Abstract

Design and experimental characterization of Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers supporting 6 spatial modes in wavelength division multiplexing regime are reported. The study is first focused on Er3+-doped circular ring-structured profiles accessible with conventional fiber manufacturing techniques. However, these fiber designs, optimized for gain equalization, prove to be difficult to obtain experimentally. So as to go beyond these limits, an alternative approach based on a “pixelated” Er3+-doped core is proposed. Several possible designs are theoretically investigated and a first fabrication of micro-structured fiber is presented.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mat. Express1, 234–242 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol-gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10, 055106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (6)

2010 (1)

Y. Lu, B. Julsgaard, M. Christian Petersen, R.V. Skougaard Jensen, T. Garm Pedersen, K. Pedersen, and A. Nylandsted Larsen, “Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141903–141903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Chraplyvy, “The coming capacity crunch,” ECOC 2009, p.1 (2009).

2008 (1)

1991 (1)

C.R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.9, 271–283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Alam, S.

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Design of Four-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier with Low Differential Modal Gain for Modal Division Multiplexed Transmissions,” OFC 2013, paper OTu3G.3. (2013).

Alam, S.U

Astruc, M.

Bai, N.

Baskiotis, C.

Baz, A.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol-gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10, 055106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Berdagué, S.

Bigo, S.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express19, 16593–16600 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. A. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100 Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.C.3 (2011).

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Bigot, L.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol-gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10, 055106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, C. Koebele, M. Salsi, and Y. Quiquempois, “Modeling and Characterization of a Few Mode EDFA Supporting Four Mode Groups for Mode Division Multiplexing,” Opt. Express20, 27051–27061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mat. Express1, 234–242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Bigot-Astruc, M.

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, C. Koebele, M. Salsi, and Y. Quiquempois, “Modeling and Characterization of a Few Mode EDFA Supporting Four Mode Groups for Mode Division Multiplexing,” Opt. Express20, 27051–27061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Boivin, D.

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” ECOC 2011, paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7 (2011).

Bolle, C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Bolle, C. A.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. A. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100 Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.C.3 (2011).

Bouazaoui, M.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol-gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10, 055106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mat. Express1, 234–242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boutin, A.

Bouwmans, G.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol-gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10, 055106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mat. Express1, 234–242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brindel, P.

Burrows, E.C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Capoen, B.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mat. Express1, 234–242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cerou, F.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Charlet, G.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express19, 16593–16600 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. A. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100 Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.C.3 (2011).

Chraplyvy, A.

A. Chraplyvy, “The coming capacity crunch,” ECOC 2009, p.1 (2009).

Christian Petersen, M.

Y. Lu, B. Julsgaard, M. Christian Petersen, R.V. Skougaard Jensen, T. Garm Pedersen, K. Pedersen, and A. Nylandsted Larsen, “Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141903–141903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Gabory, E.L.T.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Delbue, R.

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Desurvire, E.

C.R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.9, 271–283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcello, F.V.

El Hamzaoui, H.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol-gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10, 055106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mat. Express1, 234–242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eschrich, T.

Esmaeelpour, M.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R-J.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Facq, P.

Fini, J.M.

Fishteyn, M.

Fontaine, N.K.

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Fsaifes, I.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol-gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10, 055106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Garm Pedersen, T.

Y. Lu, B. Julsgaard, M. Christian Petersen, R.V. Skougaard Jensen, T. Garm Pedersen, K. Pedersen, and A. Nylandsted Larsen, “Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141903–141903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genevaux, P.

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Giles, C.R.

C.R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.9, 271–283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A.H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Grimm, S.

Guan, B.

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Hayashi, T.

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Hu, J.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Huang, Y-K.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Igarashi, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Imamura, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Ip, E.

N. Bai, E. Ip, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber amplifier with tunable modal gain using a reconfigurable multimode pump,” Opt. Express19, 16601–16611 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Ito, T.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Jiang, Z.

Julsgaard, B.

