and inter-arrival time in all-optical gain clamping amplification for optical burst switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(6), 855–859 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, and N. Wada, “Impairment in amplification of optical packets regarding the gain transient and nonlinear effect depending on peak power of NRZ payload,” in Proceedings of OECC2007 (Shanghai, China, October, 2007), no.PDP2–4.
  12. Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, E. Kong, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Guidelines for amplification of optical packets in WDM environment regarding impact of transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Comput. Netw.52(10), 2087–2093 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Investigating the limits of optical packet transmission through cascade transient-suppressed EDFAs without regeneration or active gain control,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2010 (San Diego, U.S.A., March, 2010), no.OThI6.
  14. B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Investigating the performance of a transient-suppressed EDFA in optical packet and burst-switched networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun.E94-B(7), 1853–1859 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Performance of an advanced transient suppressed EDFA in diverse dynamic optical network scenarios,” in Proceedings of ECOC2009 (Vienna, Austria, September, 2009), no.Tu 5.3.2.
  16. B. J. Puttnam, B. C. Thomsen, A. Lopez, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental investigation of optically gain-clamped EDFAs in dynamic optical-burst-switched network,” J. Opt. Netw.7(2), 151–159 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1027–1036 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Furukawa, H. Harai, T. Miyazawa, S. Shinada, W. Kawasaki, and N. Wada, “Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed,” Opt. Express19(26), B242–B250 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. S. Luís, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, and S. Shinada, “Optical link planning guidelines for a hybrid packet and circuit integrated network,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2013 (Los Angeles, U.S.A., March, 2013), no.JTh2A.

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Investigating the performance of a transient-suppressed EDFA in optical packet and burst-switched networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun.E94-B(7), 1853–1859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Furukawa, H. Harai, T. Miyazawa, S. Shinada, W. Kawasaki, and N. Wada, “Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed,” Opt. Express19(26), B242–B250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

B. J. Puttnam, B. C. Thomsen, A. Lopez, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental investigation of optically gain-clamped EDFAs in dynamic optical-burst-switched network,” J. Opt. Netw.7(2), 151–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, E. Kong, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Guidelines for amplification of optical packets in WDM environment regarding impact of transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Comput. Netw.52(10), 2087–2093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1027–1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Zirngibl, “Gain control in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop,” Electron. Lett.27(7), 560–561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. A.

G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1027–1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Awaji, Y.

B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Investigating the performance of a transient-suppressed EDFA in optical packet and burst-switched networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun.E94-B(7), 1853–1859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, E. Kong, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Guidelines for amplification of optical packets in WDM environment regarding impact of transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Comput. Netw.52(10), 2087–2093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Chan, P.

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, E. Kong, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Guidelines for amplification of optical packets in WDM environment regarding impact of transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Comput. Netw.52(10), 2087–2093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ennser, K.

Furukawa, H.

H. Furukawa, H. Harai, T. Miyazawa, S. Shinada, W. Kawasaki, and N. Wada, “Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed,” Opt. Express19(26), B242–B250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, E. Kong, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Guidelines for amplification of optical packets in WDM environment regarding impact of transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Comput. Netw.52(10), 2087–2093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harai, H.

H. Furukawa, H. Harai, T. Miyazawa, S. Shinada, W. Kawasaki, and N. Wada, “Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed,” Opt. Express19(26), B242–B250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Harai, “Optical packet and circuit integrated networks,” in 17th International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (Brest, France, April, 2013), pp.76–81.

Jackel, J. L.

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1027–1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, W.

Kinoshita, S.

Kong, E.

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, E. Kong, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Guidelines for amplification of optical packets in WDM environment regarding impact of transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Comput. Netw.52(10), 2087–2093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, A.

Luo, G.

G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Man, R.

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, E. Kong, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Guidelines for amplification of optical packets in WDM environment regarding impact of transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Comput. Netw.52(10), 2087–2093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, T.

Puttnam, B. J.

B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Investigating the performance of a transient-suppressed EDFA in optical packet and burst-switched networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun.E94-B(7), 1853–1859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, B. C. Thomsen, A. Lopez, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental investigation of optically gain-clamped EDFAs in dynamic optical-burst-switched network,” J. Opt. Netw.7(2), 151–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richards, D. H.

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1027–1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shinada, S.

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, and L. Zhang, “Analytical formula for the transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Opt.38(9), 1682–1685 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, and L. Zhang, “Analytical formula for the transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Opt.38(9), 1682–1685 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B. C.

Tian, C.

Wada, N.

