Abstract

Phase-diverse Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging has been shown to reveal the structure and composition of biological specimens with high sensitivity at nanoscale resolution. However, the method has yet to be applied using X-ray illumination with energy in the so-called ‘water-window’ that lies between the carbon and oxygen K edges. In this range, differences in the strength of the X-ray interaction for protein based biological materials and water is increased. Here we demonstrate a proof-of-principle application of FCDI at an X-ray energy within the water-window to a dehydrated cellular sample composed of red blood cells infected with the trophozoite stage of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Comparison of the results to both optical and electron microscopy shows that the correlative imaging methods that include water-window FCDI will find utility in studying cellular architecture.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (5)

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kaulich, P. Thibault, A. Gianoncelli, and M. Kiskinova, “Transmission and emission x-ray microscopy: operation modes, contrast mechanisms and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(8), 083002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys.59(1), 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent diffractive imaging of biological samples at synchrotron and free electron laser facilities,” J. Biotechnol.149(4), 229–237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Basescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microspopy with a configuable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstructions of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell15(3), 957–962 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of platinum thin films,” Chem. Mater.15(9), 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. Chen, Y.-W. Chung, and F. L. Freire, “Metrology of 1-10 nm thick CNX films: Thickness, density, and surface roughness measurements,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(5), L19–L21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. A. Telari, B. R. Rogers, H. Fang, L. Shen, R. A. Weller, and D. N. Braski, “Characterization of platinum deposited by focused ion beam-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(2), 590–595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. R. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys.28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

W. P. Callahan and J. A. Horner, “The use of vanadium as a stain for electron microscopy,” J. Cell Biol.20(2), 350–356 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aaltonen, T.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of platinum thin films,” Chem. Mater.15(9), 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abbey, B.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Antony, C.

Arhatari, B. D.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacescu, D.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Balaur, E.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, M.

Basescu, D.

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Basescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microspopy with a configuable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, M.

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beerlink, A.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beetz, T.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braski, D. N.

K. A. Telari, B. R. Rogers, H. Fang, L. Shen, R. A. Weller, and D. N. Braski, “Characterization of platinum deposited by focused ion beam-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(2), 590–595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Cadenazzi, G.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cadenazzi, G. A.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callahan, W. P.

W. P. Callahan and J. A. Horner, “The use of vanadium as a stain for electron microscopy,” J. Cell Biol.20(2), 350–356 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalamous, P.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Chen, B.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-C.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. Li, Y. Chen, Y.-W. Chung, and F. L. Freire, “Metrology of 1-10 nm thick CNX films: Thickness, density, and surface roughness measurements,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(5), L19–L21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.-W.

D. Li, Y. Chen, Y.-W. Chung, and F. L. Freire, “Metrology of 1-10 nm thick CNX films: Thickness, density, and surface roughness measurements,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(5), L19–L21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. N.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cocco, D.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Cojoc, D.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Cui, C.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cullis, A. G.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curwood, E. K.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, C.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M. D.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dearnley, M. K.

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Dew, S. K.

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dhal, B. B.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhez, O.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Di Fabrizio, E.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Diaz, A.

Dierolf, M.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobson, B. R.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elser, V.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahimian, B. P.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

K. A. Telari, B. R. Rogers, H. Fang, L. Shen, R. A. Weller, and D. N. Braski, “Characterization of platinum deposited by focused ion beam-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(2), 590–595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frankland, S.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freire, F. L.

D. Li, Y. Chen, Y.-W. Chung, and F. L. Freire, “Metrology of 1-10 nm thick CNX films: Thickness, density, and surface roughness measurements,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(5), L19–L21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, L. J.

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fullagar, W.

Gallagher-Jones, M.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gianoncelli, A.

B. Kaulich, P. Thibault, A. Gianoncelli, and M. Kiskinova, “Transmission and emission x-ray microscopy: operation modes, contrast mechanisms and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(8), 083002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Basescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microspopy with a configuable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Giewekemeyer, K.

R. N. Wilke, M. Priebe, M. Bartels, K. Giewekemeyer, A. Diaz, P. Karvinen, and T. Salditt, “Hard X-ray imaging of bacterial cells: nano-diffraction and ptychographic reconstruction,” Opt. Express20(17), 19232–19254 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleber, S. C.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorniak, T.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groves, M. R.

Grunze, M.

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hall, C.

Hanssen, E.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, C. A.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holton, J. M.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horner, J. A.

W. P. Callahan and J. A. Horner, “The use of vanadium as a stain for electron microscopy,” J. Cell Biol.20(2), 350–356 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M. R.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. R. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys.28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, A. C.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. R. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys.28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C. J.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, I.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M. W. M.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. M. Jones, A. G. Peele, and G. A. van Riessen, “Application of a complex constraint for a complex sample in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express (to be published).

