Abstract

We characterize extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) of the rare-earth element Gd. The energy conversion efficiency (CE) and the spectral purity in the mid-IR LPPs at λL = 10.6 μm were higher than for solid-state LPPs at λL = 1.06 μm, because the plasma produced is optically thin due to the lower critical density, resulting in a CE of 0.7%. The peak wavelength remained fixed at 6.76 nm for all laser intensities studied. Plasma parameters at a mid-IR laser intensity of 1.3×1011 W/cm2 was also evaluated by use of the hydrodynamic simulation code to produce the EUV emission at 6.76 nm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Ueno, G. Soumagne, A. Sumitani, A. Endo, and T. Higashiguchi, “Enhancement of extreme ultraviolet emission from a CO2laser-produced Sn plasma using a cavity target,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, F.-C. Kühl, P. Groβmann, P. Vrba, and K. Mann, “Emission properties of ns and ps laser-induced soft x-ray sources using pulsed gas jets,” Opt. Express21, 12831–12842 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, T. Otsuka, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Investigation of Gd and Tb plasmas for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography based on multilayer mirror performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

V. Y. Banine, K. N. Koshelev, and G. H. P. M. Swinkls, “Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography,” J. Phys. D44, 253001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Gowa Oyama, A. Oshima, M. Washio, and S. Tagawa, “Evaluation of resist sensitivity in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray region for next-generation lithography,” AIP Advances1, 042153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, P. Dunne, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, and G. O’Sullivan, “Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7nm for future lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 231502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. A. George, K.-C. Hou, K. Takenoshita, A. Galvanauskas, and M. C. Richardson, “13.5 nm EUV generation from tin-doped droplets using a fiber laser,” Opt. Express15, 16348–16356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ueno, G. Soumagne, A. Sumitani, A. Endo, and T. Higashiguchi, “Enhancement of extreme ultraviolet emission from a CO2laser-produced Sn plasma using a cavity target,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, “Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 041503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

P. K. Carroll and G. O’Sullivan, “Ground-state configurations of ionic species I through XVI for Z= 57–74 and the interpretation of 4d– 4f emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A25, 275–286 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. P. Christiansen, D. E. T. F. Ashby, and K. V. Roberts, “MEDUSA a one-dimensional laser fusion code,” Comput. Phys. Commun.7, 271–287 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys.44, 3524–3537 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Akinaga, K.

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, “Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 041503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashby, D. E. T. F.

J. P. Christiansen, D. E. T. F. Ashby, and K. V. Roberts, “MEDUSA a one-dimensional laser fusion code,” Comput. Phys. Commun.7, 271–287 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Banine, V. Y.

V. Y. Banine, K. N. Koshelev, and G. H. P. M. Swinkls, “Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography,” J. Phys. D44, 253001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boeij, W.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bornebroek, F.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, P. K.

P. K. Carroll and G. O’Sullivan, “Ground-state configurations of ionic species I through XVI for Z= 57–74 and the interpretation of 4d– 4f emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A25, 275–286 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, J. P.

J. P. Christiansen, D. E. T. F. Ashby, and K. V. Roberts, “MEDUSA a one-dimensional laser fusion code,” Comput. Phys. Commun.7, 271–287 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Colombant, D.

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys.44, 3524–3537 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, R. D.

R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1981).

Cummins, T.

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dunne, P.

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, T. Otsuka, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Investigation of Gd and Tb plasmas for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography based on multilayer mirror performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, P. Dunne, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, and G. O’Sullivan, “Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7nm for future lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 231502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Endo, A.

B. Li, T. Otsuka, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Investigation of Gd and Tb plasmas for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography based on multilayer mirror performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, P. Dunne, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, and G. O’Sullivan, “Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7nm for future lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 231502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, G. Soumagne, A. Sumitani, A. Endo, and T. Higashiguchi, “Enhancement of extreme ultraviolet emission from a CO2laser-produced Sn plasma using a cavity target,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feigl, T.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kries, E. Louis, T. Feigl, and S. Yulin, “Status of Multilayer Coatings for EUV Lithography,” in Proc. 2011 International Workshop on EUV Lithography, Maui, Hawaii, 13–17 June 2011.

Galvanauskas, A.

George, S. A.

Gowa Oyama, T.

T. Gowa Oyama, A. Oshima, M. Washio, and S. Tagawa, “Evaluation of resist sensitivity in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray region for next-generation lithography,” AIP Advances1, 042153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Großmann, P.

