Abstract

The smooth surface of the metallic nanostructure is essential for thepropagation of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper, we present a novel method to fabricate the metallic nanopatterns with ultra-smooth surface on various substrates. By using a silica film as the sacrificial layer, we show that the prefabricated metallic nanopatterns produced by electron beam lithography and film deposition can be hydrolyzed and transferred onto a designated substrate. The ultra-smooth surface morphology of nanopatterns has been characterized and verified by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. More importantly, we demonstrate that this method can successfully produce a variety of nanostructures with high product yield, even onto the uneven substrate. The results indicate that our proposed method is a promising and versatile means to fabricate multiplicate smooth metallic nanostructure on various substrates for the application of nanophotonic devices.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

W. Ren, Y. Dai, H. Cai, H. Ding, N. Pan, and X. Wang, “Tailoring the coupling between localized and propagating surface plasmons: realizing Fano-like interference and high-performance sensor,” Opt. Express21(8), 10251–10258 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Melli, A. Polyakov, D. Gargas, C. Huynh, L. Scipioni, W. Bao, D. F. Ogletree, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Reaching the theoretical resonance quality factor limit in coaxial plasmonic nanoresonators fabricated by helium ion lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2687–2691 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Lindquist, T. W. Johnson, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanofocusing with a metallic pyramid and an integrated C-shaped aperture,” Sci Rep3, 1857 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Tamma, Y. H. Cui, and W. Park, “Scattering reduction at near-infrared frequencies using plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express21(1), 1041–1056 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lee, G. F. Walsh, and L. Dal Negro, “Microfluidics integration of aperiodic plasmonic arrays for spatial-spectral optical detection,” Opt. Express21(4), 4945–4957 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Hall, S. A. Friesen, and T. E. Mallouk, “Wafer-scale fabrication of plasmonic crystals from patterned silicon templates prepared by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2623–2627 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, D. H. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “Deep subwavelength fourfold rotationally symmetric split-ring-resonator metamaterials for highly sensitive and robust biosensing platform,” Sci Rep3, 2437 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater.12(4), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. L. C. Smith, B. Desiatov, I. Goykmann, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, U. Levy, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic V-groove waveguides with Bragg grating filters via nanoimprint lithography,” Opt. Express20(5), 5696–5706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vogel, J. Zieleniecki, and I. Köper, “As flat as it gets: ultrasmooth surfaces from template-stripping procedures,” Nanoscale4(13), 3820–3832 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Song, W. K. Jung, N. H. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Plasmonic wavelength splitter based on a large-area dielectric grating and white light illumination,” Opt. Lett.37(18), 3915–3917 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, L. G. Villanueva, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications,” ACS Nano5(2), 844–853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat Commun2, 387 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Fang, L. R. Fan, C. F. Lin, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic coupling of bow tie antennas with ag nanowire,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1676–1680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. P. Yang, R. Singh, and W. L. Zhang, “Anomalous terahertz transmission in bow-tie plasmonic antenna apertures,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2901–2903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Hall, J. Modica, J. Anker, Y. Lin, M. Mrksich, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A conformation- and ion-sensitive plasmonic biosensor,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1098–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, A. Lesuffleur, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Three-dimensional plasmonic nanofocusing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1369–1373 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chang, Y. C. Lai, C. T. Li, C. K. Chen, and T. J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express18(9), 9561–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Zhu, Y. Ma, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, X. F. Wu, Y. Zhang, X. B. Han, Q. Fu, Z. M. Liao, L. Chen, and D. P. Yu, “Confined three-dimensional plasmon modes inside a ring-shaped nanocavity on a silver film imaged by cathodoluminescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

B. D. Lucas, J. S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography based approach for the fabrication of large-area, uniformly oriented plasmonic arrays,” Adv. Mater.20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

T. Ederth, “Template-stripped gold surfaces with 0.4-nm rms roughness suitable for force measurements: Application to the Casimir force in the 20-100-nm range,” Phys. Rev. A62(6), 062104 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Wagner, M. Hegner, H. J. Guntherodt, and G. Semenza, “Formation and in-situ modification of monolayers chemisorbed on ultraflat template-stripped gold surfaces,” Langmuir11(10), 3867–3875 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Hegner, P. Wagner, and G. Semenza, “Ultralarge atomically flat template-stripped au surfaces for scanning probe microscopy,” Surf. Sci.291(1-2), 39–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimov, A. V.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aksu, S.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso-Gonzalez, P.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J.