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Junker, M. D.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kalbfleisch, S.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karvinen, P.

Kaulich, B.

B. Kaulich, P. Thibault, A. Gianoncelli, and M. Kiskinova, “Transmission and emission x-ray microscopy: operation modes, contrast mechanisms and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(8), 083002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Basescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microspopy with a configuable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Keinonen, J.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of platinum thin films,” Chem. Mater.15(9), 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kewish, C. M.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirz, J.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. R. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys.28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiskinova, M.

B. Kaulich, P. Thibault, A. Gianoncelli, and M. Kiskinova, “Transmission and emission x-ray microscopy: operation modes, contrast mechanisms and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(8), 083002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Kohmura, Y.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovac, J.

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Basescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microspopy with a configuable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Kunishima, N.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamzin, V.

Larabell, C. A.

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstructions of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell15(3), 957–962 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gros, M. A.

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstructions of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell15(3), 957–962 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T.-K.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leskela, M.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of platinum thin films,” Chem. Mater.15(9), 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, Y. Chen, Y.-W. Chung, and F. L. Freire, “Metrology of 1-10 nm thick CNX films: Thickness, density, and surface roughness measurements,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(5), L19–L21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lima, E.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C.-H.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancuso, A. P.

Marchesini, S.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Mancuso, M. R. Groves, O. E. Polozhentsev, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, C. Antony, R. Santarella-Mellwig, A. V. Soldatov, V. Lamzin, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Internal structure of an intact Convallaria majalis pollen grain observed with X-ray Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express20(24), 26778–26785 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morrison, G. R.

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Basescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microspopy with a configuable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Naitow, H.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakashima, A.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, D.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neiman, A. M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Mancuso, M. R. Groves, O. E. Polozhentsev, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, C. Antony, R. Santarella-Mellwig, A. V. Soldatov, V. Lamzin, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Internal structure of an intact Convallaria majalis pollen grain observed with X-ray Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express20(24), 26778–26785 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys.59(1), 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paterson, D.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peele, A. G.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Mancuso, M. R. Groves, O. E. Polozhentsev, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, C. Antony, R. Santarella-Mellwig, A. V. Soldatov, V. Lamzin, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Internal structure of an intact Convallaria majalis pollen grain observed with X-ray Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express20(24), 26778–26785 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. M. Jones, A. G. Peele, and G. A. van Riessen, “Application of a complex constraint for a complex sample in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express (to be published).

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, M. A.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podnar, M.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Polozhentsev, O. E.

Priebe, M.

Putkunz, C. T.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Quiney, H. M.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raines, K. S.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reese, M.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritala, M.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of platinum thin films,” Chem. Mater.15(9), 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodenburg, J. M.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, B. R.

K. A. Telari, B. R. Rogers, H. Fang, L. Shen, R. A. Weller, and D. N. Braski, “Characterization of platinum deposited by focused ion beam-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(2), 590–595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenhahn, A.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sajavaara, T.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of platinum thin films,” Chem. Mater.15(9), 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salditt, T.

R. N. Wilke, M. Priebe, M. Bartels, K. Giewekemeyer, A. Diaz, P. Karvinen, and T. Salditt, “Hard X-ray imaging of bacterial cells: nano-diffraction and ptychographic reconstruction,” Opt. Express20(17), 19232–19254 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salome, M.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Santarella-Mellwig, R.

Sayre, D.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholten, R. E.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senkbeil, T.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, D. A.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, L.

K. A. Telari, B. R. Rogers, H. Fang, L. Shen, R. A. Weller, and D. N. Braski, “Characterization of platinum deposited by focused ion beam-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(2), 590–595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smy, T.

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soldatov, A. V.

Song, C.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spence, J. C. H.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starodub, D.

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, R. J.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Susini, J.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Tamanoi, F.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telari, K. A.

K. A. Telari, B. R. Rogers, H. Fang, L. Shen, R. A. Weller, and D. N. Braski, “Characterization of platinum deposited by focused ion beam-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(2), 590–595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

B. Kaulich, P. Thibault, A. Gianoncelli, and M. Kiskinova, “Transmission and emission x-ray microscopy: operation modes, contrast mechanisms and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(8), 083002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tilley, L.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Tran, C. Q.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urano, J.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Riessen, G. A.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. W. M. Jones, A. G. Peele, and G. A. van Riessen, “Application of a complex constraint for a complex sample in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Vartanyants, I. A.

Vine, D. J.

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, U.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Weitkamp, T.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Weller, R. A.

K. A. Telari, B. R. Rogers, H. Fang, L. Shen, R. A. Weller, and D. N. Braski, “Characterization of platinum deposited by focused ion beam-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20(2), 590–595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T. J. T.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Wilke, R. N.

Williams, G. J.