Harned, N.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Higashiguchi, T.

B. Li, T. Otsuka, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Investigation of Gd and Tb plasmas for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography based on multilayer mirror performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, P. Dunne, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, and G. O’Sullivan, “Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7nm for future lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 231502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, G. Soumagne, A. Sumitani, A. Endo, and T. Higashiguchi, “Enhancement of extreme ultraviolet emission from a CO2laser-produced Sn plasma using a cavity target,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hori, T.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hou, K.-C.

Jiang, W.

B. Li, T. Otsuka, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Investigation of Gd and Tb plasmas for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography based on multilayer mirror performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, P. Dunne, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, and G. O’Sullivan, “Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7nm for future lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 231502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jong, I.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kawasuji, Y.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kilbane, D.

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, T.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kool, R.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koshelev, K. N.

V. Y. Banine, K. N. Koshelev, and G. H. P. M. Swinkls, “Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography,” J. Phys. D44, 253001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kries, M.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kries, E. Louis, T. Feigl, and S. Yulin, “Status of Multilayer Coatings for EUV Lithography,” in Proc. 2011 International Workshop on EUV Lithography, Maui, Hawaii, 13–17 June 2011.

Kühl, F.-C.

Kürz, P.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

B. Li, T. Otsuka, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Investigation of Gd and Tb plasmas for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography based on multilayer mirror performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, P. Dunne, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, and G. O’Sullivan, “Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7nm for future lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 231502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kries, E. Louis, T. Feigl, and S. Yulin, “Status of Multilayer Coatings for EUV Lithography,” in Proc. 2011 International Workshop on EUV Lithography, Maui, Hawaii, 13–17 June 2011.

E. Louis, I. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, and S. Müllender, “Multilayer Development for Extreme Ultraviolet and Shorter Wavelength Lithography,” in Proc. International Workshop on EUV and Soft X-ray Sources, UCD, Dublin, Ireland, 7–10 November 2011.

Lowisch, M.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Makhotkin, I.

E. Louis, I. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, and S. Müllender, “Multilayer Development for Extreme Ultraviolet and Shorter Wavelength Lithography,” in Proc. International Workshop on EUV and Soft X-ray Sources, UCD, Dublin, Ireland, 7–10 November 2011.

Mann, K.

Matsumoto, A.

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, “Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 041503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, H.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meiling, H.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mizoguchi, H.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Müllender, S.

E. Louis, I. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, and S. Müllender, “Multilayer Development for Extreme Ultraviolet and Shorter Wavelength Lithography,” in Proc. International Workshop on EUV and Soft X-ray Sources, UCD, Dublin, Ireland, 7–10 November 2011.

Müller, M.

Nakarai, H.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, K. M.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

O’Gorman, C.

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, G.

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, T. Otsuka, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Investigation of Gd and Tb plasmas for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography based on multilayer mirror performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, P. Dunne, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, and G. O’Sullivan, “Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7nm for future lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 231502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Carroll and G. O’Sullivan, “Ground-state configurations of ionic species I through XVI for Z= 57–74 and the interpretation of 4d– 4f emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A25, 275–286 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ockwell, D.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, T.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, “Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 041503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, S.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oshima, A.

T. Gowa Oyama, A. Oshima, M. Washio, and S. Tagawa, “Evaluation of resist sensitivity in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray region for next-generation lithography,” AIP Advances1, 042153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, T.

B. Li, T. Otsuka, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Investigation of Gd and Tb plasmas for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography based on multilayer mirror performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, P. Dunne, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, and G. O’Sullivan, “Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7nm for future lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 231502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, Y.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kries, E. Louis, T. Feigl, and S. Yulin, “Status of Multilayer Coatings for EUV Lithography,” in Proc. 2011 International Workshop on EUV Lithography, Maui, Hawaii, 13–17 June 2011.

Richardson, M. C.

Roberts, K. V.

J. P. Christiansen, D. E. T. F. Ashby, and K. V. Roberts, “MEDUSA a one-dimensional laser fusion code,” Comput. Phys. Commun.7, 271–287 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kries, E. Louis, T. Feigl, and S. Yulin, “Status of Multilayer Coatings for EUV Lithography,” in Proc. 2011 International Workshop on EUV Lithography, Maui, Hawaii, 13–17 June 2011.

Saitou, T.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Setten, E.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, Y.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sokell, E.

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soumagne, G.

