Abstract

We report on the time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of phonon dephasing in micro- and nanocrystalline diamond films. The dephasing times T2 were found to be dependent on the morphology of diamond films (average size of crystals and content of nondiamond carbon phase) and changed from 0.7 to 1.72 ps. The dephasing times were found to be temperature independent in the range 10-295 K. In addition to diamond Raman active phonon mode at 1332 cm−1, we investigated also the dynamics of a broad Raman peak at 1530 cm−1 which is present in samples with higher content of nondiamond sp2 hybridized carbon phase. This peak was found to be homogenously broadened with very fast dephasing (T2~50 fs).

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Valentin, J. Sée, S. Galdin-Retailleau, and P. Dollfus, “Study of phonon modes in silicon nanocrystals using the adiabatic bond charge model,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145213 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1258 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. Varga, Z. Remeš, O. Babchenko, and A. Kromka, “Optical study of defects in nano-diamond films grown in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD from H2/CH4/CO2 gas mixture,” Phys. Status Solidi B249(12), 2635–2639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature464(7285), 45–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hase and M. Kitajima, “Interaction of coherent phonons with defects and elementary excitations,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter22(7), 073201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Osswald, V. N. Mochalin, M. Havel, G. Yushin, and Y. Gogotsi, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman spectrum of nanodiamond,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Dimitrov, C. J. Dooley, A. A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, “Femtosecond probing of optical phonon dynamics in quantum-confined CdTe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(10), 4198–4201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Valentin, J. Sée, S. Galdin-Retailleau, and P. Dollfus, “Study of phonon modes in silicon nanocrystals using the adiabatic bond charge model,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and H. Petek, “Coherent optical phonons in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231916 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Němec and P. Malý, “Temperature dependence of coherent phonon dephasing in CsPbCl3 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond-like carbon, and nanodiamond,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci362(1824), 2477–2512 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. van der Voort, G. D. J. Smit, A. V. Akimov, J. I. Dijkhuis, N. A. Feoktistov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, and A. B. Pevtsov, “Decay of nonequilibrium phonons in nanocrystalline silicon,” Physica B263–264, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Schwoerer-Böhning, A. T. Macrander, and D. A. Arms, “Phonon dispersion of diamond measured by inelastic X-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(25), 5572–5575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Merlin, “Generating coherent THz phonons with light pulses,” Solid State Commun.102(2-3), 207–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Bergman and R. J. Nemanich, “Raman and photoluminescence analysis of stress state and impurity distribution in diamond thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.78(11), 6709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

Z. Sui and I. P. Herman, “Effect of strain on phonons in Si, Ge, and Si/Ge heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(24), 17938–17953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yoshikawa, Y. Mori, M. Maegawa, G. Katagiri, H. Ishida, and A. Ishitani, “Raman scattering from diamond particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(24), 3114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Pavone, K. Karch, O. Schütt, D. Strauch, W. Windl, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, “Ab initio lattice dynamics of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(5), 3156–3163 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

W. A. Kutt, W. Albrecht, and H. Kurz, “Generation of coherent phonons in condensed media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2434–2444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett.133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. J. Nemanich, S. A. Solin, and R. M. Martin, “Light scattering study of boron nitride microcrystals,” Phys. Rev. B23(12), 6348–6356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. Laubereau and W. Kaiser, “Vibrational dynamics of liquids and solids investigated by picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.50(3), 607–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

A. Laubereau, D. von der Linde, and W. Kaiser, “Decay time of hot TO phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.27(12), 802–805 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. Anastassakis, H. C. Hwang, and C. H. Perry, “Temperature dependence of the long-wavelength optical phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B4(8), 2493–2497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

S. A. Solin and A. K. Ramdas, “Raman spectrum of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B1(4), 1687–1698 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

J. A. Giordmaine and W. Kaiser, “Light Scattering by Coherently Driven Lattice Vibrations,” Phys. Rev.144(2), 676–688 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. Klemens, “Anharmonic decay of optical phonons,” Phys. Rev.148(2), 845–848 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, A. V.

M. van der Voort, G. D. J. Smit, A. V. Akimov, J. I. Dijkhuis, N. A. Feoktistov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, and A. B. Pevtsov, “Decay of nonequilibrium phonons in nanocrystalline silicon,” Physica B263–264, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, W.

W. A. Kutt, W. Albrecht, and H. Kurz, “Generation of coherent phonons in condensed media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2434–2444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anastassakis, E.

