Abstract

The index of refraction structure constant, Cn2 indicates how strongly the index of refraction varies in a region of the atmosphere. These variations usually arise through turbulent motions, creating an inhomogeneous distribution of species, density, temperature and pressure. Because the index of refraction also depends on wavelength, the measured value of Cn2 will depend on wavelength. This Cn2 difference generally becomes more pronounced as the difference in wavelength increases. This paper describes a technique for converting between measurements of Cn2 at different wavelengths, and gives an example for converting from centimeter to visible and near IR wavelengths.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).
  2. S. Fiorino, R. Randall, A. Downs, R. Bartell, M. Krizo, and S. Cusumano, “Three-dimensional optical turbulence assessments from doppler weather radar for laser applications,” in “6th DEPS Systems Symposium” (2011).
  3. J. J. Cohen, “Demonstration and verification of a broad spectrum anomalous dispersion effects tool for index of refraction and optical turbulence calculations,” Master’s thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology (2009).
  4. F. Roddier, “The Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence in Optical Astronomy” Prog. Optics19, 283–387 (1981).
  5. V. Tatarskii, The Effects of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971).
  6. A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Z. Jacobson, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2005).
  8. D. Bolton, “The computation of equivalent potential temperature,” Mon. Wea. Rev.108, 1046–1053 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Optics35, 1566–1573 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M.-T. Velluet, M. Vorontsov, P. Schwering, G. Marchid, S. Nicolas, and J. Riker, “Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA,” Proc. SPIE8380, 83800J (2012).

2012 (1)

M.-T. Velluet, M. Vorontsov, P. Schwering, G. Marchid, S. Nicolas, and J. Riker, “Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA,” Proc. SPIE8380, 83800J (2012).

2009 (1)

S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).

1998 (1)

A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Optics35, 1566–1573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

F. Roddier, “The Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence in Optical Astronomy” Prog. Optics19, 283–387 (1981).

1980 (1)

D. Bolton, “The computation of equivalent potential temperature,” Mon. Wea. Rev.108, 1046–1053 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, P.

A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Golden, S.

A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G.

A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartell, R.

S. Fiorino, R. Randall, A. Downs, R. Bartell, M. Krizo, and S. Cusumano, “Three-dimensional optical turbulence assessments from doppler weather radar for laser applications,” in “6th DEPS Systems Symposium” (2011).

Bartell, R. J.

S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, L.

A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, D.

D. Bolton, “The computation of equivalent potential temperature,” Mon. Wea. Rev.108, 1046–1053 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J.

A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ciddor, P. E.

P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Optics35, 1566–1573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J. J.

S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).

J. J. Cohen, “Demonstration and verification of a broad spectrum anomalous dispersion effects tool for index of refraction and optical turbulence calculations,” Master’s thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology (2009).

Cusumano, S.

S. Fiorino, R. Randall, A. Downs, R. Bartell, M. Krizo, and S. Cusumano, “Three-dimensional optical turbulence assessments from doppler weather radar for laser applications,” in “6th DEPS Systems Symposium” (2011).

Cusumano, S. J.

S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).

Downs, A.

S. Fiorino, R. Randall, A. Downs, R. Bartell, M. Krizo, and S. Cusumano, “Three-dimensional optical turbulence assessments from doppler weather radar for laser applications,” in “6th DEPS Systems Symposium” (2011).

Fiorino, S.

S. Fiorino, R. Randall, A. Downs, R. Bartell, M. Krizo, and S. Cusumano, “Three-dimensional optical turbulence assessments from doppler weather radar for laser applications,” in “6th DEPS Systems Symposium” (2011).

Fiorino, S. T.

S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).

Jacobson, M. Z.

M. Z. Jacobson, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2005).

Krizo, M.

S. Fiorino, R. Randall, A. Downs, R. Bartell, M. Krizo, and S. Cusumano, “Three-dimensional optical turbulence assessments from doppler weather radar for laser applications,” in “6th DEPS Systems Symposium” (2011).

Krizo, M. J.

S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).

Marchid, G.

M.-T. Velluet, M. Vorontsov, P. Schwering, G. Marchid, S. Nicolas, and J. Riker, “Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA,” Proc. SPIE8380, 83800J (2012).

McClung, B. T.

S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).

Nicolas, S.

M.-T. Velluet, M. Vorontsov, P. Schwering, G. Marchid, S. Nicolas, and J. Riker, “Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA,” Proc. SPIE8380, 83800J (2012).

Randall, R.

S. Fiorino, R. Randall, A. Downs, R. Bartell, M. Krizo, and S. Cusumano, “Three-dimensional optical turbulence assessments from doppler weather radar for laser applications,” in “6th DEPS Systems Symposium” (2011).

Randall, R. M.

S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).

Riker, J.

M.-T. Velluet, M. Vorontsov, P. Schwering, G. Marchid, S. Nicolas, and J. Riker, “Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA,” Proc. SPIE8380, 83800J (2012).

Robertson, D.

A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, “The Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence in Optical Astronomy” Prog. Optics19, 283–387 (1981).

Schwering, P.

M.-T. Velluet, M. Vorontsov, P. Schwering, G. Marchid, S. Nicolas, and J. Riker, “Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA,” Proc. SPIE8380, 83800J (2012).

Tatarskii, V.

V. Tatarskii, The Effects of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971).

Velluet, M.-T.

M.-T. Velluet, M. Vorontsov, P. Schwering, G. Marchid, S. Nicolas, and J. Riker, “Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA,” Proc. SPIE8380, 83800J (2012).

Vorontsov, M.

M.-T. Velluet, M. Vorontsov, P. Schwering, G. Marchid, S. Nicolas, and J. Riker, “Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA,” Proc. SPIE8380, 83800J (2012).

Appl. Optics (1)

P. E. Ciddor, “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Optics35, 1566–1573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Directed Energy (1)

S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, B. T. McClung, J. J. Cohen, R. M. Randall, and S. J. Cusumano, “Broad-spectrum optical turbulence assessments from climatological temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind,” J. Directed Energy3, 223–228 (2009).

Mon. Wea. Rev. (1)

D. Bolton, “The computation of equivalent potential temperature,” Mon. Wea. Rev.108, 1046–1053 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M.-T. Velluet, M. Vorontsov, P. Schwering, G. Marchid, S. Nicolas, and J. Riker, “Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA,” Proc. SPIE8380, 83800J (2012).

Prog. Optics (1)

F. Roddier, “The Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence in Optical Astronomy” Prog. Optics19, 283–387 (1981).

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

A. Berk, L. Bernstein, G. Anderson, P. Acharya, D. Robertson, J. Chetwynd, and S. Adler-Golden, “{MODTRAN} cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to {AVIRIS},” Remote Sens. Environ.65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Z. Jacobson, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2005).

V. Tatarskii, The Effects of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971).

S. Fiorino, R. Randall, A. Downs, R. Bartell, M. Krizo, and S. Cusumano, “Three-dimensional optical turbulence assessments from doppler weather radar for laser applications,” in “6th DEPS Systems Symposium” (2011).

J. J. Cohen, “Demonstration and verification of a broad spectrum anomalous dispersion effects tool for index of refraction and optical turbulence calculations,” Master’s thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology (2009).

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