Abstract

We numerically and experimentally explored generation and regulation of subwavelength multiple focal spots produced by tight focusing patterned vector optical fields (PVOFs). We presented a modified Richard-Wolf diffraction integration method suitable for the tight focusing of the PVOFs. By tailoring the spatial geometry and the polarization distributions of the PVOFs, simulations show that the diverse spatial configurations of subwavelength multiple focal spots can be achieved. To verify our idea, we experimentally generated the theoretically calculated examples of femtosecond PVOFs, then tightly focused them on the surface of the crystalline silicon wafers, and finally characterized the morphologies of modified surfaces. The SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) images confirmed that the experimental results are in good agreement with the simulations. Based on the diverse controlling degrees of freedom of PVOFs, the resultant subwavelength focal fields are flexible and powerful in parallel processing, optical manipulation and so on.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, Z. C. Ren, C. H. Tu, Y. N. Li, and H. T. Wang., “Femtosecond Laser Processing by Using Patterned Vector Optical Fields,” Sci. Rep.3, 2281 (2013).
[PubMed]

L. X. Yang, X. S. Xie, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Zhou, “Minimized spot of annular radially polarized focusing beam,” Opt. Lett.38, 1331–1333 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

2009 (4)

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1, 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, L. E. Ding, P. X. Xiong, L. Deng, Z. R. Sun, Z. G. Wang, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Complex periodic micro/nanostructures on 6H-SiC crystal induced by the interference of three femtosecond laser beams,” Opt. Lett.34, 788–790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun.282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interferenceof femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 4713–4716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, M. A.

Brown, T.

Chen, J.

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun.282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chong, C. T.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dearden, G.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.

Ding, J. P.

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun.282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, W. J. Ni, C. S. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with a spatial light modulator and a common path interferometric arrangement,” Opt. Lett.32, 3549–3551 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, L. E.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwardson, S. P.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun.282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fearon, E.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Golub, I.

Graf, T.

Gu, B.

Gu, M.

Guo, C. S.

Hao, X. A.

Hirano, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 4713–4716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. C.

Jia, B. H.

Jia, T. Q.

Jia, X.

Juodkazis, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interferenceof femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kalosha, V. P.

Kang, H.

Kitamura, K.

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interferenceof femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, M.

Krolikowski, W.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuang, C. F.

Kuang, Z.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuga, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 4713–4716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lai, N. D.

Leger, J. R.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. N.

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, Z. C. Ren, C. H. Tu, Y. N. Li, and H. T. Wang., “Femtosecond Laser Processing by Using Patterned Vector Optical Fields,” Sci. Rep.3, 2281 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, X. L. Wang, Y. N. Li, B. Gu, C. H. Tu, and H. T. Wang, “Two-dimensional microstructures induced by femtosecond vector light fields on silicon,” Opt. Express20, 120–127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. P.

Liang, W. P.

Lin, C. H.

Lin, H.

Lin, J. H.

Liu, D.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lou, K.

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, Z. C. Ren, C. H. Tu, Y. N. Li, and H. T. Wang., “Femtosecond Laser Processing by Using Patterned Vector Optical Fields,” Sci. Rep.3, 2281 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, X. L. Wang, Y. N. Li, B. Gu, C. H. Tu, and H. T. Wang, “Two-dimensional microstructures induced by femtosecond vector light fields on silicon,” Opt. Express20, 120–127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interferenceof femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michalowski, A.

Misawa, H.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interferenceof femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interferenceof femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ni, W. J.

Noda, S.

Perrie, W.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S. X.

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, Z. C. Ren, C. H. Tu, Y. N. Li, and H. T. Wang., “Femtosecond Laser Processing by Using Patterned Vector Optical Fields,” Sci. Rep.3, 2281 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, X. L. Wang, Y. N. Li, B. Gu, C. H. Tu, and H. T. Wang, “Two-dimensional microstructures induced by femtosecond vector light fields on silicon,” Opt. Express20, 120–127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J. Q.

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun.282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Z. C.

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, Z. C. Ren, C. H. Tu, Y. N. Li, and H. T. Wang., “Femtosecond Laser Processing by Using Patterned Vector Optical Fields,” Sci. Rep.3, 2281 (2013).
[PubMed]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

Sasada, H.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 4713–4716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, M.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L. P.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 4713–4716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shiokawa, N.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 4713–4716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shvedov, V.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Z. R.

Torii, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 4713–4716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C. H.

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, Z. C. Ren, C. H. Tu, Y. N. Li, and H. T. Wang., “Femtosecond Laser Processing by Using Patterned Vector Optical Fields,” Sci. Rep.3, 2281 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, X. L. Wang, Y. N. Li, B. Gu, C. H. Tu, and H. T. Wang, “Two-dimensional microstructures induced by femtosecond vector light fields on silicon,” Opt. Express20, 120–127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Voss, A.

Wang, H. F.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, S. C.

Wang, T. T.

Wang, X. L.

Wang, Z. G.

Wang., H. T.

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, Z. C. Ren, C. H. Tu, Y. N. Li, and H. T. Wang., “Femtosecond Laser Processing by Using Patterned Vector Optical Fields,” Sci. Rep.3, 2281 (2013).
[PubMed]

Watkins, K.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

Xiong, P. X.

Xu, Z. Z.

Yang, L. X.

Youngworth, K.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, Y. L.

Zhao, Y. Q.

Zhou, J. Y.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interferenceof femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2758–2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, “Fast parallel diffractive multi-beam femtosecond laser surface micro-structuring,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255, 6582–6588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. L. Wang, J. P. Ding, J. Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun.282, 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 4713–4716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. A (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, Z. C. Ren, C. H. Tu, Y. N. Li, and H. T. Wang., “Femtosecond Laser Processing by Using Patterned Vector Optical Fields,” Sci. Rep.3, 2281 (2013).
[PubMed]

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