Y. Lu, B. Julsgaard, M. Christian Petersen, R.V. Skougaard Jensen, T. Garm Pedersen, K. Pedersen, and A. Nylandsted Larsen, “Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141903–141903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Q. Kang, E.L. Lim, Y. Jung, J.K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S.U Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP01 pump configuration,” Opt. Express20, 20835–20843 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Design of Four-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier with Low Differential Modal Gain for Modal Division Multiplexed Transmissions,” OFC 2013, paper OTu3G.3. (2013).

Just, F.

Kang, Q.

Q. Kang, E.L. Lim, Y. Jung, J.K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S.U Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP01 pump configuration,” Opt. Express20, 20835–20843 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Design of Four-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier with Low Differential Modal Gain for Modal Division Multiplexed Transmissions,” OFC 2013, paper OTu3G.3. (2013).

Kawaguchi, Y.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Koebele, C.

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, C. Koebele, M. Salsi, and Y. Quiquempois, “Modeling and Characterization of a Few Mode EDFA Supporting Four Mode Groups for Mode Division Multiplexing,” Opt. Express20, 27051–27061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express19, 16593–16600 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. A. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100 Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.C.3 (2011).

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Koreshkov, K.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Korolev, A.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Langner, A.

Le Cocq, G.

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, C. Koebele, M. Salsi, and Y. Quiquempois, “Modeling and Characterization of a Few Mode EDFA Supporting Four Mode Groups for Mode Division Multiplexing,” Opt. Express20, 27051–27061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Le Rouge, A.

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, C. Koebele, M. Salsi, and Y. Quiquempois, “Modeling and Characterization of a Few Mode EDFA Supporting Four Mode Groups for Mode Division Multiplexing,” Opt. Express20, 27051–27061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Leich, M.

Li, G.

Li, M-J.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Lim, E. L.

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Design of Four-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier with Low Differential Modal Gain for Modal Division Multiplexed Transmissions,” OFC 2013, paper OTu3G.3. (2013).

Lim, E.L.

Lingle, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, B. Julsgaard, M. Christian Petersen, R.V. Skougaard Jensen, T. Garm Pedersen, K. Pedersen, and A. Nylandsted Larsen, “Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141903–141903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Maerten, H.

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” ECOC 2011, paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7 (2011).

Marciante, J.R.

Mardoyan, H.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express19, 16593–16600 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Mateo, E.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

McCurdy, A.H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mestre, M. A.

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Mestre, M.A.

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Milord, L.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. A. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100 Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.C.3 (2011).

Mimura, Y.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Monberg, E.M.

Morita, I.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Mumtaz, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nylandsted Larsen, A.

Y. Lu, B. Julsgaard, M. Christian Petersen, R.V. Skougaard Jensen, T. Garm Pedersen, K. Pedersen, and A. Nylandsted Larsen, “Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141903–141903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palou, X.

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Peckham, D.W.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, K.

Y. Lu, B. Julsgaard, M. Christian Petersen, R.V. Skougaard Jensen, T. Garm Pedersen, K. Pedersen, and A. Nylandsted Larsen, “Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141903–141903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.R.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Peyrot, D.

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Poletti, F.

Q. Kang, E.L. Lim, Y. Jung, J.K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S.U Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP01 pump configuration,” Opt. Express20, 20835–20843 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Design of Four-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier with Low Differential Modal Gain for Modal Division Multiplexed Transmissions,” OFC 2013, paper OTu3G.3. (2013).

Provost, L.

Pupalaikis, P.

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Quiquempois, Y.

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, C. Koebele, M. Salsi, and Y. Quiquempois, “Modeling and Characterization of a Few Mode EDFA Supporting Four Mode Groups for Mode Division Multiplexing,” Opt. Express20, 27051–27061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Randel, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Razdobreev, I.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mat. Express1, 234–242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D.J.

Q. Kang, E.L. Lim, Y. Jung, J.K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S.U Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP01 pump configuration,” Opt. Express20, 20835–20843 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Design of Four-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier with Low Differential Modal Gain for Modal Division Multiplexed Transmissions,” OFC 2013, paper OTu3G.3. (2013).

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. A. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100 Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.C.3 (2011).

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Sahu, J.K.

Saito, T.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Salsi, M.