E. Anastassakis, H. C. Hwang, and C. H. Perry, “Temperature dependence of the long-wavelength optical phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B4(8), 2493–2497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arms, D. A.

M. Schwoerer-Böhning, A. T. Macrander, and D. A. Arms, “Phonon dispersion of diamond measured by inelastic X-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(25), 5572–5575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Babchenko, O.

M. Varga, Z. Remeš, O. Babchenko, and A. Kromka, “Optical study of defects in nano-diamond films grown in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD from H2/CH4/CO2 gas mixture,” Phys. Status Solidi B249(12), 2635–2639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baroni, S.

P. Pavone, K. Karch, O. Schütt, D. Strauch, W. Windl, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, “Ab initio lattice dynamics of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(5), 3156–3163 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, L.

L. Bergman and R. J. Nemanich, “Raman and photoluminescence analysis of stress state and impurity distribution in diamond thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.78(11), 6709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bustard, P. J.

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Champion, T.

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dijkhuis, J. I.

M. van der Voort, G. D. J. Smit, A. V. Akimov, J. I. Dijkhuis, N. A. Feoktistov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, and A. B. Pevtsov, “Decay of nonequilibrium phonons in nanocrystalline silicon,” Physica B263–264, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, S. D.

S. D. Dimitrov, C. J. Dooley, A. A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, “Femtosecond probing of optical phonon dynamics in quantum-confined CdTe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(10), 4198–4201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dollfus, P.

A. Valentin, J. Sée, S. Galdin-Retailleau, and P. Dollfus, “Study of phonon modes in silicon nanocrystals using the adiabatic bond charge model,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, C. J.

S. D. Dimitrov, C. J. Dooley, A. A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, “Femtosecond probing of optical phonon dynamics in quantum-confined CdTe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(10), 4198–4201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

England, D.

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feoktistov, N. A.

M. van der Voort, G. D. J. Smit, A. V. Akimov, J. I. Dijkhuis, N. A. Feoktistov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, and A. B. Pevtsov, “Decay of nonequilibrium phonons in nanocrystalline silicon,” Physica B263–264, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond-like carbon, and nanodiamond,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci362(1824), 2477–2512 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiebig, T.

S. D. Dimitrov, C. J. Dooley, A. A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, “Femtosecond probing of optical phonon dynamics in quantum-confined CdTe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(10), 4198–4201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galdin-Retailleau, S.

A. Valentin, J. Sée, S. Galdin-Retailleau, and P. Dollfus, “Study of phonon modes in silicon nanocrystals using the adiabatic bond charge model,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giannozzi, P.

P. Pavone, K. Karch, O. Schütt, D. Strauch, W. Windl, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, “Ab initio lattice dynamics of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(5), 3156–3163 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine and W. Kaiser, “Light Scattering by Coherently Driven Lattice Vibrations,” Phys. Rev.144(2), 676–688 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gogotsi, Y.

S. Osswald, V. N. Mochalin, M. Havel, G. Yushin, and Y. Gogotsi, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman spectrum of nanodiamond,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hase, M.

M. Hase and M. Kitajima, “Interaction of coherent phonons with defects and elementary excitations,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter22(7), 073201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and H. Petek, “Coherent optical phonons in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231916 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Havel, M.

S. Osswald, V. N. Mochalin, M. Havel, G. Yushin, and Y. Gogotsi, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman spectrum of nanodiamond,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herman, I. P.

Z. Sui and I. P. Herman, “Effect of strain on phonons in Si, Ge, and Si/Ge heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(24), 17938–17953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hishita, S.

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holzapfel, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett.133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. C.

E. Anastassakis, H. C. Hwang, and C. H. Perry, “Temperature dependence of the long-wavelength optical phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B4(8), 2493–2497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, H.

M. Yoshikawa, Y. Mori, M. Maegawa, G. Katagiri, H. Ishida, and A. Ishitani, “Raman scattering from diamond particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(24), 3114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ishioka, K.

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and H. Petek, “Coherent optical phonons in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231916 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishitani, A.

M. Yoshikawa, Y. Mori, M. Maegawa, G. Katagiri, H. Ishida, and A. Ishitani, “Raman scattering from diamond particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(24), 3114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jaksch, D.

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jelezko, F.

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature464(7285), 45–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, X.-M.

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett.133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubereau and W. Kaiser, “Vibrational dynamics of liquids and solids investigated by picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.50(3), 607–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubereau, D. von der Linde, and W. Kaiser, “Decay time of hot TO phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.27(12), 802–805 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Giordmaine and W. Kaiser, “Light Scattering by Coherently Driven Lattice Vibrations,” Phys. Rev.144(2), 676–688 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kaplyanskii, A. A.

