Abstract

Energy scaling of femtosecond fiber lasers has been constrained by nonlinear impairments and optical fiber damage. Reducing the optical irradiance inside the fiber by increasing mode size lowers these effects. Using an erbium-doped higher-order mode fiber with 6000 µm2 effective area and output fundamental mode re-conversion, we show a breakthrough in pulse energy from a monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system using higher-order mode propagation generating 300 µJ pulses with duration <500 fs (FWHM) and peak power >600 MW at 1.55 µm. The erbium-doped HOM fiber has both a record large effective mode area and excellent mode stability, even when coiled to reasonable diameter. This demonstration proves efficacy of a new path for high energy monolithic fiber-optic femtosecond laser systems.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Shah, Z. Liu, I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast high energy amplifiers beyond the B-integral limit,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020Z (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1797–1799 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, “High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 233–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Shah, Z. Liu, I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast high energy amplifiers beyond the B-integral limit,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

K. Hougaard and F. D. Nielsen, “Amplifiers and lasers in PCF configurations,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun.1(1), 63–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett.34(13), 1347–1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. M. W. French, “The generation of ultrashort laser pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.58(2), 169–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun.62(6), 419–421 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.5(9), 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett.34(13), 1347–1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Carstens, H.

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Cho, G. C.

L. Shah, Z. Liu, I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast high energy amplifiers beyond the B-integral limit,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Churin, D.

Cregan, R. F.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett.34(13), 1347–1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Danilevicius, R.

de Sandro, J. P.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett.34(13), 1347–1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deguil-Robin, N.

Delfyett, P. J.

DeSantolo, A. M.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

DiMarcello, F.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Ditmire, T.

Dong, L.

Eidam, T.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl.1(4), 1–5 (2012).

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feder, K.

Fermann, M. E.

L. Shah, Z. Liu, I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast high energy amplifiers beyond the B-integral limit,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

French, P. M. W.

P. M. W. French, “The generation of ultrashort laser pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.58(2), 169–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

Hadrich, S.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hädrich, S.

Hartl, I.

L. Shah, Z. Liu, I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast high energy amplifiers beyond the B-integral limit,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

Hougaard, K.

K. Hougaard and F. D. Nielsen, “Amplifiers and lasers in PCF configurations,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun.1(1), 63–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Imeshev, G.

L. Shah, Z. Liu, I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast high energy amplifiers beyond the B-integral limit,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, C.

Jansen, F.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl.1(4), 1–5 (2012).

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jauregui, C.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl.1(4), 1–5 (2012).

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennings, S.

Kim, K.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett.34(13), 1347–1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl.1(4), 1–5 (2012).

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, “High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 233–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Liu, Z.

L. Shah, Z. Liu, I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast high energy amplifiers beyond the B-integral limit,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maine, P.

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun.62(6), 419–421 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Manek-Hönninger, I.

Masor, G.

Mielke, M.

Misas, C. J.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E.

Mourou, G.

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun.62(6), 419–421 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D.

Nguyen, D. T.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nielsen, F. D.

K. Hougaard and F. D. Nielsen, “Amplifiers and lasers in PCF configurations,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun.1(1), 63–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Ortiz, R.

Otto, H. J.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl.1(4), 1–5 (2012).

Peng, X.

Perry, M. D.

Pessot, M.

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun.62(6), 419–421 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Petersson, A.

Peyghambarian, N.

Piracha, M. U.

Ramachandran, S.

Regelskis, K.

Rhonehouse, D.

Roser, F.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, “High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 233–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett.34(13), 1347–1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rusteika, N.

Salin, F.

Schimpf, D. N.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Seise, E.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

L. Shah, Z. Liu, I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast high energy amplifiers beyond the B-integral limit,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singh, N.

S. P. Singh and N. Singh, “Nonlinear effects in optical fibers: origin, management and applications,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.73, 249–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. P.

S. P. Singh and N. Singh, “Nonlinear effects in optical fibers: origin, management and applications,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.73, 249–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stohl, D.

Stuart, B. C.

Stutzki, F.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl.1(4), 1–5 (2012).

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supradeepa, V. R.

Treacy, E.

E. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.5(9), 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, “High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 233–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Viskontas, K.

Westbrook, P. S.

Wisk, P.

Yan, M. F.

Zellmer, H.

Želudevicius, J.

Zong, J.

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett.34(13), 1347–1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.5(9), 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Limpert, F. Roser, D. N. Schimpf, E. Seise, T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, J. Rothhardt, C. J. Misas, and A. Tunnermann, “High repetition rate gigawatt peak power fiber laser systems: challenges, design, and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 159–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, “High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 233–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1)

K. Hougaard and F. D. Nielsen, “Amplifiers and lasers in PCF configurations,” J. Opt. Fiber Commun.1(1), 63–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl.1(4), 1–5 (2012).

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun.62(6), 419–421 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Shah, Z. Liu, I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast high energy amplifiers beyond the B-integral limit,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Electromagn. Res. (1)

S. P. Singh and N. Singh, “Nonlinear effects in optical fibers: origin, management and applications,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.73, 249–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. M. W. French, “The generation of ultrashort laser pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.58(2), 169–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

F. Abedin and D. K. Kalla, “Review on heat affected zone (HAZ) in laser machining,” in Proceedings of the 6th Annual GRASP Symposium (Wichita State University, 2010), pp. 63–64.

A. Galvanauskas, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber amplifiers,” in Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications, M. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2002), pp. 155–218.

J. Li, X. Peng, and L. Dong, “Robust fundamental mode operation in a ytterbium-doped leakage channel fiber with an effective area of ~3000μm2,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the Er-doped HOM fiber amplifier. The 2.65 m long Er-doped HOM fiber is coiled to radius of 20 cm. The input long period grating (LPG) converts the LP0,1 mode of both the pump and the signal to the LP0,11 mode, and the output LPG reconvert both back to LP0,1 mode. The top left inset shows the LP0,1 transmission spectrum for a typical broad-bandwidth LPG used with this fiber. The HOM fiber is end-capped with a coreless fiber angle polished at 8°

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the CPA laser system utilizing the Er-doped HOM fiber. The Er-doped HOM fiber amplifier shown in Fig. 1 is used as the booster amplifier. The pulse duration as well as its relative power evolution along the monolithic fiber-optical chain and the free-space compressor are plotted for reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Er-doped HOM fiber CPA system performance characterization at 25 kHz pulse repetition rate. (a) Er-doped HOM fiber amplifier output signal pulse energy (left axis) and average power (right axis) at 25 kHz vs. 1480 nm pump power. (b) Optical spectra of the input signal (dark yellow) and the Er-doped HOM fiber CPA output signal at multiple pulse energy levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

HOM fiber CPA laser system output temporal and spatial beam characterization. (a) Intensity autocorrelation of the fully compressed 300 μJ pulse (black solid line) and the ideal sech2-shaped pulse (red dashed line) for reference. The measured pulse duration is 1.26 × the transform limit. (b) Beam waist measurements near the focal plane of a 400 mm focal length lens used for M2 calculations. The inset shows the transverse beam profile measured near the focus.

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