W. P. Hall, J. Modica, J. Anker, Y. Lin, M. Mrksich, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A conformation- and ion-sensitive plasmonic biosensor,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1098–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ansell, D.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater.12(4), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arzubiaga, L.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

M. Melli, A. Polyakov, D. Gargas, C. Huynh, L. Scipioni, W. Bao, D. F. Ogletree, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Reaching the theoretical resonance quality factor limit in coaxial plasmonic nanoresonators fabricated by helium ion lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2687–2691 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

Boriskina, S. V.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Britnell, L.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater.12(4), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brugger, J.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, L. G. Villanueva, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications,” ACS Nano5(2), 844–853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byun, K. M.

Cabrini, S.

M. Melli, A. Polyakov, D. Gargas, C. Huynh, L. Scipioni, W. Bao, D. F. Ogletree, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Reaching the theoretical resonance quality factor limit in coaxial plasmonic nanoresonators fabricated by helium ion lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2687–2691 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Cai, W.

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N. C. Lindquist, T. W. Johnson, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanofocusing with a metallic pyramid and an integrated C-shaped aperture,” Sci Rep3, 1857 (2013).
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N. C. Lindquist, T. W. Johnson, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanofocusing with a metallic pyramid and an integrated C-shaped aperture,” Sci Rep3, 1857 (2013).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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M. Melli, A. Polyakov, D. Gargas, C. Huynh, L. Scipioni, W. Bao, D. F. Ogletree, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Reaching the theoretical resonance quality factor limit in coaxial plasmonic nanoresonators fabricated by helium ion lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2687–2691 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhard, B. M.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, W.

Rockstuhl, C.

Rogers, J. A.

Sannomiya, T.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, L. G. Villanueva, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications,” ACS Nano5(2), 844–853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savu, V.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schedin, F.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater.12(4), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

M. Melli, A. Polyakov, D. Gargas, C. Huynh, L. Scipioni, W. Bao, D. F. Ogletree, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Reaching the theoretical resonance quality factor limit in coaxial plasmonic nanoresonators fabricated by helium ion lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2687–2691 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scipioni, L.

M. Melli, A. Polyakov, D. Gargas, C. Huynh, L. Scipioni, W. Bao, D. F. Ogletree, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Reaching the theoretical resonance quality factor limit in coaxial plasmonic nanoresonators fabricated by helium ion lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2687–2691 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Wagner, M. Hegner, H. J. Guntherodt, and G. Semenza, “Formation and in-situ modification of monolayers chemisorbed on ultraflat template-stripped gold surfaces,” Langmuir11(10), 3867–3875 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Hegner, P. Wagner, and G. Semenza, “Ultralarge atomically flat template-stripped au surfaces for scanning probe microscopy,” Surf. Sci.291(1-2), 39–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Smith, C. L. C.

Song, J. C.

Tamma, V. A.

Thackray, B.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater.12(4), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, X.

H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat Commun2, 387 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, D. H. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “Deep subwavelength fourfold rotationally symmetric split-ring-resonator metamaterials for highly sensitive and robust biosensing platform,” Sci Rep3, 2437 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, D. H. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “Deep subwavelength fourfold rotationally symmetric split-ring-resonator metamaterials for highly sensitive and robust biosensing platform,” Sci Rep3, 2437 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosun, M.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

W. P. Hall, J. Modica, J. Anker, Y. Lin, M. Mrksich, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A conformation- and ion-sensitive plasmonic biosensor,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1098–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vazquez-Mena, O.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, L. G. Villanueva, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications,” ACS Nano5(2), 844–853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velasquez, V. T.

