Abstract

A novel method based on distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) continuous wavelength-scanning for acquiring precise spectra of phase-shift fiber gratings is presented. Compared to the traditional method, the spectral resolution retrieved by this method is only limited by the optical line-width of the light source, which can reach up to the order of femtometer and is much higher than that of high-resolution optical spectrum analyzer (generally on the order of picometer). In addition, a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) advantage can be provided owing to a much higher spectral density of DFB-LD than amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source. Precise spectra of three phase-shift fiber grating samples have been obtained at a resolution of 23.5 femtometer.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. St. J. Russell, J. L. Archambault, and L. Reekie, “Fiber gratings,” Phys. World 41–46 (1993).
  2. I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, “UV-written in-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron.28(2), 93–135 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flochhart, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Distributed Feedback Fiber Laser Strain Sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).
  6. P. Wang, J. Chang, C. Zhu, Y. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity response of DFB-FL to external acoustic excitation,” Opt. Laser Technol.49, 227–230 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Qi, Z. Song, S. Li, J. Guo, C. Wang, and G. D. Peng, “Apodized distributed feedback fiber laser with asymmetrical outputs for multiplexed sensing applications,” Opt. Express21(9), 11309–11314 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Yelen, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, “A New Design Approach for Fiber Dfb Lasers With Improved Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Liu, “A novel dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on symmetrical FBG structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(9), 632–634 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. A. Cranch, M. A. Englund, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Intensity Noise Characteristics of Erbium-Doped Distributed-Feedback Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(12), 1579–1586 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).
  14. M. Xue, S. Pan, C. He, R. Guo, and Y. Zhao, “Wideband optical vector network analyzer based on optical single-sideband modulation and optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.38(22), 4900–4902 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Loayssa, R. Hernández, D. Benito, and S. Galech, “Characterization of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra by use of optical single-sideband modulation,” Opt. Lett.29(6), 638–640 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. Tang, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “A high resolution optical vector network analyzer based on a wideband and wavelength-tunable optical single-sideband modulator,” Opt. Express20(6), 6555–6560 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

Z. Tang, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “A high resolution optical vector network analyzer based on a wideband and wavelength-tunable optical single-sideband modulator,” Opt. Express20(6), 6555–6560 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).

2008 (1)

G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flochhart, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Distributed Feedback Fiber Laser Strain Sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).

2007 (2)

X. Liu, “A novel dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on symmetrical FBG structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(9), 632–634 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Loayssa, R. Hernández, D. Benito, and S. Galech, “Characterization of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra by use of optical single-sideband modulation,” Opt. Lett.29(6), 638–640 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yelen, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, “A New Design Approach for Fiber Dfb Lasers With Improved Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. A. Cranch, M. A. Englund, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Intensity Noise Characteristics of Erbium-Doped Distributed-Feedback Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(12), 1579–1586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, “UV-written in-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron.28(2), 93–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Babin, S. A.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benito, D.

Bennion, I.

I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, “UV-written in-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron.28(2), 93–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

P. Wang, J. Chang, C. Zhu, Y. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity response of DFB-FL to external acoustic excitation,” Opt. Laser Technol.49, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).

Churkin, D. V.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cranch, G. A.

G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flochhart, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Distributed Feedback Fiber Laser Strain Sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).

G. A. Cranch, M. A. Englund, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Intensity Noise Characteristics of Erbium-Doped Distributed-Feedback Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(12), 1579–1586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, “UV-written in-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron.28(2), 93–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Englund, M. A.

G. A. Cranch, M. A. Englund, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Intensity Noise Characteristics of Erbium-Doped Distributed-Feedback Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(12), 1579–1586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flochhart, G. M. H.

G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flochhart, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Distributed Feedback Fiber Laser Strain Sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).

Foster, S.

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galech, S.

Guo, J.

Guo, R.

He, C.

Hernández, R.

Hickey, L. M. B.

K. Yelen, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, “A New Design Approach for Fiber Dfb Lasers With Improved Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ismagulov, A. E.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kablukov, S. I.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kirkendall, C. K.