M. van der Voort, G. D. J. Smit, A. V. Akimov, J. I. Dijkhuis, N. A. Feoktistov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, and A. B. Pevtsov, “Decay of nonequilibrium phonons in nanocrystalline silicon,” Physica B263–264, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karch, K.

P. Pavone, K. Karch, O. Schütt, D. Strauch, W. Windl, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, “Ab initio lattice dynamics of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(5), 3156–3163 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katagiri, G.

M. Yoshikawa, Y. Mori, M. Maegawa, G. Katagiri, H. Ishida, and A. Ishitani, “Raman scattering from diamond particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(24), 3114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kitajima, M.

M. Hase and M. Kitajima, “Interaction of coherent phonons with defects and elementary excitations,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter22(7), 073201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and H. Petek, “Coherent optical phonons in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231916 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klemens, P.

P. Klemens, “Anharmonic decay of optical phonons,” Phys. Rev.148(2), 845–848 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kromka, A.

M. Varga, Z. Remeš, O. Babchenko, and A. Kromka, “Optical study of defects in nano-diamond films grown in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD from H2/CH4/CO2 gas mixture,” Phys. Status Solidi B249(12), 2635–2639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

W. A. Kutt, W. Albrecht, and H. Kurz, “Generation of coherent phonons in condensed media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2434–2444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kutt, W. A.

W. A. Kutt, W. Albrecht, and H. Kurz, “Generation of coherent phonons in condensed media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2434–2444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ladd, T. D.

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature464(7285), 45–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laflamme, R.

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature464(7285), 45–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langford, N. K.

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laubereau, A.

A. Laubereau and W. Kaiser, “Vibrational dynamics of liquids and solids investigated by picosecond light pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.50(3), 607–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubereau, D. von der Linde, and W. Kaiser, “Decay time of hot TO phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.27(12), 802–805 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. C.

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett.133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, V. O.

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macrander, A. T.

M. Schwoerer-Böhning, A. T. Macrander, and D. A. Arms, “Phonon dispersion of diamond measured by inelastic X-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(25), 5572–5575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maegawa, M.

M. Yoshikawa, Y. Mori, M. Maegawa, G. Katagiri, H. Ishida, and A. Ishitani, “Raman scattering from diamond particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(24), 3114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malý, P.

P. Němec and P. Malý, “Temperature dependence of coherent phonon dephasing in CsPbCl3 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. M.

R. J. Nemanich, S. A. Solin, and R. M. Martin, “Light scattering study of boron nitride microcrystals,” Phys. Rev. B23(12), 6348–6356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Merlin, R.

R. Merlin, “Generating coherent THz phonons with light pulses,” Solid State Commun.102(2-3), 207–220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Michelberger, P.

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mochalin, V. N.

S. Osswald, V. N. Mochalin, M. Havel, G. Yushin, and Y. Gogotsi, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman spectrum of nanodiamond,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature464(7285), 45–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, Y.

M. Yoshikawa, Y. Mori, M. Maegawa, G. Katagiri, H. Ishida, and A. Ishitani, “Raman scattering from diamond particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(24), 3114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature464(7285), 45–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemanich, R. J.

L. Bergman and R. J. Nemanich, “Raman and photoluminescence analysis of stress state and impurity distribution in diamond thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.78(11), 6709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Nemanich, S. A. Solin, and R. M. Martin, “Light scattering study of boron nitride microcrystals,” Phys. Rev. B23(12), 6348–6356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, P.

P. Němec and P. Malý, “Temperature dependence of coherent phonon dephasing in CsPbCl3 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nunn, J.

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. L.

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature464(7285), 45–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osswald, S.

S. Osswald, V. N. Mochalin, M. Havel, G. Yushin, and Y. Gogotsi, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman spectrum of nanodiamond,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, P.

P. Pavone, K. Karch, O. Schütt, D. Strauch, W. Windl, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, “Ab initio lattice dynamics of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(5), 3156–3163 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, C. H.

E. Anastassakis, H. C. Hwang, and C. H. Perry, “Temperature dependence of the long-wavelength optical phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B4(8), 2493–2497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Petek, H.

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and H. Petek, “Coherent optical phonons in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231916 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pevtsov, A. B.

