Abstract

Holmium doped scandium silicate (Ho:SSO) bulk crystal grown by Czochralski technique is reported. The absorption cross section of 4.8 × 10−21 cm2 at pumping wavelength 1940 nm and emission cross section of 5.56 × 10−21 cm2 at lasing wavelength 2112 nm were calculated, respectively. Lifetime was measured to be 1.51 ms at 300 K and 0.92 ms at 77 K. Continuous-wave laser was operated by using a diode-pumped Tm:YAP laser as pump source with central wavelength of 1940 nm. Output power of 385 mW at 2112 nm was primarily obtained.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

J. L. Yang, Y. L. Tang, and J. Q. Xu, “Development and applications of gain-switched fiber lasers,” Photonics Res.1(1), 52–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2009

M. Schellhorn, S. Ngcobo, and C. Bollig, “High-power diode-pumped Tm:YLF slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 195–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chin. Phys. B18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

2002

M. Schellhorn and A. Hirth, “Modeling of intracavity-pumped quasi-three- level lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(11), 1455–1464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Gołąb, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Świrkowicz, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Spectroscopy of YVO4:Ho3+ crystals,” Appl. Phys. B74(3), 237–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

1996

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(9), 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

1989

1968

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo lons, I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” Chem. Phys.49(10), 4424–4444 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Betterton, J. G.

Bollig, C.

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo lons, I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” Chem. Phys.49(10), 4424–4444 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Collett, O. J.

Dominiak-Dzik, G.

S. Gołąb, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Świrkowicz, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Spectroscopy of YVO4:Ho3+ crystals,” Appl. Phys. B74(3), 237–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Q.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chin. Phys. B18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

Y. J. Shen, B. Q. Yao, X. M. Duan, G. L. Zhu, W. Wang, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “103 W in-band dual-end-pumped Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3558–3560 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chin. Phys. B18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Esser, M. J. D.

Esterowitz, L.

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo lons, I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” Chem. Phys.49(10), 4424–4444 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Golab, S.

S. Gołąb, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Świrkowicz, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Spectroscopy of YVO4:Ho3+ crystals,” Appl. Phys. B74(3), 237–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gorton, E. K.

Gower, M. C.

Guo, J.

Hanna, D. C.

Hayward, R. A.

He, G. Y.

He, W. J.

Hemmati, H.

Hirth, A.

M. Schellhorn and A. Hirth, “Modeling of intracavity-pumped quasi-three- level lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(11), 1455–1464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, C.

Jiao, Z. X.

Ju, Y. L.

Koen, W.

Lukasiewicz, T.

S. Gołąb, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Świrkowicz, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Spectroscopy of YVO4:Ho3+ crystals,” Appl. Phys. B74(3), 237–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. I.

Ngcobo, S.

M. Schellhorn, S. Ngcobo, and C. Bollig, “High-power diode-pumped Tm:YLF slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 195–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Preussler, D. R.

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo lons, I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” Chem. Phys.49(10), 4424–4444 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rustad, G.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(9), 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

S. Gołąb, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Świrkowicz, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Spectroscopy of YVO4:Ho3+ crystals,” Appl. Phys. B74(3), 237–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schellhorn, M.

M. Schellhorn, S. Ngcobo, and C. Bollig, “High-power diode-pumped Tm:YLF slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 195–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schellhorn and A. Hirth, “Modeling of intracavity-pumped quasi-three- level lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(11), 1455–1464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. J.

Shepherd, D. P.

So, S.

Solarz, P.

S. Gołąb, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Świrkowicz, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Spectroscopy of YVO4:Ho3+ crystals,” Appl. Phys. B74(3), 237–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stenersen, K.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(9), 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stoneman, R. C.

Strauss, H. J.

Swirkowicz, M.

S. Gołąb, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Świrkowicz, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Spectroscopy of YVO4:Ho3+ crystals,” Appl. Phys. B74(3), 237–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. L.

J. L. Yang, Y. L. Tang, and J. Q. Xu, “Development and applications of gain-switched fiber lasers,” Photonics Res.1(1), 52–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Terry, J. A. C.

Wang, B.

Wang, T. H.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chin. Phys. B18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Wang, Y. Z.

Xu, J. Q.

J. L. Yang, Y. L. Tang, and J. Q. Xu, “Development and applications of gain-switched fiber lasers,” Photonics Res.1(1), 52–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. L.

J. L. Yang, Y. L. Tang, and J. Q. Xu, “Development and applications of gain-switched fiber lasers,” Photonics Res.1(1), 52–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. T.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chin. Phys. B18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B. Q.

Zhao, G. J.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chin. Phys. B18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L. L.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chin. Phys. B18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G. L.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Schellhorn, S. Ngcobo, and C. Bollig, “High-power diode-pumped Tm:YLF slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 195–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gołąb, P. Solarz, G. Dominiak-Dzik, T. Łukasiewicz, M. Świrkowicz, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Spectroscopy of YVO4:Ho3+ crystals,” Appl. Phys. B74(3), 237–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo lons, I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” Chem. Phys.49(10), 4424–4444 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chin. Phys. B18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Schellhorn and A. Hirth, “Modeling of intracavity-pumped quasi-three- level lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(11), 1455–1464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(9), 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photonics Res.

J. L. Yang, Y. L. Tang, and J. Q. Xu, “Development and applications of gain-switched fiber lasers,” Photonics Res.1(1), 52–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Xu, L. H. Zheng, K. J. Yang, T. Dekorsy, Q. G. Wang, X. D. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Growth and efficient tunable laser operation of Tm:Sc2SiO5 crystal,” in Lasers, Sources, and Related Photonic Devices, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2012), paper IW3D.1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room-temperature absorption and emission spectrum of Ho:SSO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lifetime of Ho3+ in Sc2SiO5 crystal host measured at 77K and 300K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room-temperature absorption and emission cross section of Ho:SSO.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of room-temperature Ho:SSO laser end-pumped by a Tm:YAP laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output laser spectrum of Ho:SSO laser.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Reduced matrix elements of Ho3+ in different crystal hosts.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ a b s ( λ ) = α ( λ ) N H o
σ em (λ)= 1 8π n 2 c 1 τ rad λ 5 I(λ) λI(λ)dλ
f exp = m e c 2 π e 2 λ 2 ¯ N 0 α( λ ) dλ
S q mea (J J )= 3hc(2J+1) 8 π 3 e 2 λ q ¯ 9 n q ( n q 2 +2) 2 J J σ q abs (λ)dλ
f c a l e d = 8 π 2 m e c 3 h λ ¯ ( 2 J + 1 ) × 1 n [ ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 9 ] S J J
S J J = t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t ( 4 f N [ S L ] J U ( t ) 4 f N [ S L ] J ) 2
A(J; J )= 64 π 4 e 2 3h(2J+1) λ m 3 n ( n 2 +2) 2 9 S(J; J )
τ rad = 1 A(J; J )

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