Abstract

We explored a path of achieving high quality phase-locking of broad-area laser diode (BALD) array that operates at high electrical to optical power conversion efficiency (PCE). We found that (a) improving single transverse mode control for each individual BALD, (b) employing global Talbot optical coupling among diodes, and (c) enhancing strength of optical coupling among diodes are key factors in achieving high quality phase-locking of high power BALD array. Subsequently, we redesigned and improved a V-shaped external Talbot cavity and employed low reflectivity anti-reflection (AR) coated, low-“smile” BALD array to meet these three important requirements. We demonstrated near-diffraction limit far-field coherent pattern with 19% PCE and 95% visibility. The far-field angle (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) of center lobe was measured as 1.5 diffraction angular limited with visibility of 99% for 5A injection current and 1.6 diffraction angular limited with visibility of 95% for 14A injection current. Power scaling of diode array is discussed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

M. C. Soriano, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Complex photonics: dynamics and applications of delay-coupled semiconductors lasers,” Rev. Mod. Phys.85(1), 421–470 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Trela, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “Locking and wavelength selection of an ultra-collimated single-mode diode laser bar by a volume holographic grating,” Opt. Express21(4), 4512–4517 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7 MHz,” Opt. Commun.277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, A. Yariv, A. Kewitsch, and G. Rakuljic, “Coherent combining of the output of two semiconductor lasers using optical phase-lock loops,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 370–372 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

E. Babcock, B. Chann, I. A. Nelson, and T. G. Walker, “Frequency-narrowed diode array bar,” Appl. Opt.44(15), 3098–3104 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(3), 567–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Corcoran and F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, T. Earles, T. J. Goodnough, E. Sties, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “73% CW power conversion efficiency at 50 W from 970 nm diode laser bars,” Electron. Lett.41(5), 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02 nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 525–527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Samsøe, P. E. Andersen, S. Andersson-Engels, and P. M. Petersen, “Improvement of spatial and temporal coherence of a broad area laser diode using an external-cavity design with double grating feedback,” Opt. Express12(4), 609–616 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

N. U. Wetter, “Three-fold effective brightness increase of laser diode bar emission by assessment and correction of diode array curvature,” Opt. Laser Technol.33(3), 181–187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

1996 (3)

R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire, “Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(6), 996–1008 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Stryckman, G. Rousseau, M. D’Auteuil, and N. McCarthy, “Improvement of the lateral-mode discrimination of broad-area diode lasers with a profiled reflectivity output facet,” Appl. Opt.35(30), 5955–5959 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. Roy and K. S. Thornburg., “Experimental synchronization of chaotic lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(13), 2009–2012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, M. Jansen, C. Tu, T. J. Roth, and J. Yun, “Resonant self-aligned-stripe antiguided diode laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(6), 668–670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

D. Botez, M. Jansen, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Watt-range, coherent, uniphase powers from phase-locked arrays of antiguided diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(19), 2070–2072 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, W. Streifer, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, “Modal analysis of linear Talbot-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.16(11), 823–825 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Phase-locked arrays of antiguides: modal content and discrimination,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(3), 482–495 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Resonant optical transmission and coupling in phase locked diode laser arrays of antiguides: the resonant optical waveguide array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(22), 2183–2185 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, and C. Roychoudhuri, “Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(9), 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg and J. F. Weller, “Narrow lobe emission of high-power broad strip laser in external resonator cavity,” Electron. Lett.25(2), 112–114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.52(21), 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. K. Butler, D. E. Ackley, and D. Botez, “Coupled-mode analysis of phase-locked injection-laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(3), 293–295 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.19(4), 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ackley, D. E.

J. K. Butler, D. E. Ackley, and D. Botez, “Coupled-mode analysis of phase-locked injection-laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(3), 293–295 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, P. E.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Augst, S. J.

Babcock, E.

Baker, H. J.

Baker, J. T.