A. P. Mancuso, M. R. Groves, O. E. Polozhentsev, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, C. Antony, R. Santarella-Mellwig, A. V. Soldatov, V. Lamzin, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Internal structure of an intact Convallaria majalis pollen grain observed with X-ray Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express20(24), 26778–26785 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, R.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yefanov, O. M.

A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent diffractive imaging of biological samples at synchrotron and free electron laser facilities,” J. Biotechnol.149(4), 229–237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, T.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zacchigna, M.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Zangrando, M.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys.59(1), 1–99 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Basescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microspopy with a configuable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atom. Data Nucl. Data (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data54(2), 181–342 (1993).
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T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, T. Sajavaara, J. Keinonen, and M. Leskela, “Atomic layer deposition of platinum thin films,” Chem. Mater.15(9), 1924–1928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry A (1)

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biotechnol. (1)

A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent diffractive imaging of biological samples at synchrotron and free electron laser facilities,” J. Biotechnol.149(4), 229–237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

W. P. Callahan and J. A. Horner, “The use of vanadium as a stain for electron microscopy,” J. Cell Biol.20(2), 350–356 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

M. R. Howells, T. Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro, J. C. H. Spence, and D. Starodub, “An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.170(1-3), 4–12 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

B. Kaulich, P. Thibault, A. Gianoncelli, and M. Kiskinova, “Transmission and emission x-ray microscopy: operation modes, contrast mechanisms and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(8), 083002 (2011).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

D. Li, Y. Chen, Y.-W. Chung, and F. L. Freire, “Metrology of 1-10 nm thick CNX films: Thickness, density, and surface roughness measurements,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(5), L19–L21 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

Mol. Biol. Cell (1)

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstructions of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell15(3), 957–962 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 0638231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: high sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(1), 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging Fully Hydrated Whole Cells by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(9), 098103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, M. Reese, K. Giewekemeyer, S. C. Gleber, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Chemical contrast in soft x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(20), 208101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

H. Jiang, C. Song, C.-C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C.-H. Lu, T.-K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
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K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

M. W. M. Jones, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, E. Balaur, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, B. Chen, B. D. Arhatari, S. Frankland, K. A. Nugent, L. Tilley, and A. G. Peele, “Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography,” Sci. Rep.3, 2288 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, E. Balaur, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. K. Curwood, C. A. Henderson, R. E. Scholten, R. J. Stewart, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Mapping granular structure in the biological adhesive of Phragmatopoma californica using phase diverse coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy111(8), 1184–1188 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

M. W. M. Jones, M. K. Dearnley, G. A. van Riessen, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, M. D. Junker, D. J. Vine, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, and L. Tilley, “Rapid, low dose X-ray diffractive imaging of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Ultramicroscopy (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

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B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. Di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. Charalamous, T. J. T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salome, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic - A European twin X-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy7, 22–25 (2006).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light VII ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999) p.471.

M. W. M. Jones, A. G. Peele, and G. A. van Riessen, “Application of a complex constraint for a complex sample in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express (to be published).

N. Davidson, B. Abbey, H. M. Quiney, T. D. Julius, B. Allman, M. W. M. Jones, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, H. Wittler, A. Carroll, M. B. Luu, and K. A. Nugent, NADIA Software Project http://www.coecxs.org/joomla/index.php/research-and-projects/nadia-software-project.html , ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, 2011.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement from above (A; not to scale), shows an aperture (illustrated relative to the FZP in B) placed directly upstream of the zone plate to ensure sampling requirements were met and to improve the incident beam quality. The sample was initially placed 220 μm downstream of the focus, with the CCD detector placed in the farfield of the illuminated region. The transverse and longitudinal directions of sample translation are indicated. Example illumination (C) and intensity of diffraction from the test sample (D) measured at the detector under this experimental arrangement are shown on a logarithmic colour scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase (A) and magnitude (B) of the reconstructed transmission function of the test pattern. An SEM micrograph of the test pattern at 52° tilt angle is shown in panel C, with the area imaged using X-rays outlined in red. The scale bar in panels A and C are equal to 1 and 2 μm respectively. Line profiles of the thickness of two features made from gold (1) and platinum (2) are shown in D, calculated from the phase (dashed line) and magnitude (solid line) images respectively at the positions indicated in A.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase (A, E) and magnitude (B, F) of the reconstructed transmission function of two red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite P. falciparum. The scale bar in (B) is equal to 1 μm. Optical images taken before X-ray imaging (C, G), and Scanning Electron Micrographs (D, H) following X-ray imaging are shown for comparison. The host red blood cell (RBC) and parasite (p) are marked. A flattened area (f) of the red blood cell can be observed and an exomembrane (em) extension into the host red blood cell is evident.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the key geometrical parameters for the data acquired from each sample. NPt, OF, and FN are the number of ptychography frames, probe lateral overlap fraction, and Fresnel number at the each sample defocus distance, zfs.

Metrics