Abstract

We report on the effect of a p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer (EBL) on the optical and electrical properties of MgZnO/ZnO multiple quantum wells (MQWs) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL was introduced between the MQWs and p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O layers. The p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL increased the ultraviolet emission by 111.2% at 60 mA and decreased the broad deep-level emission from ZnO LEDs. The calculated band structures and carrier distribution in ZnO LEDs show that p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL effectively suppresses the electron overflow from MQWs to p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O and increases the hole concentration in the MQWs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, D. K. Na, S. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Improved electroluminescence from ZnO light-emitting diodes by p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express21(10), 11698–11704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Optical Properties of ZnO/MgZnO Multiple Quantum Wells Grown by Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(1), R21–R23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, and J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express17(10), 7893–7900 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. X. Qiu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Effect of Mg content on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Li-doped Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

Th. Gruber, C. Kirchner, R. Kling, F. Reuss, and A. Waag, “ZnMgO epilayers and ZnO–ZnMgO quantum wells for optoelectronic applications in the blue and UV spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5359–5361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shakya, K. H. Kim, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. C. Look, “Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B80(1–3), 383–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lin, Z. Fu, and Y. Jia, “Green luminescent center in undoped zinc oxide films deposited on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(7), 943–945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, S.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Amaike, H.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ban, T.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bian, J. M.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bilenko, Y.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bochkareva, N. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. S.

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Optical Properties of ZnO/MgZnO Multiple Quantum Wells Grown by Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(1), R21–R23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, D. K. Na, S. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Improved electroluminescence from ZnO light-emitting diodes by p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express21(10), 11698–11704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chow, P. P.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Czernecki, R.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dabiran, A.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, G. T.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Efremov, A. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falanga, M.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q. J.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franssen, G.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z.

B. Lin, Z. Fu, and Y. Jia, “Green luminescent center in undoped zinc oxide films deposited on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(7), 943–945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, R. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, Th.

Th. Gruber, C. Kirchner, R. Kling, F. Reuss, and A. Waag, “ZnMgO epilayers and ZnO–ZnMgO quantum wells for optoelectronic applications in the blue and UV spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5359–5361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grzanka, S.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X. Q.

M. X. Qiu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Effect of Mg content on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Li-doped Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hahm, J. I.

Han, S. H.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, H. P.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. X. Qiu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Effect of Mg content on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Li-doped Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heikman, S.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hertog, B.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L. Z.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D. K.

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iliadis, A. A.

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Izuno, K.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

B. Lin, Z. Fu, and Y. Jia, “Green luminescent center in undoped zinc oxide films deposited on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(7), 943–945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

S. Shakya, K. H. Kim, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K. A.

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, H.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, D. K. Na, S. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Improved electroluminescence from ZnO light-emitting diodes by p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express21(10), 11698–11704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Optical Properties of ZnO/MgZnO Multiple Quantum Wells Grown by Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(1), R21–R23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karpov, S.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, M.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, D. K. Na, S. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Improved electroluminescence from ZnO light-emitting diodes by p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express21(10), 11698–11704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Optical Properties of ZnO/MgZnO Multiple Quantum Wells Grown by Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(1), R21–R23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. J.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

S. Shakya, K. H. Kim, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, C.

Th. Gruber, C. Kirchner, R. Kling, F. Reuss, and A. Waag, “ZnMgO epilayers and ZnO–ZnMgO quantum wells for optoelectronic applications in the blue and UV spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5359–5361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kling, R.

Th. Gruber, C. Kirchner, R. Kling, F. Reuss, and A. Waag, “ZnMgO epilayers and ZnO–ZnMgO quantum wells for optoelectronic applications in the blue and UV spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5359–5361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krowicki, K.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, N.

Kwon, B. J.

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinovich, D. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. Y.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, D. K. Na, S. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Improved electroluminescence from ZnO light-emitting diodes by p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express21(10), 11698–11704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. P.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, M.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. W.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X. P.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. Lin, Z. Fu, and Y. Jia, “Green luminescent center in undoped zinc oxide films deposited on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(7), 943–945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

C. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, and J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express17(10), 7893–7900 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

D. C. Look, “Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B80(1–3), 383–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lunev, A.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y. M.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mares, J. W.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murazaki, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Na, D. K.

Nakahara, K.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishimoto, Y.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noh, D. Y.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. S.

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohtomo, A.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olmedo, M.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osinsky, A.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, D. K. Na, S. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Improved electroluminescence from ZnO light-emitting diodes by p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express21(10), 11698–11704 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Optical Properties of ZnO/MgZnO Multiple Quantum Wells Grown by Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(1), R21–R23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pattison, P. M.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M. X.