Bartelt-Berger, L.

Benham, V.

Berger, J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, A.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Botez, D.

M. Kanskar, T. Earles, T. J. Goodnough, E. Sties, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “73% CW power conversion efficiency at 50 W from 970 nm diode laser bars,” Electron. Lett.41(5), 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, M. Jansen, C. Tu, T. J. Roth, and J. Yun, “Resonant self-aligned-stripe antiguided diode laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(6), 668–670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, M. Jansen, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Watt-range, coherent, uniphase powers from phase-locked arrays of antiguided diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(19), 2070–2072 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Phase-locked arrays of antiguides: modal content and discrimination,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(3), 482–495 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Resonant optical transmission and coupling in phase locked diode laser arrays of antiguides: the resonant optical waveguide array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(22), 2183–2185 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Butler, D. E. Ackley, and D. Botez, “Coupled-mode analysis of phase-locked injection-laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(3), 293–295 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bourdet, G.

Braiman, Y.

Brauch, U.

Butler, J. K.

J. K. Butler, D. E. Ackley, and D. Botez, “Coupled-mode analysis of phase-locked injection-laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(3), 293–295 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Caliman, A.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

Cenkier, M.

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7 MHz,” Opt. Commun.277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Champagne, Y.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chann, B.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02 nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 525–527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, E. C.

Connors, M. K.

Corcoran, C. J.

C. J. Corcoran and F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Creedon, K. J.

Culpepper, M. A.

D’Amato, F. X.

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, and C. Roychoudhuri, “Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(9), 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D’Auteuil, M.

de Rossi, S.

Dienes, A.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
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Donnelly, J. P.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missagia, S. J. Augst, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, A. Sanchez-Rubio, J. P. Donnelly, J. L. Hostetler, C. Miester, and F. Dorsch, “Coherent combination of slab-coupled optical waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE7230, 72301G(2009).
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Dorsch, F.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missagia, S. J. Augst, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, A. Sanchez-Rubio, J. P. Donnelly, J. L. Hostetler, C. Miester, and F. Dorsch, “Coherent combination of slab-coupled optical waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE7230, 72301G(2009).
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C. J. Corcoran and F. Durville, “Experimental demonstration of a phase-locked laser array using a self-Fourier cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(20), 201118 (2005).
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M. Kanskar, T. Earles, T. J. Goodnough, E. Sties, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “73% CW power conversion efficiency at 50 W from 970 nm diode laser bars,” Electron. Lett.41(5), 245 (2005).
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J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02 nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 525–527 (2004).
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Eisenstein, G.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.19(4), 493–495 (1983).
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Emaury, F.

Eng, L.

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
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Fan, J.

Fan, T. Y.

Fischer, I.

M. C. Soriano, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Complex photonics: dynamics and applications of delay-coupled semiconductors lasers,” Rev. Mod. Phys.85(1), 421–470 (2013).
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S. K. Mandre, I. Fischer, and W. Elsässer, “Control of the spatiotemporal emission of a broad-area semiconductor laser by spatially filtered feedback,” Opt. Lett.28(13), 1135–1137 (2003).
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Garcia-Ojalvo, J.

M. C. Soriano, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Complex photonics: dynamics and applications of delay-coupled semiconductors lasers,” Rev. Mod. Phys.85(1), 421–470 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E. M.

R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire, “Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(6), 996–1008 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ge, J. H.

J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02 nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 525–527 (2004).
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Georges, P.

Giesen, A.

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L. Goldberg and J. F. Weller, “Narrow lobe emission of high-power broad strip laser in external resonator cavity,” Electron. Lett.25(2), 112–114 (1989).
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Goodnough, T. J.

M. Kanskar, T. Earles, T. J. Goodnough, E. Sties, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “73% CW power conversion efficiency at 50 W from 970 nm diode laser bars,” Electron. Lett.41(5), 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. R.

Hassiaoui, I.

