Abstract

A normal-incident flattop laser with a tapered end is proposed as an optical undulator to achieve a high-gain and high-brightness X-ray free electron laser (FEL). The synchronic interaction of an electron bunch with the normal incident laser is realized by tilting the laser pulse front. The intensity of the flattop laser is kept constant during the interaction time of the electron bunch and the laser along the focal plane of a cylindrical lens. Optical shaping to generate the desired flattop pulse with a tapered end from an original Gaussian pulse distribution is designed and simulated. The flattop laser with a tapered end can enhance the X-ray FEL beyond the exponential growth saturation power by one order to reach 1 Gigawatt as compared to that without a tapered end. The peak brightness can reach 1030 photons/mm2/mrad2/s/0.1% bandwidth, more than 10 orders brighter than the conventional incoherent Thompson Scattering X-ray source.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Bahrdt and Y. Ivanyushenkov, “Short Period Undulators for Storage Rings and Free Electron Lasers,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series425, 032001 (2013).
  3. M. Shumail, G. Bowden, C. Chang, J. Neilson, and S. Tantawi, “Beam dynamics studies of a helical X-band RF undulator,” AIP Conf. Proc.1507, 752–756 (2012).
  4. V. Petrillo, L. Serafini, and P. Tomassini, “Ultrahigh brightness electron beams by plasma-based injectors for driving all-optical free-electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams11, 070703 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, and J.R. Peñano, “Laser-pumped coherent x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams12, 050702 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P.R. Ribic and G. Margaritondo, “The physics behind free electron lasers (FELs) based on magnetostatic and optical undulators,” Phys. Status Solidi B249, 1210 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Hecht, “Fiber lasers: The State of the art,” Laser Focus World48, 57–60 (2012).
  8. C. Chang, C. Tang, and J. Wu, “High-Gain Thompson-Scattering X-Ray Free-Electron Laser by Time-Synchronic Laterally Tilted OpticalWave,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 064802 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).
  10. J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Liang, R.N. Kohn, M.F. Becker, and D.J. Heinzen, “High-precision laser beam shaping using a binary-amplitude spatial light modulator,” Applied Optics49, 1323–1330 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L.H. Yu, S. Krinsky, R.L. Gluckstern, and J.B.J. van Zeijts, “EfFect of wiggler errors on free-electron-laser gain,” Phys. Rev. A45, 1163–1174 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S.-W. Bahk, E. Fess, B.F. Kruschwitz, and J.D. Zuegel, “A high-resolution, adaptive beam-shaping system for high-power lasers,” Opt. Express18, 9151–9162 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Pellegrini and S. Reiche, “The Development of X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1393–1404 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N.M. Kroll, P.L. Morton, and M.N. Rosenbluth, “Free-Electron Lasers with Variable Parameter Wigglers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, QE-17, 1436–1468 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
    [CrossRef]
  17. K.T. Knox, “Error image in error diffusion,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 1657, pp.268–279 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Reiche, “GENESIS 1.3: a fully 3D time-dependent FEL simulation code,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A429, 243–248 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Z. Huang, Y. Ding, and C. Schroeder, “Compact X-ray Free-Electron Laser from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using a Transverse-Gradient Undulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 204801 (2012)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

J. Bahrdt and Y. Ivanyushenkov, “Short Period Undulators for Storage Rings and Free Electron Lasers,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series425, 032001 (2013).

C. Chang, C. Tang, and J. Wu, “High-Gain Thompson-Scattering X-Ray Free-Electron Laser by Time-Synchronic Laterally Tilted OpticalWave,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 064802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

Z. Huang, Y. Ding, and C. Schroeder, “Compact X-ray Free-Electron Laser from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using a Transverse-Gradient Undulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 204801 (2012)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
[CrossRef]

P.R. Ribic and G. Margaritondo, “The physics behind free electron lasers (FELs) based on magnetostatic and optical undulators,” Phys. Status Solidi B249, 1210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hecht, “Fiber lasers: The State of the art,” Laser Focus World48, 57–60 (2012).

M. Shumail, G. Bowden, C. Chang, J. Neilson, and S. Tantawi, “Beam dynamics studies of a helical X-band RF undulator,” AIP Conf. Proc.1507, 752–756 (2012).

2010 (3)

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, R.N. Kohn, M.F. Becker, and D.J. Heinzen, “High-precision laser beam shaping using a binary-amplitude spatial light modulator,” Applied Optics49, 1323–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Bahk, E. Fess, B.F. Kruschwitz, and J.D. Zuegel, “A high-resolution, adaptive beam-shaping system for high-power lasers,” Opt. Express18, 9151–9162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, and J.R. Peñano, “Laser-pumped coherent x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams12, 050702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).