G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flochhart, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Distributed Feedback Fiber Laser Strain Sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).

G. A. Cranch, M. A. Englund, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Intensity Noise Characteristics of Erbium-Doped Distributed-Feedback Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(12), 1579–1586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Liu, T.

J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).

Liu, X.

X. Liu, “A novel dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on symmetrical FBG structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(9), 632–634 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loayssa, A.

Ni, J.

J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).

Nikulin, M. A.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S.

Peng, G.

P. Wang, J. Chang, C. Zhu, Y. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity response of DFB-FL to external acoustic excitation,” Opt. Laser Technol.49, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).

Peng, G. D.

Qi, H.

Song, Z.

Sugden, K.

I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, “UV-written in-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron.28(2), 93–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

P. Wang, J. Chang, C. Zhu, Y. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity response of DFB-FL to external acoustic excitation,” Opt. Laser Technol.49, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).

Tang, Z.

Tikhomirov, A.

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

H. Qi, Z. Song, S. Li, J. Guo, C. Wang, and G. D. Peng, “Apodized distributed feedback fiber laser with asymmetrical outputs for multiplexed sensing applications,” Opt. Express21(9), 11309–11314 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).

Wang, P.

P. Wang, J. Chang, C. Zhu, Y. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity response of DFB-FL to external acoustic excitation,” Opt. Laser Technol.49, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, “UV-written in-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron.28(2), 93–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xue, M.

Yao, J.

Yelen, K.

K. Yelen, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, “A New Design Approach for Fiber Dfb Lasers With Improved Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

K. Yelen, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, “A New Design Approach for Fiber Dfb Lasers With Improved Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, “UV-written in-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron.28(2), 93–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

P. Wang, J. Chang, C. Zhu, Y. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity response of DFB-FL to external acoustic excitation,” Opt. Laser Technol.49, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

P. Wang, J. Chang, C. Zhu, Y. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity response of DFB-FL to external acoustic excitation,” Opt. Laser Technol.49, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Xue, S. Pan, C. He, R. Guo, and Y. Zhao, “Wideband optical vector network analyzer based on optical single-sideband modulation and optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.38(22), 4900–4902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).

Zhu, C.

P. Wang, J. Chang, C. Zhu, Y. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity response of DFB-FL to external acoustic excitation,” Opt. Laser Technol.49, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

J. Ni, Y. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Peng, T. Liu, J. Chang, and Z. Sun, “Research on linewidth characteristics and broadening mechanism of distributed feedback fiber laser,” Acta Phys. Sin.61, 0842051 (2012).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

G. A. Cranch, M. A. Englund, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Intensity Noise Characteristics of Erbium-Doped Distributed-Feedback Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(12), 1579–1586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yelen, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, “A New Design Approach for Fiber Dfb Lasers With Improved Efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 711–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Liu, “A novel dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on symmetrical FBG structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(9), 632–634 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flochhart, and C. K. Kirkendall, “Distributed Feedback Fiber Laser Strain Sensors,” IEEE Sens. J.8(7), 1161–1172 (2008).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, “Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1243–1249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and M. A. Nikulin, “Single frequency single polarization DFB fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(6), 428–432 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

P. Wang, J. Chang, C. Zhu, Y. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity response of DFB-FL to external acoustic excitation,” Opt. Laser Technol.49, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Bennion, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, K. Sugden, and N. J. Doran, “UV-written in-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron.28(2), 93–135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. St. J. Russell, J. L. Archambault, and L. Reekie, “Fiber gratings,” Phys. World 41–46 (1993).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the DCWS experimental system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transmission spectrum of G1, (A) by DCWS method, (B) by ASE and OSA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The central narrow transmission band spectrum of G1, (A) by DCWS method, (B) by ASE and OSA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The transmission spectrum of G2 (A) by DCWS method, (B) by ASE and OSA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The central narrow transmission band spectrum of G2 obtained by DCWS method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The transmission spectrum of G3 obtained by DCWS method.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Descriptions of the three gratings

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