Hermerschmidt, A.

J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02 nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 525–527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, L.

Ho, J. G.

Hostetler, J. L.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missagia, S. J. Augst, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, A. Sanchez-Rubio, J. P. Donnelly, J. L. Hostetler, C. Miester, and F. Dorsch, “Coherent combination of slab-coupled optical waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE7230, 72301G(2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, R. K.

S. M. Redmond, K. J. Creedon, J. E. Kansky, S. J. Augst, L. J. Missaggia, M. K. Connors, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, T. Y. Fan, G. W. Turner, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “Active coherent beam combining of diode lasers,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 999–1001 (2011).
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R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missagia, S. J. Augst, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, A. Sanchez-Rubio, J. P. Donnelly, J. L. Hostetler, C. Miester, and F. Dorsch, “Coherent combination of slab-coupled optical waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE7230, 72301G(2009).
[CrossRef]

Huegel, H.

Huignard, J. P.

Iakovlev, V. P.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, M.

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, M. Jansen, C. Tu, T. J. Roth, and J. Yun, “Resonant self-aligned-stripe antiguided diode laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(6), 668–670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, M. Jansen, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Watt-range, coherent, uniphase powers from phase-locked arrays of antiguided diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(19), 2070–2072 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jechow, A.

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7 MHz,” Opt. Commun.277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, O. B.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.19(4), 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kanskar, M.

M. Kanskar, T. Earles, T. J. Goodnough, E. Sties, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “73% CW power conversion efficiency at 50 W from 970 nm diode laser bars,” Electron. Lett.41(5), 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kansky, J. E.

Kewitsch, A.

Knispel, R.

Krakowski, M.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Hassiaoui, N. Michel, G. Bourdet, R. Mc Bride, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and J. P. Huignard, “Very compact external cavity diffraction-coupled tapered laser diodes,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 746–750 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuech, T. F.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larkins, E.

D. Pabœuf, D. Vijayakumar, O. B. Jensen, B. Thestrup, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, E. Larkins, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Volume Bragg grating external cavities for the passive phase locking of high-brightness diode laser arrays: theoretical and experimental study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(5), 1289–1299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, M.

Leger, J. R.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.52(21), 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

Lim, J.

D. Pabœuf, D. Vijayakumar, O. B. Jensen, B. Thestrup, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, E. Larkins, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Volume Bragg grating external cavities for the passive phase locking of high-brightness diode laser arrays: theoretical and experimental study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(5), 1289–1299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, Y.

Lopez, J.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. A.

Lucas-Leclin, G.

Mailhot, S.

Mandre, S. K.

Marshall, W. K.

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mawst, L. J.

M. Kanskar, T. Earles, T. J. Goodnough, E. Sties, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “73% CW power conversion efficiency at 50 W from 970 nm diode laser bars,” Electron. Lett.41(5), 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, M. Jansen, C. Tu, T. J. Roth, and J. Yun, “Resonant self-aligned-stripe antiguided diode laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(6), 668–670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, M. Jansen, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Watt-range, coherent, uniphase powers from phase-locked arrays of antiguided diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(19), 2070–2072 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Phase-locked arrays of antiguides: modal content and discrimination,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(3), 482–495 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Resonant optical transmission and coupling in phase locked diode laser arrays of antiguides: the resonant optical waveguide array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(22), 2183–2185 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mc Bride, R.

McCarthy, N.

Mehuys, D.

D. Mehuys, W. Streifer, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, “Modal analysis of linear Talbot-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.16(11), 823–825 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, R.

Mercier, R.

Messerschmidt, D.

Michel, N.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Hassiaoui, N. Michel, G. Bourdet, R. Mc Bride, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and J. P. Huignard, “Very compact external cavity diffraction-coupled tapered laser diodes,” Appl. Opt.47(6), 746–750 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miester, C.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missagia, S. J. Augst, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, A. Sanchez-Rubio, J. P. Donnelly, J. L. Hostetler, C. Miester, and F. Dorsch, “Coherent combination of slab-coupled optical waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE7230, 72301G(2009).
[CrossRef]

Mirasso, C. R.