Y. Ueno, G. Soumagne, A. Sumitani, A. Endo, and T. Higashiguchi, “Enhancement of extreme ultraviolet emission from a CO2laser-produced Sn plasma using a cavity target,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stoeldraijer, J.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sumitani, A.

Y. Ueno, G. Soumagne, A. Sumitani, A. Endo, and T. Higashiguchi, “Enhancement of extreme ultraviolet emission from a CO2laser-produced Sn plasma using a cavity target,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swinkls, G. H. P. M.

V. Y. Banine, K. N. Koshelev, and G. H. P. M. Swinkls, “Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography,” J. Phys. D44, 253001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tagawa, S.

T. Gowa Oyama, A. Oshima, M. Washio, and S. Tagawa, “Evaluation of resist sensitivity in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray region for next-generation lithography,” AIP Advances1, 042153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, A.

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, “Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 041503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takenoshita, K.

Tanaka, H.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, “Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 041503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tonon, G. F.

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys.44, 3524–3537 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, Y.

Y. Ueno, G. Soumagne, A. Sumitani, A. Endo, and T. Higashiguchi, “Enhancement of extreme ultraviolet emission from a CO2laser-produced Sn plasma using a cavity target,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vrba, P.

Wagner, C.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Washio, M.

T. Gowa Oyama, A. Oshima, M. Washio, and S. Tagawa, “Evaluation of resist sensitivity in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray region for next-generation lithography,” AIP Advances1, 042153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yanagida, T.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Nakarai, T. Abe, T. Ohta, K. M. Nowak, Y. Kawasuji, H. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, T. Hori, T. Kodama, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yanagida, T. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, S. Okazaki, and T. Saitou, “LPP-EUV light source development for high volume manufacturing lithography,” Proc. SPIE8679,86790A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Young, S.

H. Meiling, W. Boeij, F. Bornebroek, N. Harned, I. Jong, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, R. Peeters, E. Setten, J. Stoeldraijer, C. Wagner, S. Young, R. Kool, P. Kürz, and M. Lowisch, “From performance validation to volume introduction of ASML’s NXE platform,” Proc. SPIE8322,83221G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, N.

B. Li, T. Otsuka, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Investigation of Gd and Tb plasmas for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography based on multilayer mirror performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Cummins, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, C. O’Gorman, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, P. Dunne, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, and G. O’Sullivan, “Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7nm for future lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 231502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, D. Kilbane, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99,191502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 231503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5–6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kries, E. Louis, T. Feigl, and S. Yulin, “Status of Multilayer Coatings for EUV Lithography,” in Proc. 2011 International Workshop on EUV Lithography, Maui, Hawaii, 13–17 June 2011.

Zoethout, E.

E. Louis, I. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, and S. Müllender, “Multilayer Development for Extreme Ultraviolet and Shorter Wavelength Lithography,” in Proc. International Workshop on EUV and Soft X-ray Sources, UCD, Dublin, Ireland, 7–10 November 2011.

AIP Advances (1)

T. Gowa Oyama, A. Oshima, M. Washio, and S. Tagawa, “Evaluation of resist sensitivity in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray region for next-generation lithography,” AIP Advances1, 042153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient ‘water window’ source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time-integrated EUV emission spectra from the Nd:YAG LPPs at different laser intensities of 9.7 × 1011 (a), 2.2 × 1012 (b), and 6.6 × 1012 W/cm2 (c), respectively. The peak wavelength shifts from 6.7 to 6.8 nm with increasing the laser intensity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-integrated EUV emission spectra from the CO2 LPPs at different laser intensities of 5.5×1010 (a), 8×1010 (b), 9.8×1010 (c), and 1.3×1011 W/cm2 (d), respectively. The peak wavelength of 6.76 nm remains constant with increasing the laser intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron temperature, Te (a,c) and electron density, log ne (b,d) distributions as a function of time and space using Nd:YAG (left column (a,b)) and CO2 (right column (c,d)) lasers simulated by the modified hydrodynamic code: MED103.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical evaluation of the Gd plasma spectra at the electron temperatures of 62, 68, and 74 eV (a). Theoretical spectra (red, solid line) that best fit the experimental time-integrated spectrum (d) (blue, solid line) shown in Fig. 2 in CO2 LPP at the laser intensity of 1.3 × 1011 W/cm2 with the CE of 0.7% (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser intensity dependence on the spectral (a) and conversion efficiencies (b) in the CO2 (circles) and Nd:YAG LPPs (rectangles), respectively.

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