M. van der Voort, G. D. J. Smit, A. V. Akimov, J. I. Dijkhuis, N. A. Feoktistov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, and A. B. Pevtsov, “Decay of nonequilibrium phonons in nanocrystalline silicon,” Physica B263–264, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prawer, S.

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramdas, A. K.

S. A. Solin and A. K. Ramdas, “Raman spectrum of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B1(4), 1687–1698 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Reim, K.

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reim, K. F.

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Remeš, Z.

M. Varga, Z. Remeš, O. Babchenko, and A. Kromka, “Optical study of defects in nano-diamond films grown in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD from H2/CH4/CO2 gas mixture,” Phys. Status Solidi B249(12), 2635–2639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J.

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond-like carbon, and nanodiamond,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci362(1824), 2477–2512 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schütt, O.

P. Pavone, K. Karch, O. Schütt, D. Strauch, W. Windl, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, “Ab initio lattice dynamics of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(5), 3156–3163 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwoerer-Böhning, M.

M. Schwoerer-Böhning, A. T. Macrander, and D. A. Arms, “Phonon dispersion of diamond measured by inelastic X-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(25), 5572–5575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sée, J.

A. Valentin, J. Sée, S. Galdin-Retailleau, and P. Dollfus, “Study of phonon modes in silicon nanocrystals using the adiabatic bond charge model,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smit, G. D. J.

M. van der Voort, G. D. J. Smit, A. V. Akimov, J. I. Dijkhuis, N. A. Feoktistov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, and A. B. Pevtsov, “Decay of nonequilibrium phonons in nanocrystalline silicon,” Physica B263–264, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solin, S. A.

R. J. Nemanich, S. A. Solin, and R. M. Martin, “Light scattering study of boron nitride microcrystals,” Phys. Rev. B23(12), 6348–6356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Solin and A. K. Ramdas, “Raman spectrum of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B1(4), 1687–1698 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Spizzirri, P.

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, M. R.

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strauch, D.

P. Pavone, K. Karch, O. Schütt, D. Strauch, W. Windl, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, “Ab initio lattice dynamics of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(5), 3156–3163 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sui, Z.

Z. Sui and I. P. Herman, “Effect of strain on phonons in Si, Ge, and Si/Ge heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(24), 17938–17953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sussman, B. J.

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trifonov, A. A.

S. D. Dimitrov, C. J. Dooley, A. A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, “Femtosecond probing of optical phonon dynamics in quantum-confined CdTe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(10), 4198–4201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ushida, K.

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, A.

A. Valentin, J. Sée, S. Galdin-Retailleau, and P. Dollfus, “Study of phonon modes in silicon nanocrystals using the adiabatic bond charge model,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van der Voort, M.

M. van der Voort, G. D. J. Smit, A. V. Akimov, J. I. Dijkhuis, N. A. Feoktistov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, and A. B. Pevtsov, “Decay of nonequilibrium phonons in nanocrystalline silicon,” Physica B263–264, 473–475 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varga, M.

M. Varga, Z. Remeš, O. Babchenko, and A. Kromka, “Optical study of defects in nano-diamond films grown in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD from H2/CH4/CO2 gas mixture,” Phys. Status Solidi B249(12), 2635–2639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

A. Laubereau, D. von der Linde, and W. Kaiser, “Decay time of hot TO phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.27(12), 802–805 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

K. C. Lee, M. R. Sprague, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, X.-M. Jin, T. Champion, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, D. England, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Entangling macroscopic diamonds at room temperature,” Science334(6060), 1253–1256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Windl, W.

P. Pavone, K. Karch, O. Schütt, D. Strauch, W. Windl, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, “Ab initio lattice dynamics of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(5), 3156–3163 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, M.

M. Yoshikawa, Y. Mori, M. Maegawa, G. Katagiri, H. Ishida, and A. Ishitani, “Raman scattering from diamond particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(24), 3114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yushin, G.

S. Osswald, V. N. Mochalin, M. Havel, G. Yushin, and Y. Gogotsi, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman spectrum of nanodiamond,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett.133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Ishioka, M. Hase, M. Kitajima, and H. Petek, “Coherent optical phonons in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 231916 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Yoshikawa, Y. Mori, M. Maegawa, G. Katagiri, H. Ishida, and A. Ishitani, “Raman scattering from diamond particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(24), 3114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, M. Kitajima, K. Ushida, and S. Hishita, “Dephasing of coherent phonons by lattice defects in bismuth films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,” Chem. Phys. Lett.133(5), 373–377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Related Materials (1)