M. C. Soriano, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Complex photonics: dynamics and applications of delay-coupled semiconductors lasers,” Rev. Mod. Phys.85(1), 421–470 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Missaggia, L. J.

Missagia, L. J.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missagia, S. J. Augst, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, A. Sanchez-Rubio, J. P. Donnelly, J. L. Hostetler, C. Miester, and F. Dorsch, “Coherent combination of slab-coupled optical waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE7230, 72301G(2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitsunaga, K.

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Monjardin, J. F.

Nam, D.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. J.

Nelson, I.

Nelson, I. A.

Nowak, K. M.

Opower, H.

Pabœuf, D.

Paboeuf, D.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parillaud, O.

Petersen, P. M.

Peterson, G.

D. Botez, M. Jansen, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Watt-range, coherent, uniphase powers from phase-locked arrays of antiguided diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(19), 2070–2072 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Resonant optical transmission and coupling in phase locked diode laser arrays of antiguides: the resonant optical waveguide array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(22), 2183–2185 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, G. L.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Phase-locked arrays of antiguides: modal content and discrimination,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(3), 482–495 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pilkington, D.

Pillai, R. M. R.

R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire, “Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(6), 996–1008 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Raab, V.

Rakuljic, G.

Redmond, S. M.

Rice, R. R.

Ripin, D. J.

Roth, T. J.

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, M. Jansen, C. Tu, T. J. Roth, and J. Yun, “Resonant self-aligned-stripe antiguided diode laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(6), 668–670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, M. Jansen, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Watt-range, coherent, uniphase powers from phase-locked arrays of antiguided diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(19), 2070–2072 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. L. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Phase-locked arrays of antiguides: modal content and discrimination,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(3), 482–495 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “Resonant optical transmission and coupling in phase locked diode laser arrays of antiguides: the resonant optical waveguide array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(22), 2183–2185 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J.

Rothenberg, J. E.

Rousseau, G.

Roy, R.

R. Roy and K. S. Thornburg., “Experimental synchronization of chaotic lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(13), 2009–2012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roychoudhuri, C.

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, and C. Roychoudhuri, “Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(9), 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sacher, J.

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7 MHz,” Opt. Commun.277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sacher, J. R.

Samsøe, E.

Sanchez, A. D.

Sanchez-Rubio, A.

Schael, F.

Scifres, D.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Scott, M. L.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.52(21), 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shay, T. M.

Siebert, E. T.

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, and C. Roychoudhuri, “Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.55(9), 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Skoczowsky, D.

Smith, G. M.

Soriano, M. C.

M. C. Soriano, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, and I. Fischer, “Complex photonics: dynamics and applications of delay-coupled semiconductors lasers,” Rev. Mod. Phys.85(1), 421–470 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Spring, J.

Sties, E.

M. Kanskar, T. Earles, T. J. Goodnough, E. Sties, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “73% CW power conversion efficiency at 50 W from 970 nm diode laser bars,” Electron. Lett.41(5), 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, W. Streifer, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, “Modal analysis of linear Talbot-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.16(11), 823–825 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stry, S.

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7 MHz,” Opt. Commun.277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, S. Stry, J. R. Sacher, and F. Schael, “Antireflection-coated blue GaN laser diodes in an external cavity and Doppler-free indium absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.42(12), 2110–2118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stryckman, D.

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.19(4), 493–495 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sujecki, S.

D. Pabœuf, D. Vijayakumar, O. B. Jensen, B. Thestrup, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, E. Larkins, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Volume Bragg grating external cavities for the passive phase locking of high-brightness diode laser arrays: theoretical and experimental study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(5), 1289–1299 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suruceanu, G. I.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Syrbu, A. V.