Villanueva, L. G.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, L. G. Villanueva, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications,” ACS Nano5(2), 844–853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, N.

N. Vogel, J. Zieleniecki, and I. Köper, “As flat as it gets: ultrasmooth surfaces from template-stripping procedures,” Nanoscale4(13), 3820–3832 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voros, J.

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, L. G. Villanueva, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications,” ACS Nano5(2), 844–853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, P.

P. Wagner, M. Hegner, H. J. Guntherodt, and G. Semenza, “Formation and in-situ modification of monolayers chemisorbed on ultraflat template-stripped gold surfaces,” Langmuir11(10), 3867–3875 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Hegner, P. Wagner, and G. Semenza, “Ultralarge atomically flat template-stripped au surfaces for scanning probe microscopy,” Surf. Sci.291(1-2), 39–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, G. F.

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat Commun2, 387 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber-Bargioni, A.

M. Melli, A. Polyakov, D. Gargas, C. Huynh, L. Scipioni, W. Bao, D. F. Ogletree, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Reaching the theoretical resonance quality factor limit in coaxial plasmonic nanoresonators fabricated by helium ion lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2687–2691 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, H.

H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat Commun2, 387 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. O.

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X. F.

X. L. Zhu, Y. Ma, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, X. F. Wu, Y. Zhang, X. B. Han, Q. Fu, Z. M. Liao, L. Chen, and D. P. Yu, “Confined three-dimensional plasmon modes inside a ring-shaped nanocavity on a silver film imaged by cathodoluminescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Q. H.

L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, D. H. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “Deep subwavelength fourfold rotationally symmetric split-ring-resonator metamaterials for highly sensitive and robust biosensing platform,” Sci Rep3, 2437 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat Commun2, 387 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Zhu, Y. Ma, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, X. F. Wu, Y. Zhang, X. B. Han, Q. Fu, Z. M. Liao, L. Chen, and D. P. Yu, “Confined three-dimensional plasmon modes inside a ring-shaped nanocavity on a silver film imaged by cathodoluminescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. P.

Yanik, A. A.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

Yin, X.

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. L.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, D. P.

X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Zhu, Y. Ma, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, X. F. Wu, Y. Zhang, X. B. Han, Q. Fu, Z. M. Liao, L. Chen, and D. P. Yu, “Confined three-dimensional plasmon modes inside a ring-shaped nanocavity on a silver film imaged by cathodoluminescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

Zhang, D.

Z. Y. Fang, L. R. Fan, C. F. Lin, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic coupling of bow tie antennas with ag nanowire,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1676–1680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D. H.

L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, D. H. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “Deep subwavelength fourfold rotationally symmetric split-ring-resonator metamaterials for highly sensitive and robust biosensing platform,” Sci Rep3, 2437 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. S.

X. L. Zhu, Y. Ma, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, X. F. Wu, Y. Zhang, X. B. Han, Q. Fu, Z. M. Liao, L. Chen, and D. P. Yu, “Confined three-dimensional plasmon modes inside a ring-shaped nanocavity on a silver film imaged by cathodoluminescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Tjahjana, D. H. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “Deep subwavelength fourfold rotationally symmetric split-ring-resonator metamaterials for highly sensitive and robust biosensing platform,” Sci Rep3, 2437 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. L.

Zhang, X.

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Zhu, Y. Ma, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, X. F. Wu, Y. Zhang, X. B. Han, Q. Fu, Z. M. Liao, L. Chen, and D. P. Yu, “Confined three-dimensional plasmon modes inside a ring-shaped nanocavity on a silver film imaged by cathodoluminescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

Z. Y. Fang, L. R. Fan, C. F. Lin, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic coupling of bow tie antennas with ag nanowire,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1676–1680 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X. L.

X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Zhu, Y. Ma, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, X. F. Wu, Y. Zhang, X. B. Han, Q. Fu, Z. M. Liao, L. Chen, and D. P. Yu, “Confined three-dimensional plasmon modes inside a ring-shaped nanocavity on a silver film imaged by cathodoluminescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(12), 127402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zieleniecki, J.