2008 (1)

V. Petrillo, L. Serafini, and P. Tomassini, “Ultrahigh brightness electron beams by plasma-based injectors for driving all-optical free-electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams11, 070703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. Pellegrini and S. Reiche, “The Development of X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1393–1404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Reiche, “GENESIS 1.3: a fully 3D time-dependent FEL simulation code,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A429, 243–248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

K.T. Knox, “Error image in error diffusion,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 1657, pp.268–279 (1992)
[CrossRef]

L.H. Yu, S. Krinsky, R.L. Gluckstern, and J.B.J. van Zeijts, “EfFect of wiggler errors on free-electron-laser gain,” Phys. Rev. A45, 1163–1174 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

N.M. Kroll, P.L. Morton, and M.N. Rosenbluth, “Free-Electron Lasers with Variable Parameter Wigglers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, QE-17, 1436–1468 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Akre, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S.G.

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bahk, S.-W.

Bahrdt, J.

J. Bahrdt and Y. Ivanyushenkov, “Short Period Undulators for Storage Rings and Free Electron Lasers,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series425, 032001 (2013).

Barty, C.P.J.

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.F.

J. Liang, R.N. Kohn, M.F. Becker, and D.J. Heinzen, “High-precision laser beam shaping using a binary-amplitude spatial light modulator,” Applied Optics49, 1323–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betts, S.M.

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bionta, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bisognano, J.

J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bock, S.

A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).

Bosch, R.A.

J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bostedt, C.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bowden, G.

M. Shumail, G. Bowden, C. Chang, J. Neilson, and S. Tantawi, “Beam dynamics studies of a helical X-band RF undulator,” AIP Conf. Proc.1507, 752–756 (2012).

Bozek, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Brachmann, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Brown, W.J.

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bussmann, M.

A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).

Cai, Y.

Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

C. Chang, C. Tang, and J. Wu, “High-Gain Thompson-Scattering X-Ray Free-Electron Laser by Time-Synchronic Laterally Tilted OpticalWave,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 064802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Shumail, G. Bowden, C. Chang, J. Neilson, and S. Tantawi, “Beam dynamics studies of a helical X-band RF undulator,” AIP Conf. Proc.1507, 752–756 (2012).

Chao, A.W.

Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.B.

F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, T.C.

J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Coffee, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Cowan, T.E.

A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).

Crane, J.K.

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Huang, Y. Ding, and C. Schroeder, “Compact X-ray Free-Electron Laser from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using a Transverse-Gradient Undulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 204801 (2012)
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

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F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
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Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
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Fisher, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

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S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
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Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
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[CrossRef]

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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

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S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
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F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
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F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
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Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
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J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
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A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).

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F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
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A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).

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L.H. Yu, S. Krinsky, R.L. Gluckstern, and J.B.J. van Zeijts, “EfFect of wiggler errors on free-electron-laser gain,” Phys. Rev. A45, 1163–1174 (1992).
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Kuba, J.

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J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
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S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
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F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
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Messerschmidt, M.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Miahnahri, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Miller, T.

J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, S.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Mori, W.B.

F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morton, P.L.

N.M. Kroll, P.L. Morton, and M.N. Rosenbluth, “Free-Electron Lasers with Variable Parameter Wigglers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, QE-17, 1436–1468 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, J.

M. Shumail, G. Bowden, C. Chang, J. Neilson, and S. Tantawi, “Beam dynamics studies of a helical X-band RF undulator,” AIP Conf. Proc.1507, 752–756 (2012).

Nuhn, H.-D.

Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
[CrossRef]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Pellegrini, C.

Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
[CrossRef]

C. Pellegrini and S. Reiche, “The Development of X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1393–1404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peñano, J.R.

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, and J.R. Peñano, “Laser-pumped coherent x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams12, 050702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petrillo, V.

V. Petrillo, L. Serafini, and P. Tomassini, “Ultrahigh brightness electron beams by plasma-based injectors for driving all-optical free-electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams11, 070703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pile, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Ratner, D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Reiche, S.

Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
[CrossRef]

C. Pellegrini and S. Reiche, “The Development of X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1393–1404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Reiche, “GENESIS 1.3: a fully 3D time-dependent FEL simulation code,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A429, 243–248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ribic, P.R.

P.R. Ribic and G. Margaritondo, “The physics behind free electron lasers (FELs) based on magnetostatic and optical undulators,” Phys. Status Solidi B249, 1210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluth, M.N.

N.M. Kroll, P.L. Morton, and M.N. Rosenbluth, “Free-Electron Lasers with Variable Parameter Wigglers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, QE-17, 1436–1468 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rosenzweig, J.B.

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rzepiela, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).

Schramm, U.

A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).

Schroeder, C.

Z. Huang, Y. Ding, and C. Schroeder, “Compact X-ray Free-Electron Laser from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using a Transverse-Gradient Undulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 204801 (2012)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Serafini, L.