H. Furukawa, H. Harai, T. Miyazawa, S. Shinada, W. Kawasaki, and N. Wada, “Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed,” Opt. Express19(26), B242–B250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Investigating the performance of a transient-suppressed EDFA in optical packet and burst-switched networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun.E94-B(7), 1853–1859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, E. Kong, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Guidelines for amplification of optical packets in WDM environment regarding impact of transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Comput. Netw.52(10), 2087–2093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, C.

G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zannin, M.

Zhang, L.

Zirngibl, M.

M. Zirngibl, “Gain control in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop,” Electron. Lett.27(7), 560–561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J.

G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Netw. (1)

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, E. Kong, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Guidelines for amplification of optical packets in WDM environment regarding impact of transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Comput. Netw.52(10), 2087–2093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Zirngibl, “Gain control in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop,” Electron. Lett.27(7), 560–561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. H. Richards, J. L. Jackel, and M. A. Ali, “A theoretical investigation of dynamic all-optical automatic gain control in multichannel EDFA’s and EDFA cascades,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(4), 1027–1036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Luo, J. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and M. A. Ali, “Performance degradation of all-optical gain-clamped EDFA’s due to relaxation-oscillations and spectral-hole burning in amplified WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(10), 1346–1348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Investigating the performance of a transient-suppressed EDFA in optical packet and burst-switched networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun.E94-B(7), 1853–1859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (10)

B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Performance of an advanced transient suppressed EDFA in diverse dynamic optical network scenarios,” in Proceedings of ECOC2009 (Vienna, Austria, September, 2009), no.Tu 5.3.2.

R. S. Luís, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, and S. Shinada, “Optical link planning guidelines for a hybrid packet and circuit integrated network,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2013 (Los Angeles, U.S.A., March, 2013), no.JTh2A.

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, and N. Wada, “Impairment in amplification of optical packets regarding the gain transient and nonlinear effect depending on peak power of NRZ payload,” in Proceedings of OECC2007 (Shanghai, China, October, 2007), no.PDP2–4.

B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, and N. Wada, “Investigating the limits of optical packet transmission through cascade transient-suppressed EDFAs without regeneration or active gain control,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2010 (San Diego, U.S.A., March, 2010), no.OThI6.

N. Wada, “Photonic technologies for new generation network,” Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2010 Asia, pp.463–464 (Shanghai, China, December, 2010).

H. Harai, “Optical packet and circuit integrated networks,” in 17th International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (Brest, France, April, 2013), pp.76–81.

B. Neto, A. Klingler, C. Reis, J. P. Girao, A. Teixeira, and P. S. Andre, “EDFA transient assessment for bursty traffic,” in 3rd ICTON Mediterranean Winter Conference MW2009, (Angers, France, December, 2009), no.FrP.6.

H. Nagaeda, Y. Horiuchi, Y. Tanaka, N. Shiga, Y. Fukada, K. Suzuki, N. Yoshimoto, and M. Tsubokawa, “Burst-mode optical amplifier for signals with various burst lengths from 500 ns to 50 us,” in Proceedings of ECOC (Brussels, Belgium, September, 2008), no.P.1.13.

N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC (Los Angeles, U.S.A., March, 2011), no.OMH3.

K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, K. Tanizawa, S. Namiki, N. Sato, K. Ota, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Suppression of transients in an EDFA chain using feed-forward pump control and a high-speed VOA,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2012 (Los Angeles, U.S.A., March, 2012), no.OW4D.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for gain transient and relaxation oscillation measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Small signal gain of the each EDFA as a function of loop attenuation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Q-factor under the each condition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gain transients and eye diagrams (packet length = 1.64us (746ns x 2), packet rate = 1%).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relaxation oscillation of survived channel when dropped channel frequency is 1 kHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gain fluctuations of the surviving continuous channel.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for flame error rate measurement of the optical packet signals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wave forms of the transferred 100Gbps optical packet signals.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Gain fluctuation of output wavelength channel spectrum for number of received wavelength channel of light-path at 1, 4, 10, 14 with number of received wavelength channel of packet at 10.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Gain fluctuation of output wavelength channel spectrum for number of received wavelength channel of light-path at 1, 4, 10, 14 with number of received wavelength channel of packet at 10.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

FER of packet signal on high and low density.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

FER of light-path signal.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Settings of Packet Frames of the Router Tester

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G'(0)= [ G()G(0) ] τ 0 [ 1+ j P OUT ( λ j ) P IS ( λ j ) ].
P IS ( λ j )= hvS [ σ a ( λ j )+ σ e ( λ j ) ] Γ j τ 0 .
G( λ k )=exp[ α k L+ P IS ( λ f ) P IS ( λ k ) ( lnβ+ α f L ) ].

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