Abstract

Hybrid circuits combining traditional nanophotonic components with carbon-based materials are emerging as a promising platform for optoelectronic devices. We demonstrate such circuits by integrating single-layer graphene films with silicon nitride waveguides as a new architecture for broadband optical operation. Using high-quality microring resonators and Mach-Zehnder interferometers with extinction ratios beyond 40 dB we realize flexible circuits for phase-sensitive detection on chip. Hybrid graphene-photonic devices are fabricated via mechanical transfer and lithographic structuring, allowing for prolonged light-matter interactions. Our approach holds promise for studying optical processes in low-dimensional physical systems and for realizing electrically tunable photonic circuits.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

B. Y. Zhang, T. Liu, B. Meng, X. Li, G. Liang, X. Hu, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband high photoresponse from pure monolayer graphene photodetector,” Nat. Commun.4, 1811 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology24(18), 185202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cheng, J. Bai, L. Liao, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, L. Liu, Y.-C. Lin, S. Jiang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “High-frequency self-aligned graphene transistors with transferred gate stacks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.109(29), 11588–11592 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu and W. Zhao, “Nanoscale electro-optic modulators based on graphene-slot waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(6), 1490–1496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Mayorov, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, L. Britnell, R. Jalil, L. A. Ponomarenko, P. Blake, K. S. Novoselov, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and A. K. Geim, “Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2396–2399 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Suk, A. Kitt, C. W. Magnuson, Y. Hao, S. Ahmed, J. An, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of CVD-grown monolayer graphene onto arbitrary substrates,” ACS Nano5(9), 6916–6924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. Heck, D. John, D. Dai, M. C. Tien, J. S. Barton, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Express19(4), 3163–3174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Tien, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. T. Spencer, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-high quality factor planar Si3N4 ring resonators on Si substrates,” Opt. Express19(14), 13551–13556 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett.10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Vasko, “Saturation of interband absorption in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 245422 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. H. Castro Neto, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Murali, Y. Yang, K. Brenner, T. Beck, and J. D. Meindl, “Breakdown current density of graphene nanoribbons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, “High confinement micron-scale silicon nitride high Q ring resonator,” Opt. Express17(14), 11366–11370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.129, 012004 (2008).

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Kuzmenko, E. van Heumen, F. Carbone, and D. van der Marel, “Universal optical conductance of graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(11), 117401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

L. A. Falkovsky and A. A. Varlamov, “Space-time dispersion of graphene conductivity,” Eur. Phys. J. B56(4), 281–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity opto-mechanics,” Opt. Express15(25), 17172–17205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Šiňor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide-coupled ring microresonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(9–11), 781–797 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.7(4–6), 453–458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Ando, Y. Zheng, and H. Suzuura, “Dynamical conductivity and zero-mode anomaly in honeycomb lattices,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.71(5), 1318–1324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1974

W. Bludau, A. Onton, and W. Heinke, “Temperature dependence of the band gap of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.45(4), 1846–1848 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, S.

J. W. Suk, A. Kitt, C. W. Magnuson, Y. Hao, S. Ahmed, J. An, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of CVD-grown monolayer graphene onto arbitrary substrates,” ACS Nano5(9), 6916–6924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, J.-H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett.10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, J.

J. W. Suk, A. Kitt, C. W. Magnuson, Y. Hao, S. Ahmed, J. An, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of CVD-grown monolayer graphene onto arbitrary substrates,” ACS Nano5(9), 6916–6924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ando, T.

T. Ando, Y. Zheng, and H. Suzuura, “Dynamical conductivity and zero-mode anomaly in honeycomb lattices,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.71(5), 1318–1324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. M.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anugrah, Y.

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett.10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, J.

R. Cheng, J. Bai, L. Liao, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, L. Liu, Y.-C. Lin, S. Jiang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “High-frequency self-aligned graphene transistors with transferred gate stacks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.109(29), 11588–11592 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balandin, A. A.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bao, W.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Ju, L.