V. Petrillo, L. Serafini, and P. Tomassini, “Ultrahigh brightness electron beams by plasma-based injectors for driving all-optical free-electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams11, 070703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shumail, M.

M. Shumail, G. Bowden, C. Chang, J. Neilson, and S. Tantawi, “Beam dynamics studies of a helical X-band RF undulator,” AIP Conf. Proc.1507, 752–756 (2012).

Slaughter, D.R.

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, and J.R. Peñano, “Laser-pumped coherent x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams12, 050702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Springer, P.T.

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stefan, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Tang, C.

C. Chang, C. Tang, and J. Wu, “High-Gain Thompson-Scattering X-Ray Free-Electron Laser by Time-Synchronic Laterally Tilted OpticalWave,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 064802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C.X.

F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tantawi, S.

M. Shumail, G. Bowden, C. Chang, J. Neilson, and S. Tantawi, “Beam dynamics studies of a helical X-band RF undulator,” AIP Conf. Proc.1507, 752–756 (2012).

Tomassini, P.

V. Petrillo, L. Serafini, and P. Tomassini, “Ultrahigh brightness electron beams by plasma-based injectors for driving all-optical free-electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams11, 070703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tompkins, H.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Tremaine, A.M.

S.G. Anderson, C.P.J. Barty, S.M. Betts, W.J. Brown, J.K. Crane, R.R. Cross, D.N. Fittinghoff, D.J. Gibson, F.V. Hartemann, J. Kuba, G.P. Lesage, J.B. Rosenzweig, D.R. Slaughter, P.T. Springer, and A.M. Tremaine, “Short-pulse, high-brightness X-ray production with the PLEIADES Thomson-scattering source,” Appl. Phys. B78, 891–894 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

van Zeijts, J.B.J.

L.H. Yu, S. Krinsky, R.L. Gluckstern, and J.B.J. van Zeijts, “EfFect of wiggler errors on free-electron-laser gain,” Phys. Rev. A45, 1163–1174 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehlitz, R.

J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Welch, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

White, W.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

C. Chang, C. Tang, and J. Wu, “High-Gain Thompson-Scattering X-Ray Free-Electron Laser by Time-Synchronic Laterally Tilted OpticalWave,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 064802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiao, J. Wu, Y. Cai, A.W. Chao, W.M. Fawley, J. Frisch, Z. Huang, H.-D. Nuhn, C. Pellegrini, and S. Reiche, “Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams15, 050704 (2012)
[CrossRef]

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.L.

F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, L.X.

F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yavuz, D.

J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yocky, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, Ph. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an Ångström-wavelength free electron laser,” Nature Photonics4, 641–647 (2010) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

York, R.C.

J.E. Lawler, J. Bisognano, R.A. Bosch, T.C. Chiang, M.A. Green, K. Jacobs, T. Miller, R. Wehlitz, D. Yavuz, and R.C. York, “Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.46, 325501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.H.

L.H. Yu, S. Krinsky, R.L. Gluckstern, and J.B.J. van Zeijts, “EfFect of wiggler errors on free-electron-laser gain,” Phys. Rev. A45, 1163–1174 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeil, K.

A.D. Debus, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, A. Jochmann, T. Kluge, S.D. Kraft, R. Sauerbrey, K. Zeil, and U. Schramm, “Linear and Non-Linear Thomson-Scattering X-Ray Sources Driven by Conventionally and Laser Plasma Accelerated Electrons,” Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.7359, 735908 (2009).

Zhang, C.J.

F. Li, J.F. Hua, X.L. Xu, C.J. Zhang, L.X. Yan, Y.C. Du, W.H. Huang, H.B. Chen, C.X. Tang, W. Lu, C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, and Y.Q. Gu, “Generating High-Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Plasma-Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 015003 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuegel, J.D.

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a X-ray FEL. SLM, spatial light modulator; f1–f2, lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Front view and (b) cross sections of the target image (dash line in (a)) and the incident Gaussian profile; (c) 3D and (d) 2D plot of the maximal intensity projection of the simulated shaped tilt pulse in the xz plane; (e) Front view and (f) cross sections (along the dash line in (e)) of the simulated shaped tilt pulse (blue dot-dashed curve) with the target image (red solid curve). Shown here, the beam profile is before the cylindrical lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Radiation power without taper (blue curve) and with taper (red curve); (the length of taper L=2.3 cm, a = 0.4); (b) the spectrum; and c) Far field image of the X-ray pulse. The simulation parameters are: electron bunch central energy γ = 80, energy spread σγ = 0.1, normalized emittance εN = 0.2 π mm mrad, peak current I = 3 kA, beam transverse radius 5 μm, RMS K = 1.5, and the undulator period λu = 10 μm. There is no focusing magnet.

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