N. Vogel, J. Zieleniecki, and I. Köper, “As flat as it gets: ultrasmooth surfaces from template-stripping procedures,” Nanoscale4(13), 3820–3832 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, M. Tosun, L. G. Villanueva, V. Savu, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution resistless nanopatterning on polymer and flexible substrates for plasmonic biosensing using stencil masks,” ACS Nano6(6), 5474–5481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Vazquez-Mena, T. Sannomiya, L. G. Villanueva, J. Voros, and J. Brugger, “Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications,” ACS Nano5(2), 844–853 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. S. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
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Langmuir (1)

P. Wagner, M. Hegner, H. J. Guntherodt, and G. Semenza, “Formation and in-situ modification of monolayers chemisorbed on ultraflat template-stripped gold surfaces,” Langmuir11(10), 3867–3875 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (7)

Z. Y. Fang, L. R. Fan, C. F. Lin, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic coupling of bow tie antennas with ag nanowire,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1676–1680 (2011).
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A. S. Hall, S. A. Friesen, and T. E. Mallouk, “Wafer-scale fabrication of plasmonic crystals from patterned silicon templates prepared by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2623–2627 (2013).
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W. P. Hall, J. Modica, J. Anker, Y. Lin, M. Mrksich, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A conformation- and ion-sensitive plasmonic biosensor,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1098–1105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N. N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Melli, A. Polyakov, D. Gargas, C. Huynh, L. Scipioni, W. Bao, D. F. Ogletree, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, and A. Weber-Bargioni, “Reaching the theoretical resonance quality factor limit in coaxial plasmonic nanoresonators fabricated by helium ion lithography,” Nano Lett.13(6), 2687–2691 (2013).
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Nanoscale (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

H. Wei, Z. Wang, X. Tian, M. Käll, and H. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat Commun2, 387 (2011).
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Nat. Mater. (4)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, R. Jalil, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, D. Ansell, B. Thackray, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. V. Kabashin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection,” Nat. Mater.12(4), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 283–287 (2011).
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Nature (2)

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
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Opt. Express (8)

W. Ren, Y. Dai, H. Cai, H. Ding, N. Pan, and X. Wang, “Tailoring the coupling between localized and propagating surface plasmons: realizing Fano-like interference and high-performance sensor,” Opt. Express21(8), 10251–10258 (2013).
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C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
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Sci Rep (2)

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Science (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the processing of HSLT method. (a) Spin coating of PMMA on SiO2/Si substrate. (b) Patterned and developed PMMA. (c) Deposition of the gold film. (d) Detachment of Au/PMMA film through etching of silica layer with KOH. (e)Transfer of patterned Au/PMMA film onto arbitrary substrate. (f) Removal of PMMA film in acetone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The SEM images of various Au nanostructures with good smooth surface morphologies. Top view SEM images of (a) triangle cavity, (b) bow-tie nanogap, (c) square split-ring resonator, (d) G-shape nanostructures. (e-h) the side view SEM images of above mentioned nanopatterns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM image of the triangle cavity nanostructures. (a) AFM image of a single gold nano-triangle cavity. Surface topographies of Au nanostructure (b) replicated from SiO2 substrate (c) replicated from PMMA resist.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM images of the intact Au nanostructure arrays. (b) Schematic of the forces involved in TS method, while no force involved in HSLT method. (c) SEM image of ultrafine rectangle cavity nanostructures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CL spectra and SEM images of different Ag nanocavaties. The spectrum is vertical shifted for clarity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The SEM images of various nanopatterns fabricated on the non-planar substrate. (a) Au nano-square patterns on the surface of glass fiber with the diameter 200 μm, (b) 100μm and (c) 20 μm. (d) Au nano-triangles pattern on the surface of glass fiber with the diameter 50 μm.

Equations (2)

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L= m 2 + n 2 λ SPP 2 ,
V= λ SPP 3 (1+| ε m ' |) 32π | ε m ' | ,

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