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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuura, H.

T. Ando, Y. Zheng, and H. Suzuura, “Dynamical conductivity and zero-mode anomaly in honeycomb lattices,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.71(5), 1318–1324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swan, A. K.

J. W. Suk, A. Kitt, C. W. Magnuson, Y. Hao, S. Ahmed, J. An, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of CVD-grown monolayer graphene onto arbitrary substrates,” ACS Nano5(9), 6916–6924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, D. T. H.

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology24(18), 185202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, T.

A. S. Mayorov, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, L. Britnell, R. Jalil, L. A. Ponomarenko, P. Blake, K. S. Novoselov, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and A. K. Geim, “Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2396–2399 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teweldebrhan, D.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, M. C.

Tien, M.-C.

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. B. Kuzmenko, E. van Heumen, F. Carbone, and D. van der Marel, “Universal optical conductance of graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(11), 117401 (2008).
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A. B. Kuzmenko, E. van Heumen, F. Carbone, and D. van der Marel, “Universal optical conductance of graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(11), 117401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. A. Falkovsky and A. A. Varlamov, “Space-time dispersion of graphene conductivity,” Eur. Phys. J. B56(4), 281–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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F. T. Vasko, “Saturation of interband absorption in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 245422 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Y. Zhang, T. Liu, B. Meng, X. Li, G. Liang, X. Hu, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband high photoresponse from pure monolayer graphene photodetector,” Nat. Commun.4, 1811 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. S. Mayorov, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, L. Britnell, R. Jalil, L. A. Ponomarenko, P. Blake, K. S. Novoselov, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and A. K. Geim, “Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2396–2399 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
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J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(1), 43–48 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Murali, Y. Yang, K. Brenner, T. Beck, and J. D. Meindl, “Breakdown current density of graphene nanoribbons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B. Y.

B. Y. Zhang, T. Liu, B. Meng, X. Li, G. Liang, X. Hu, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband high photoresponse from pure monolayer graphene photodetector,” Nat. Commun.4, 1811 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

Zheng, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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T. Ando, Y. Zheng, and H. Suzuura, “Dynamical conductivity and zero-mode anomaly in honeycomb lattices,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.71(5), 1318–1324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

R. Cheng, J. Bai, L. Liao, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, L. Liu, Y.-C. Lin, S. Jiang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “High-frequency self-aligned graphene transistors with transferred gate stacks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.109(29), 11588–11592 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.-E.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett.10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Suk, A. Kitt, C. W. Magnuson, Y. Hao, S. Ahmed, J. An, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of CVD-grown monolayer graphene onto arbitrary substrates,” ACS Nano5(9), 6916–6924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlach, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer-dispersed liquid crystal displays on flexible polymeric substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 1088 (2002).
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H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(11), 111110 (2012).
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R. Murali, Y. Yang, K. Brenner, T. Beck, and J. D. Meindl, “Breakdown current density of graphene nanoribbons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243114 (2009).
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Eur. Phys. J. B

L. A. Falkovsky and A. A. Varlamov, “Space-time dispersion of graphene conductivity,” Eur. Phys. J. B56(4), 281–284 (2007).
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W. Bludau, A. Onton, and W. Heinke, “Temperature dependence of the band gap of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.45(4), 1846–1848 (1974).
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J. Phys. Conf. Ser.

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.129, 012004 (2008).

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

T. Ando, Y. Zheng, and H. Suzuura, “Dynamical conductivity and zero-mode anomaly in honeycomb lattices,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.71(5), 1318–1324 (2002).
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Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.7(4–6), 453–458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett.10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Mayorov, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, L. Britnell, R. Jalil, L. A. Ponomarenko, P. Blake, K. S. Novoselov, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and A. K. Geim, “Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2396–2399 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett.8(3), 902–907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology24(18), 185202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun.