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, C. Koebele, M. Salsi, and Y. Quiquempois, “Modeling and Characterization of a Few Mode EDFA Supporting Four Mode Groups for Mode Division Multiplexing,” Opt. Express20, 27051–27061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express19, 16593–16600 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. A. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100 Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.C.3 (2011).

Sasaki, T.

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Schmidt, C.

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Schotz, G.

Sierra, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sillard, P.

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, C. Koebele, M. Salsi, and Y. Quiquempois, “Modeling and Characterization of a Few Mode EDFA Supporting Four Mode Groups for Mode Division Multiplexing,” Opt. Express20, 27051–27061 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sillard, “New fibers for ultra-high capacity transport,” Opt. Fiber Technol.17, 495–502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express19, 16593–16600 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” ECOC 2011, paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7 (2011).

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. A. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100 Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.C.3 (2011).

Skougaard Jensen, R.V.

Y. Lu, B. Julsgaard, M. Christian Petersen, R.V. Skougaard Jensen, T. Garm Pedersen, K. Pedersen, and A. Nylandsted Larsen, “Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141903–141903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sperti, D.

Such, M.

Sugizaki, R.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Sureka, A.

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Suzuki, M.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Takeshima, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Tanaka, A.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Taru, T.

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Taunay, T.

Tran, P.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express19, 16593–16600 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Tsuchida, Y.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Tsuritani, T.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Verluise, F.

Vuong, J.

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

Wang, T.

Watanabe, K.

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

Winzer, P.J.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Wood, W.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Yan, M.F.

Yano, Y.

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

Zhu, B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Lu, B. Julsgaard, M. Christian Petersen, R.V. Skougaard Jensen, T. Garm Pedersen, K. Pedersen, and A. Nylandsted Larsen, “Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 141903–141903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ECOC 2009 (1)

A. Chraplyvy, “The coming capacity crunch,” ECOC 2009, p.1 (2009).

J. Light. Technol. (1)

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A.H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E.C. Burrows, R-J. Essiambre, P.J. Winzer, D.W. Peckham, A.H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C.R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.9, 271–283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol-gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10, 055106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

P. Sillard, “New fibers for ultra-high capacity transport,” Opt. Fiber Technol.17, 495–502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mat. Express (1)

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mat. Express1, 234–242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. A. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100 Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.C.3 (2011).

M. Salsi, J. Vuong, C. Koebele, P. Genevaux, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, and G. Charlet, “In-line few-mode optical amplifier with erbium profile tuned to support LP01, LP11and LP21mode groups,” ECOC 2012, paper Tu.3.F.1 (2012).

H. Takahashi, T. Tsuritani, E.L.T. de Gabory, T. Ito, W.R. Peng, K. Igarashi, K. Takeshima, Y. Kawaguchi, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, Y. Mimura, K. Maeda, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, and M. Suzuki, “First Demonstration of MC-EDFA-Repeatered SDM Transmission of 40 × 128-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK Signals per Core over 6,160-km 7-core MCF,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.C.3 (2012).

E. Ip, M-J. Li, K. Bennett, Y-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, A. Korolev, K. Koreshkov, W. Wood, E. Mateo, J. Hu, and Y. Yano, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud Wavelength- and Mode-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 10×50-km Spans of Few- Mode Fiber with a Gain-Equalized Few-Mode EDFA,” OFC 2013, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5A.2 (2013).

R. Ryf, R-J. Essiambre, A.H. Gnauck, S. Randel, M.A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P.J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber,” OFC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, PDP5C.2 (2012).

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N.K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” ECOC 2012, Post-Deadline paper, Th.3.A.6 (2012).

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D.J. Richardson, “Design of Four-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier with Low Differential Modal Gain for Modal Division Multiplexed Transmissions,” OFC 2013, paper OTu3G.3. (2013).

