Abstract

We propose a dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber at microwave frequencies. Using a planar metamaterial, which consists of periodic metallic donut-shape meta-atoms at the front separated from the metallic plane at the back by a dielectric layer, we demonstrate the multi-plasmonic high-frequency perfect absorptions induced by the third-harmonic as well as the fundamental magnetic resonances. The origin of the induced multi-plasmonic perfect absorption was elucidated. It was also found that the perfect absorptions at dual peaks are persistent with varying polarization.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. L. W. Li, Y. N. Li, T. S. Yeo, J. R. Mosig, and O. J. F. Martin, “A broadband and high-gain metamaterials microstrip antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(16), 164101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. L. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

D. Cheng, H. Chen, N. Zhang, J. Xie, and L. Deng, “Numerical study of a dualband negative index material with polarization independence in the middle infrared regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B30(1), 224 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Tuong, J. W. Park, V. D. Lam, W. H. Jang, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. P. Lee, “Dielectric and Ohmic losses in perfectly absorbing metamaterials,” Opt. Commun.295, 17–20 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

F. B. P. Niesler, J. K. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Ramahi, T. S. Almoneef, M. Alshareef, and M. S. Boybay, “Metamaterial particles for electromagnetic energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(17), 173903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chiam, R. J. Singh, W. L. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Li, Y. N. Li, T. S. Yeo, J. R. Mosig, and O. J. F. Martin, “A broadband and high-gain metamaterials microstrip antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(16), 164101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. L. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Tung, V. T. T. Thuy, J. W. Park, J. Y. Rhee, and Y. P. Lee, “Left-handed transmission in a simple cut-wire pair structure,” J. Appl. Phys.107(2), 023530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B80(3), 035104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2003

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simul-taneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4184 (2000).

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Almoneef, T. S.

O. M. Ramahi, T. S. Almoneef, M. Alshareef, and M. S. Boybay, “Metamaterial particles for electromagnetic energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(17), 173903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alshareef, M.

O. M. Ramahi, T. S. Almoneef, M. Alshareef, and M. S. Boybay, “Metamaterial particles for electromagnetic energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(17), 173903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettiol, A. A.

S. Y. Chiam, R. J. Singh, W. L. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boybay, M. S.

O. M. Ramahi, T. S. Almoneef, M. Alshareef, and M. S. Boybay, “Metamaterial particles for electromagnetic energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(17), 173903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Cheng, D.

Chiam, S. Y.

S. Y. Chiam, R. J. Singh, W. L. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.

Dolling, G.

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischbach, S.

F. B. P. Niesler, J. K. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gansel, J. K.

F. B. P. Niesler, J. K. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, W. H.

P. V. Tuong, J. W. Park, V. D. Lam, W. H. Jang, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. P. Lee, “Dielectric and Ohmic losses in perfectly absorbing metamaterials,” Opt. Commun.295, 17–20 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lam, V. D.

P. V. Tuong, J. W. Park, V. D. Lam, W. H. Jang, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. P. Lee, “Dielectric and Ohmic losses in perfectly absorbing metamaterials,” Opt. Commun.295, 17–20 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. P.

P. V. Tuong, J. W. Park, V. D. Lam, W. H. Jang, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. P. Lee, “Dielectric and Ohmic losses in perfectly absorbing metamaterials,” Opt. Commun.295, 17–20 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Tung, V. T. T. Thuy, J. W. Park, J. Y. Rhee, and Y. P. Lee, “Left-handed transmission in a simple cut-wire pair structure,” J. Appl. Phys.107(2), 023530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. W.

L. W. Li, Y. N. Li, T. S. Yeo, J. R. Mosig, and O. J. F. Martin, “A broadband and high-gain metamaterials microstrip antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(16), 164101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. N.

L. W. Li, Y. N. Li, T. S. Yeo, J. R. Mosig, and O. J. F. Martin, “A broadband and high-gain metamaterials microstrip antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(16), 164101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

L. W. Li, Y. N. Li, T. S. Yeo, J. R. Mosig, and O. J. F. Martin, “A broadband and high-gain metamaterials microstrip antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(16), 164101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosig, J. R.