D. Botez, L. J. Mawst, A. Bhattacharya, J. Lopez, J. Li, T. F. Kuech, V. P. Iakovlev, G. I. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, and A. V. Syrbu, “66% CW wallplug efficiency from Al-free 0.98 um-emitting diode lasers,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 2012 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thestrup, B.

Thielen, P.

Thielen, P. A.

Thornburg, K. S.

R. Roy and K. S. Thornburg., “Experimental synchronization of chaotic lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(13), 2009–2012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trela, N.

Tu, C.

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, M. Jansen, C. Tu, T. J. Roth, and J. Yun, “Resonant self-aligned-stripe antiguided diode laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(6), 668–670 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. W.

Veldkamp, W. B.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.52(21), 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vijayakumar, D.

Waarts, R.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schematic design for BALD array smile, free-running spectrum, and free-running L-I curve measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Near-field of selected BALD array (mini-bar, 10 BALDs) with 3 Amps injection current. BALD array has smile around 0.25 μm. (b) near-field mode profile of selected BALD array. (c) Solitary BALD array spectrum. A broad luminescence spectrum of 15.5 nm (FWHM) with 3 Amps current drive.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic design of an improved V-shaped external Talbot cavity BALD array (top view). FAC is fast-axis collimator. Two prism mirrors (PM1, PM2) form right angle and separate the laser beams into two branches (feedback branch and output branch). Feedback branch consists of cylindrical lenses CL1~CL4, and Grating. CL1, CL3, and CL4 are cylindrical lenses with the focal length 200 mm. CL2 is the cylindrical lens with focal length 50 mm. Grating is a ruled diffraction grating with groove density 830 line/mm. CL2 and CL3 form a telescope along fast-axis and expand laser beam 4 times along fast-axis. The confocal lens pair CL1, CL4 project the image laser diodes on the CL4 focal plane. The far-field profile of laser diode array is projected on CL5 (f5 = 300 mm) focal plane. A CCD camera records the far-field profile and optical spectrum analyzer measures the spectrum while a power-meter monitors the output power. Inset 1 shows an individual BALD in V-shaped external cavity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Feedback branch of optimized V-shaped external Talbot cavity (side view). FAC (NA = 0.8) collimates laser beam along the fast-axis within divergence angle ( ± 1.5 mrads). Confocal cylindrical lenses CL1 and CL4 (f1 = f4 = 200 mm) project laser diode image on CL4 focal plane. Telescope comprised of CL2 (f2 = 50 mm) and CL3 (f3 = 200 mm) expands laser beam with 4 times along fast-axis direction. Grating is located at the half Talbot distance from CL4 image plane and provides a self-imaged diffractive-coupling feedback.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CW L-I characteristic of coherent beam combining of selected BALD array with an improved external Talbot cavity (red dot-line), CW L-I characteristic of solitary BALD array (black square-line), V-I curve of BALD array (magenta triangle-line) and calculated PCE curve (blue diamond-line) are shown. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) is around 19% at 14 Amps with well-maintained coherent visibility (95%) (See Fig. 8.).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated diffraction profile of single LD at different position (half Talbot and Talbot distance) and near-field in-phase super-mode distribution of 10 LDs. (a) Near-field of 10 LDs in-phase super mode profile (black line). (b) Diffraction profile of single LD at half Talbot distance with the emission mode size 40 μm (blue line). (c) Diffraction profile of single LD at Talbot distance with the emission mode size 40 μm (red line). The diffraction profiles of single LD are normalized to the maximum of diffraction at half-Talbot distance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental results of (a) far-field profile with simulation (dash line) and (b) spectrum of a phase-locked laser array at 5 A with an improved V-shaped external Talbot cavity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental results of (a) far-field profile (simulation (dash line)) and (b) spectrum of a phase-locked laser array at 14 A with an improved V-shaped external Talbot cavity.

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