B. Y. Zhang, T. Liu, B. Meng, X. Li, G. Liang, X. Hu, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband high photoresponse from pure monolayer graphene photodetector,” Nat. Commun.4, 1811 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
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Opt. Express

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Phys. Rev. B

F. T. Vasko, “Saturation of interband absorption in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B82(24), 245422 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Kuzmenko, E. van Heumen, F. Carbone, and D. van der Marel, “Universal optical conductance of graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(11), 117401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
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R. Cheng, J. Bai, L. Liao, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, L. Liu, Y.-C. Lin, S. Jiang, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “High-frequency self-aligned graphene transistors with transferred gate stacks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.109(29), 11588–11592 (2012).
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Science

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. B. Matsko, Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics (CRC Press, 2009).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A graphene layer is placed on top of a partially etched Si3N4 rib waveguide on a silica substrate. Therefore, the light-graphene interaction length is limited only by the length of the graphene layer and a large amount of light propagating along the waveguide is absorbed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Mode profile of the fundamental TE-like mode in a Si3N4 rib waveguide with a graphene layer on top of it. The inset shows a close-up of the graphene layer. b) When the chemical potential is shifted, the attenuation coefficient shows a step-like behavior because interband excitations are prevented. However, due to thermal excitation this step is broadened. Additionally to the attenuation coefficient, the group index of the mode also changes. It exhibits a small maximum before it decreases with increasing chemical potential.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical micrograph of a ring resonator coupled to a bus waveguide (a) and of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (b). The black triangles visible at the bottom of the images are apodized focusing grating couplers, which are used to couple light into and out of the nanophotonic circuit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of different reflow temperatures. a) For ring resonators a reflow temperature of 110 °C yields the highest Q-factors. b) The Y-splitters (see inset) in MZIs exhibit a very fine tip, which is endangered in the reflow process. Therefore, with a lower temperature of 100 °C the best results are achieved. The ER of the MZI exhibits a flat behavior exceeding 40 dB over a spectral range between 1550 - 1620 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Measured Q-factors of ring resonators with radii up to 140 μm. For a radius larger than 100 μm no further increase in Q was observed. Rings with a radius of 40 μm exhibit high bending losses such that the increase of the Q-factor with gap size is too low to be seen on this scale. The highest Q-factor is achieved for a ring with a radius of 140 μm at a gap of 2.2 μm. One resonance of this resonator is shown in b). Due to coupling of the clockwise and counterclockwise propagating mode in the ring, the resonance is split into two dips.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Design of a MZI on which a graphene layer with length l has been transferred. b) Transmission curves of MZIs in which graphene flakes with varying length have been transferred. With increasing length the ER decreases from 40 dB (without graphene) to less than 10 dB (with a 70 μm long graphene flake).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Data plot of the ER of MZIs depending on the length of the graphene flake placed on one of the MZI arms. b) The ER decreases accordingly to Eq. (5.2). c), d) Optical micrographs of a CVD graphene layer patterned into a 30 μm and 60 μm long flake respectively. Together with the graphene layer there are also some contaminating particles transferred onto the sample.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ( ω,μ,T,τ )= σ intra ( ω,μ,T,τ )+ σ inter ( ω,μ,T,τ ) = e 2 2i k B T π( ω+i τ 1 ) ln( 2cosh( μ 2 k B T ) )+ e 2 ( G( ω 2 ) 4ω iπ 0 G( ε )G( ω /2 ) 2 ω 2 4 ε 2 dε ),
G( ε )= sinh( ε/ k B T ) cosh( μ/ k B T )+cosh( ε/ k B T ) .
P out = 1 4 P in ( 1+ e αl +2 e αl cos( 2π λ ( n g ΔL+Δ n g l ) ) ),
ER= P out,max P out,min = ( 1+ e αl /2 1 e αl /2 ) 2 .
α=( 0.067±0.008 ) dB / μm
y 0 =( 1.07±0.4 )dB.

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