L. W. Li, Y. N. Li, T. S. Yeo, J. R. Mosig, and O. J. F. Martin, “A broadband and high-gain metamaterials microstrip antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(16), 164101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simul-taneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4184 (2000).

Niesler, F. B. P.

F. B. P. Niesler, J. K. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nikitov, S. A.

P. V. Tuong, J. W. Park, V. D. Lam, W. H. Jang, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. P. Lee, “Dielectric and Ohmic losses in perfectly absorbing metamaterials,” Opt. Commun.295, 17–20 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simul-taneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4184 (2000).

Park, J. W.

P. V. Tuong, J. W. Park, V. D. Lam, W. H. Jang, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. P. Lee, “Dielectric and Ohmic losses in perfectly absorbing metamaterials,” Opt. Commun.295, 17–20 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Tung, V. T. T. Thuy, J. W. Park, J. Y. Rhee, and Y. P. Lee, “Left-handed transmission in a simple cut-wire pair structure,” J. Appl. Phys.107(2), 023530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paspalakis, E.

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B80(3), 035104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

Plum, E.

Ramahi, O. M.

O. M. Ramahi, T. S. Almoneef, M. Alshareef, and M. S. Boybay, “Metamaterial particles for electromagnetic energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(17), 173903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J. Y.

N. T. Tung, V. T. T. Thuy, J. W. Park, J. Y. Rhee, and Y. P. Lee, “Left-handed transmission in a simple cut-wire pair structure,” J. Appl. Phys.107(2), 023530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simul-taneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4184 (2000).

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R. J.

R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. L. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chiam, R. J. Singh, W. L. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simul-taneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4184 (2000).

Soukoulis, C. M.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thuy, V. T. T.

N. T. Tung, V. T. T. Thuy, J. W. Park, J. Y. Rhee, and Y. P. Lee, “Left-handed transmission in a simple cut-wire pair structure,” J. Appl. Phys.107(2), 023530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tung, N. T.

N. T. Tung, V. T. T. Thuy, J. W. Park, J. Y. Rhee, and Y. P. Lee, “Left-handed transmission in a simple cut-wire pair structure,” J. Appl. Phys.107(2), 023530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tuong, P. V.

P. V. Tuong, J. W. Park, V. D. Lam, W. H. Jang, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. P. Lee, “Dielectric and Ohmic losses in perfectly absorbing metamaterials,” Opt. Commun.295, 17–20 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simul-taneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4184 (2000).

Vitanov, N. V.

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B80(3), 035104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

Yannopapas, V.

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B80(3), 035104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, T. S.

L. W. Li, Y. N. Li, T. S. Yeo, J. R. Mosig, and O. J. F. Martin, “A broadband and high-gain metamaterials microstrip antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(16), 164101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, N.

Zhang, W. L.

S. Y. Chiam, R. J. Singh, W. L. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. L. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

Zhou, J. F.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Y. Chiam, R. J. Singh, W. L. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Li, Y. N. Li, T. S. Yeo, J. R. Mosig, and O. J. F. Martin, “A broadband and high-gain metamaterials microstrip antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(16), 164101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. B. P. Niesler, J. K. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Ramahi, T. S. Almoneef, M. Alshareef, and M. S. Boybay, “Metamaterial particles for electromagnetic energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(17), 173903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. T. Tung, V. T. T. Thuy, J. W. Park, J. Y. Rhee, and Y. P. Lee, “Left-handed transmission in a simple cut-wire pair structure,” J. Appl. Phys.107(2), 023530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nano Lett.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. V. Tuong, J. W. Park, V. D. Lam, W. H. Jang, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. P. Lee, “Dielectric and Ohmic losses in perfectly absorbing metamaterials,” Opt. Commun.295, 17–20 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B80(3), 035104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simul-taneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4184 (2000).

Science

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Unit cells for the MM absorbers of (a) disk-type and (b) donut-type structures. Photos of the fabricated samples with (c) disk-type and (d) donut-type structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated absorption spectra of the disk-type and (b) the donut-type absorbers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Induced surface currents for the disk-type [(a) and (b)] and the donut-type absorbers [(c) and (d)].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated and measured absorption spectra for (a) disk-type and (b) donut-type structures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b) Simulated and (c), (d) measured absorption spectra of donut-type absorber for various polarizations.

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