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, K. Reim, D. Jaksch, I. A. Walmsley, P. Spizzirri, and S. Prawer, “Comparing phonon dephasing lifetimes in diamond using transient coherent ultrafast phonon spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials19(10), 1289–1295 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. A. Kutt, W. Albrecht, and H. Kurz, “Generation of coherent phonons in condensed media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2434–2444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Bergman and R. J. Nemanich, “Raman and photoluminescence analysis of stress state and impurity distribution in diamond thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.78(11), 6709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

S. D. Dimitrov, C. J. Dooley, A. A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, “Femtosecond probing of optical phonon dynamics in quantum-confined CdTe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(10), 4198–4201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

A. Valentin, J. Sée, S. Galdin-Retailleau, and P. Dollfus, “Study of phonon modes in silicon nanocrystals using the adiabatic bond charge model,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20(14), 145213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

M. Hase and M. Kitajima, “Interaction of coherent phonons with defects and elementary excitations,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter22(7), 073201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. C. Lee, B. J. Sussman, M. R. Sprague, P. Michelberger, K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, P. J. Bustard, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Macroscopic non-classical states and terahertz quantum processing in room-temperature diamond,” Nat. Photonics6(1), 41–44 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature464(7285), 45–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (1)

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond-like carbon, and nanodiamond,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci362(1824), 2477–2512 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (2)

J. A. Giordmaine and W. Kaiser, “Light Scattering by Coherently Driven Lattice Vibrations,” Phys. Rev.144(2), 676–688 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. Klemens, “Anharmonic decay of optical phonons,” Phys. Rev.148(2), 845–848 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

S. Osswald, V. N. Mochalin, M. Havel, G. Yushin, and Y. Gogotsi, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman spectrum of nanodiamond,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 075419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Nemanich, S. A. Solin, and R. M. Martin, “Light scattering study of boron nitride microcrystals,” Phys. Rev. B23(12), 6348–6356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. Anastassakis, H. C. Hwang, and C. H. Perry, “Temperature dependence of the long-wavelength optical phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B4(8), 2493–2497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Solin and A. K. Ramdas, “Raman spectrum of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B1(4), 1687–1698 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. Němec and P. Malý, “Temperature dependence of coherent phonon dephasing in CsPbCl3 nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (2)

P. Pavone, K. Karch, O. Schütt, D. Strauch, W. Windl, P. Giannozzi, and S. Baroni, “Ab initio lattice dynamics of diamond,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(5), 3156–3163 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sui and I. P. Herman, “Effect of strain on phonons in Si, Ge, and Si/Ge heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(24), 17938–17953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Schwoerer-Böhning, A. T. Macrander, and D. A. Arms, “Phonon dispersion of diamond measured by inelastic X-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.80(25), 5572–5575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubereau, D. von der Linde, and W. Kaiser, “Decay time of hot TO phonons in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett.27(12), 802–805 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

M. Varga, Z. Remeš, O. Babchenko, and A. Kromka, “Optical study of defects in nano-diamond films grown in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD from H2/CH4/CO2 gas mixture,” Phys. Status Solidi B249(12), 2635–2639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Physica B (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section SEM images of the investigated diamond membranes S1-S4 measured under the angle of 30°. Film thicknessess were 1.6, 0.9, 7.7 and 2.1µm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectra of the studied diamond membranes S1-S4 excited by cw laser (442 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved CARS spectra of bulk diamond (IIa, dashed curve) and NCD samples S1-S4 (full curves) measured at the time delay Δt = 0.5 ps after excitation. Curves are normalized and vertically shifted for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-resolved CARS of IIa bulk diamond (full symbols) and diamond films S1-S4 (empty symbols) at energy 1332 cm−1 with exponential fits (lines) in semi-log scale. Data were normalized for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-resolved CARS of sample S1 at energy 1332 cm−1. Sample temperatures were 10 K (black squares) and 295 K (red triangles). Data were vertically shifted for clarity and compared with exponential fits (lines) in semi-log scale. Inset: Obtained dephasing times T2 (squares) compared with theory using Eq. (1) (red curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-resolved CARS at 1530 cm−1 in samples S3 (green, up-triangles) and S4 (blue, down-triangles) in semi-log scale compared with the convolution of the decay function exp(-Δt/25fs) with the temporal response function of CARS setup (blue line). Inset: CARS spectra in samples S3 and S4 at time delay Δt = 0. Data were normalized for clarity.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 SEM Imaging of Grain Sizes

Equations (1)

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Γ(T)=Γ(0)[ 1+2/( e x 1) ],

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