P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” ECOC 2011, paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7 (2011).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Theoretical Er3+ doped fiber design. Internal and external radii of ring doped region are set at 3.5 and 7.5 μm respectively, while the radius of central doped region (Rdc) can vary from 0 to 3.5 μm. (b) ΔG value between 24 signals distributed over modes and spectrum, calculated as a function of Rdc. Fiber length is 35 m long, optimal length for conserving LP11 and LP21 gain equalization. Pump power is 200 mW at 980 nm and equally distributed on LP01, LP02 and LP03 modes. Each signal has an input power of −17 dBm. (c) Gain values of the 24 signals (for the different modes and wavelengths) if Rdc is set at 1.75 μm

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gain values of the 24 signals (for the different modes and wavelengths) when fiber length is set at 39 m, the length that minimizes gain excursion. Pump power is 200 mW equally distributed on LP01, LP02 and LP03 modes. Each signal has an input power of −17 dBm. Rdc is set at 1.75 μm

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of average gain (Gave) and gain excursion (ΔG) as a function of pump power for signal power set at −17 dBm per channel (left) or as a function of signal power for pump power set at 200 mW (right). These simulations are performed for the optimized MCVD design presented on Fig. 4(a). In both cases, fiber length is adjusted for each pump or signal power so as to minimize gain excursion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Refractive index profile and EDP that was targeted. (b) Refractive index profile and Er3+ profile that has been obtained by MCVD process.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results of gain as a function of pump power coupled in the FM-EDF with opto-geometrical characteristics reported in Fig. 4(b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Er3+ doped fiber design that considers a more realistic profile. Ring EDP is taken from our previous fabrication. Centered doping region is calculated following a Gaussian distribution. (b) ΔG value between 24 signals distributed over modes and spectrum, calculated as a function of ωdc. Pump power is 200 mW equally distributed on LP01, LP02 and LP03 modes. Each signal has an input power of −17 dBm. c) Gain values of the 24 signals (for the different modes and wavelengths) if ωdc is equal to 1.4 μm

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic illustration of the concept proposed in this paper: silica capillary, pure sol-gel silica glass and sol-gel Er3+ doped rods are stacked together to obtain a PCF with micro-structured core and air/silica cladding.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intensity profiles of the guided modes in the PCF, Λ = 3.3 μm and d/Λ = 0.3, at: a) 1550 nm b) 980 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Design of the micro-structured -ring shaped EDP in the PCF with additional Er3+ doping at the center of the core. Fiber length is 7.5 m (length that minimizes gain excursion) (b) Gain values of the 24 signals (for the different modes and wavelengths) achievable with this design.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Micro-structured EDP in the PCF, with two additional doped cells in the second rod rings region of the core. Fiber length is 7 m (length that minimizes gain excursion). (b) Gain values of the 24 signals (for the different modes and wavelengths) achievable with this design.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Micro-structured EDP in the PCF, with three doped cells in the second ring of the core region, and centered doped cell. Fiber length is 6.5 m (length that minimizes gain excursion). (b) Gain values of the 24 signals (for the different modes and wavelengths) achievable with this design. (c) Design of the PCF with three additional doped cells in the second ring of the core region and undoped centered cell. Fiber length is 7 m (length that minimizes gain excursion). (d) Gain values of the 24 signals (for the different modes and wavelengths) achievable with this design.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Micro-structured EDP in the PCF, with three doped cells in the second ring region of the core, and centered doped cell doped with half the concentration compared to the others. Fiber length is 6.5 m (length that minimizes gain excursion). (b) Gain values of the 24 signals (for the different modes and wavelengths) achievable with this design.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Evolution of average gain (Gave) and gain excursion (ΔG) as a function of pump power for signal power set at −17 dBm per channel (left) or as a function of signal power for pump power set at 200 mW (right). These simulations are performed for the optimized micro-structured core design presented on Fig. 12(a). In both cases, fiber length is adjusted for each pump or signal power so as to minimize gain excursion.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Pictures of the micro-structured cane of the PCF. Back-Scattered Electron (BSE) image of the cane (in the center of the picture) and classical Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the fiber have been superimposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept proposed in this work. The erbium profile, obtained by EPMA, along the green dotted axis is presented in inset.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Gain values for the 24 signals that are simultaneously amplified (6 modes × 4 wavelengths) if Rdc is set at 1.75 μm, and fiber length is set at 39 m. DMG and DSG values are also reported. Average gain is 21 dB.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Gain values for the 24 signals that are simultaneously amplified (6 modes × 4 wavelengths) in the micro-structured EDP reported in Fig. 12. DMG and DSG values are also reported. Average gain is 21 dB.

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