M. X. Qiu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Effect of Mg content on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Li-doped Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, Y. T.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reuss, F.

Th. Gruber, C. Kirchner, R. Kling, F. Reuss, and A. Waag, “ZnMgO epilayers and ZnO–ZnMgO quantum wells for optoelectronic applications in the blue and UV spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5359–5361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, S.

S. Shakya, K. H. Kim, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Y. G.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. C.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takamizu, D.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takasu, H.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targowski, G.

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tarkhin, D. V.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. V.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsukazaki, A.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T.

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vispute, R. D.

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Waag, A.

Th. Gruber, C. Kirchner, R. Kling, F. Reuss, and A. Waag, “ZnMgO epilayers and ZnO–ZnMgO quantum wells for optoelectronic applications in the blue and UV spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5359–5361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

Xie, J. Q.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, W. Z.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z. Z.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. X. Qiu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Effect of Mg content on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Li-doped Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuji, H.

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y. J.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, H. Q.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Z.

M. X. Qiu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Effect of Mg content on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Li-doped Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B. H.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. X. Qiu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Effect of Mg content on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Li-doped Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. Z.

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L. P.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. X. Qiu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Effect of Mg content on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Li-doped Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Shakya, K. H. Kim, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5532–5534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Grzanka, G. Franssen, G. Targowski, K. Krowicki, T. Suski, R. Czernecki, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczyński, “Role of the electron blocking layer in the low-temperature collapse of electroluminescence in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 103507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakahara, S. Akasaka, H. Yuji, K. Tamura, T. Fujii, Y. Nishimoto, D. Takamizu, A. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, H. Amaike, T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, and M. Kawasaki, “Nitrogen doped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO single heterostructure ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(1), 013501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lin, Z. Fu, and Y. Jia, “Green luminescent center in undoped zinc oxide films deposited on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(7), 943–945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gruber, C. Kirchner, R. Kling, F. Reuss, and A. Waag, “ZnMgO epilayers and ZnO–ZnMgO quantum wells for optoelectronic applications in the blue and UV spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5359–5361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. X. Qiu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Effect of Mg content on structural, electrical, and optical properties of Li-doped Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 182116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, B. H. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Optical Properties of ZnO/MgZnO Multiple Quantum Wells Grown by Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(1), R21–R23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. Park, “Recent advances in ZnO-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 26–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Heikman, S. Keller, Y. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Polarization effects in AlGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.93(12), 10114–10118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (3)

D. K. Hwang, M. S. Oh, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “ZnO thin films and light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(22), R387–R412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. C. Sun, J. M. Bian, Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, Y. M. Luo, and G. T. Du, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO/p-ZnO:Sb homojunction light emitting diode on sapphire substrate with metal–organic precursors doped p-type ZnO layer grown by MOCVD technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(19), 195110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, Y. F. Lu, W. Z. Xu, L. P. Zhu, J. Y. Huang, H. P. He, and B. H. Zhao, “Plasma-free nitrogen doping and homojunction light-emitting diodes based on ZnO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(16), 165104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. S. Choi, D. K. Hwang, B. J. Kwon, J. W. Kang, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Effect of VI/II gas ratio on the epitaxial growth of ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(10), 105502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

D. C. Look, “Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B80(1–3), 383–387 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and H. Kanda, “Direct-bandgap properties and evidence for ultraviolet lasing of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal,” Nat. Mater.3(6), 404–409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Semiconductors (1)

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. A. Iliadis, R. D. Vispute, T. Venkatesan, and K. A. Jones, “Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films420–421(1), 478–486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. F. Schubert, “Electron-blocking layers” in Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2006), pp. 81–82.

See http://www.semitech.us/products/SiLENSe/ for details on the software package.

D. E. Sunstein, “A scatter communications link at ultraviolet frequencies,” Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (1968).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the ZnO MQWs LED with a p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) I-V curves of ZnO MQWs LEDs with and without p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL. (b) EL spectra of the ZnO MQWs LEDs with and without the p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL, operating at a forward current of 50 mA. (c) PL spectra of p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL, p-type and n-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O and Mg0.1Zn0.9O/ZnO MQWs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Total output power of ZnO MQWs LEDs with and without the p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL as a function of injection current. (b) Normalized integrated UV emission intensity of ZnO MQWs LEDs with and without the p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL as a function of injection current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated (a) electron and (b) hole concentrations of ZnO MQWs LEDs without and with the p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL. (c) Conduction and (d) valence energy band diagrams with and without p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O EBL.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrical properties of n-type ZnO substrate, n-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O, p-type Mg0.15Zn0.85O, and p-type Mg0.1Zn0.9O layers measured using the van der Pauw method at room temperature.

Metrics