Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) via four-wave mixing (FWM) in ultrahigh nonlinearity hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides. We demonstrate FROG characterization using a FWM architecture that mimics second harmonic generation (SHG) FROG for pulsewidths as low as 360 fs. Additionally, we demonstrate for the first time a FWM architecture analogous to third harmonic generation (THG) FROG and validate its ability to overcome the direction of time ambiguity of the SHG-like architecture. Both architectures allow for sensitivities suitable for future telecommunications signals.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

2011

B. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting via frequency comb generation in a bandwidth-enhanced fiber optical parametric mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(23), 3515–3522 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, N. Ophir, M. Menard, R. K. W. Lau, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Simultaneous wavelength conversion of ASK and DPSK signals based on four-wave-mixing in dispersion engineered silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express19(13), 12172–12179 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wei, S. Howard, A. Straub, Z. Wang, J. Cheng, S. Gao, and C. Xu, “High sensitivity third-order autocorrelation measurement by intensity modulation and third harmonic detection,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2372–2374 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Hsu, H.-C. Chiang, H.-P. Chuang, C.-B. Huang, and S.-D. Yang, “Forty-photon-per-pulse spectral phase retrieval by shaper-assisted modified interferometric field autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett.36(14), 2611–2613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

S.-D. Yang, C.-S. Hsu, S.-L. Lin, Y.-S. Lin, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrasensitive direct-field retrieval of femtosecond pulses by modified interferometric field autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3065–3067 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. H. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenlwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 TBIT/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

P. A. Lacourt, M. Hanna, and J. M. Dudley, “Broad-band and ultrasensitive pulse characterization using frequency-resolved optical gating via four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.17(1), 157–159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-D. Yang, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrasensitive second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating by aperiodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides at 1.5 microm,” Opt. Lett.30(16), 2164–2166 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

I. Amat-Roldán, I. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, E. Gualda, and D. Artigas, “Ultrashort pulse characterisation with SHG collinear-FROG,” Opt. Express12(6), 1169–1178 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, “Sensitivity of SHG-FROG for the characterization of ultrahigh-repetition-rate telecommunication laser sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.10(1), 73–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Kahrs, “50 years of RF and microwave sampling,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.51(6), 1787–1805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

T. Taira and K. Kikuchi, “Highly sensitive frequency-resolved optical gating in 1.55 μm region using organic nonlinear optical crystal for second-harmonic generation,” Electron. Lett.36(20), 1719–1720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, “1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator,” Electron. Lett.36(24), 2027–2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1974

G. Vogel, A. Savage, and M. Duguay, “Picosecond optical sampling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.10(9), 642–646 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.15(6), 192–194 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

Amat-Roldán, I.

Artigas, D.

Ballesteros, G. C.

Becker, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ben Bakir, B.

Ben Ezra, S.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Boerner, C.

Bonk, R.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G.

Carletti, L.

Cheng, J.

Chiang, H.-C.

Chuang, H.-P.

Clausen, A. T.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express18(2), 1438–1443 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. H. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenlwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 TBIT/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, A. B.

Cormack, I.

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.21(17), 1381–1383 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devgan, P.

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer, “High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(4), 843–858 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dreschmann, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

P. A. Lacourt, M. Hanna, and J. M. Dudley, “Broad-band and ultrasensitive pulse characterization using frequency-resolved optical gating via four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.17(1), 157–159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, J.-M. Merolla, H. Porte, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, “Milliwatt-peak-power pulse characterization at 1.55 µm by wavelength-conversion frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett.27(10), 863–865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duguay, M.

G. Vogel, A. Savage, and M. Duguay, “Picosecond optical sampling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.10(9), 642–646 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.15(6), 192–194 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ellermeyer, T.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fatome, J.

J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, “Sensitivity of SHG-FROG for the characterization of ultrahigh-repetition-rate telecommunication laser sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol.10(1), 73–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fejer, M. M.

Ferber, S.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses using surface third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.21(17), 1381–1383 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, A. C.

Foster, M.

Foster, M. A.

Freude, W.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Frey, F.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Galili, M.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express18(2), 1438–1443 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. H. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenlwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 TBIT/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, K.

Gao, S.

Gautier, P.

Goedgebuer, J.-P.

Grigoryan, V. S.

Grillet, C.

Grosse, P.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup for SHG-like FWM-FROG measurement. Two different pulses under test are generated by a mode-locked fiber laser with or without the compression stage. Inset: optical spectrum at the output of the a-Si:H waveguide. (PUT: pulse under test. HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber. VOA: variable optical attenuator. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier. OBPF: optical bandpass filter. PC: polarization controller. OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.) Inset: the dispersion curve of the a-Si:H waveguide showing anomalous group-velocity dispersion at operation wavelength for broad bandwidth operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pulse characterization of PUT 1 (left column), and PUT 2 (right column). (a),(e) Optical spectrum at the output of the waveguide. (b),(f) Measured and retrieved FROG. (c),(g) FROG retrieved auto-correlation and spectrum in comparison to the independent measurements. (d),(h) Retrieved amplitude and phase in both time and frequency domain.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A block diagram of the cascaded FWM THG FROG. A nonlinear copy creation stage develop a replica of the pulse to be measured on a second wavelength. The two signals are isolated and delayed with respect to each other prior to mixing. The result from the mixing is read on a spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The experimental setup of cascaded FWM stages for THG FROG (PM: phase modulator. D-38 fiber: Corning Vascade S1000 fiber. MLFL: mode locked fiber laser). Insets (a), (b), and (c) show the spectrum of the experimental setup after the initial HNLF stage, before the waveguide, and after the waveguide respectively where BWres is the bandwidth resolution of the OSA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results: from left to right the columns show the experimental FROG spectrogram traces, the reconstructed traces, the temporal reconstruction (solid) and its phase (dashed) with the corresponding experimental (dashed) and recovered (solid) autocorrelation in the inset, and the spectral reconstruction (solid) with its phase (dashed) and the measured spectrum (dotted) for the transform-limited (top row), anomalously chirped (second row), normally chirped (third row), and self-phase modulation with compression cases (bottom row).

Equations (4)

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E sig (t,τ)E(t)E(tτ),
E idler (t,τ) E CW * [ E pump 2 (t)+ E pump 2 (tτ)+2 E pump (t) E pump (tτ)]
E s i g ( t , τ ) E ( t ) 2 E ( t τ ) ,
E idler (t,τ) E pump 2 (t) E conj (tτ),

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