Abstract

Owing to its superior resolution, intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is a promising tool for imaging the microstructure of coronary artery walls. However, IVOCT does not identify chemicals and molecules in the tissue, which is required for a more complete understanding and accurate diagnosis of coronary disease. Here we present a dual-modality imaging system and catheter that uniquely combines IVOCT with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a single dual-modality imaging device for simultaneous acquisition of microstructural and compositional information. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the device has been used to visualize co-incident microstructural and spectroscopic information obtained from a diseased cadaver human coronary artery.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

C. P. Fleming, J. Eckert, E. F. Halpern, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Depth resolved detection of lipid using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1269–1284 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Madder, D. H. Steinberg, and R. D. Anderson, “Multimodality direct coronary imaging with combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound: Initial US experience,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv.81(3), 551–557 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, A. Fard, O. Malik, G. Fu, A. Quach, and B. Jalali, “High-throughput optical coherence tomography at 800 nm,” Opt. Express20(18), 19612–19617 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med.17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, E. Regar, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. J. L. H. van Leenders, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Pitfalls in plaque characterization by OCT: Image artifacts in native coronary arteries,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(7), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

J. Park, J. A. Jo, S. Shrestha, P. Pande, Q. Wan, and B. E. Applegate, “A dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system for simultaneous morphological and biochemical tissue characterization,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 186–200 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “A case of lipid core plaque progression and rupture at the edge of a coronary stent: elucidating the mechanisms of drug-eluting stent failure,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv.3(2), 193–196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

B. D. Goldberg, B. J. Vakoc, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express17(19), 16957–16968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Matter, M. Stuber, and M. Nahrendorf, “Imaging of the unstable plaque: how far have we got?” Eur. Heart J.30(21), 2566–2574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, E. Regar, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Imaging atherosclerotic plaque composition with intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Neth. Heart J.17(11), 448–450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Ryu, H. Y. Choi, J. Na, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Combined system of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence spectroscopy based on double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett.33(20), 2347–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, “Detection and treatment of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: novel approaches to prevention of coronary events,” Circulation114(22), 2390–2411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, H. Okura, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Measurement of the thickness of the fibrous cap by optical coherence tomography,” Am. Heart J.152(4), 755e1–755e4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Caplan, S. Waxman, R. W. Nesto, and J. E. Muller, “Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of vulnerable coronary artery plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.47(8Suppl), C92–C96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

2002 (1)

A. F. Zuluaga and S. T. DeJesus, “Miniaturized probes for intracoronary optical spectroscopy through blood,” Am. J. Cardiol.90, 128H–129H (2002).

2001 (1)

F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, H. K. Gold, J. Yuan, J. Narula, A. V. Finn, and R. Virmani, “The thin-cap fibroatheroma: a type of vulnerable plaque: the major precursor lesion to acute coronary syndromes,” Curr. Opin. Cardiol.16(5), 285–292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Feng, F.-A. Zeng, and B. Chance, “Photon migration in the presence of a single defect: a perturbation analysis,” Appl. Opt.34(19), 3826–3837 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cui, C. Kumar, and B. Chance, “Experimental study of migration depth for the photons measured at sample surface,” Proc. SPIE1431, 180–191 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Akasaka, T.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, H. Okura, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Measurement of the thickness of the fibrous cap by optical coherence tomography,” Am. Heart J.152(4), 755e1–755e4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. D.

R. D. Madder, D. H. Steinberg, and R. D. Anderson, “Multimodality direct coronary imaging with combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound: Initial US experience,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv.81(3), 551–557 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

Aretz, H. T.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, L. A.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilazarian, S.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “A case of lipid core plaque progression and rupture at the edge of a coronary stent: elucidating the mechanisms of drug-eluting stent failure,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv.3(2), 193–196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonner, R. F.

Boppart, S. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med.17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “A case of lipid core plaque progression and rupture at the edge of a coronary stent: elucidating the mechanisms of drug-eluting stent failure,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv.3(2), 193–196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
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C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
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G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
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G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
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C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
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Fercher, A. F.

Finn, A. V.

F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, H. K. Gold, J. Yuan, J. Narula, A. V. Finn, and R. Virmani, “The thin-cap fibroatheroma: a type of vulnerable plaque: the major precursor lesion to acute coronary syndromes,” Curr. Opin. Cardiol.16(5), 285–292 (2001).
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Flotte, T.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Goldberg, B. J. Vakoc, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express17(19), 16957–16968 (2009).
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G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
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J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
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Gardner, C. M.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
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Godbout, N.

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G. van Soest, E. Regar, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. J. L. H. van Leenders, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Pitfalls in plaque characterization by OCT: Image artifacts in native coronary arteries,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(7), 810–813 (2011).
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G. van Soest, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, E. Regar, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Imaging atherosclerotic plaque composition with intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Neth. Heart J.17(11), 448–450 (2009).
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F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, H. K. Gold, J. Yuan, J. Narula, A. V. Finn, and R. Virmani, “The thin-cap fibroatheroma: a type of vulnerable plaque: the major precursor lesion to acute coronary syndromes,” Curr. Opin. Cardiol.16(5), 285–292 (2001).
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Goldstein, J.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
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G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
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C. P. Fleming, J. Eckert, E. F. Halpern, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Depth resolved detection of lipid using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1269–1284 (2013).
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Havlin, S.

Hee, M. R.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
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Houser, S. L.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation107(1), 113–119 (2003).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
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Ishibashi, F.

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, “Detection and treatment of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: novel approaches to prevention of coronary events,” Circulation114(22), 2390–2411 (2006).
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Jaffer, F. A.

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Jang, I. K.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation107(1), 113–119 (2003).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
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C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
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S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
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G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation107(1), 113–119 (2003).
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G. van Soest, E. Regar, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. J. L. H. van Leenders, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Pitfalls in plaque characterization by OCT: Image artifacts in native coronary arteries,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(7), 810–813 (2011).
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G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
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Liang, S.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
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G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
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G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
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C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
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G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
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Morse, T.

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Motaghian Nezam, S. M. R.

Muller, J. E.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
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Nahrendorf, M.

C. M. Matter, M. Stuber, and M. Nahrendorf, “Imaging of the unstable plaque: how far have we got?” Eur. Heart J.30(21), 2566–2574 (2009).
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H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med.17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
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J. D. Caplan, S. Waxman, R. W. Nesto, and J. E. Muller, “Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of vulnerable coronary artery plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.47(8Suppl), C92–C96 (2006).
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Ntziachristos, V.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med.17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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Parise, H.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
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Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Regar, E.

G. van Soest, E. Regar, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. J. L. H. van Leenders, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Pitfalls in plaque characterization by OCT: Image artifacts in native coronary arteries,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(7), 810–813 (2011).
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G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
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G. van Soest, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, E. Regar, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Imaging atherosclerotic plaque composition with intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Neth. Heart J.17(11), 448–450 (2009).
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Rosenberg, M.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
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Sadahira, Y.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, H. Okura, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Measurement of the thickness of the fibrous cap by optical coherence tomography,” Am. Heart J.152(4), 755e1–755e4 (2006).
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S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
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Schlendorf, K. H.

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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G. van Soest, E. Regar, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. J. L. H. van Leenders, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Pitfalls in plaque characterization by OCT: Image artifacts in native coronary arteries,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(7), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, E. Regar, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Imaging atherosclerotic plaque composition with intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Neth. Heart J.17(11), 448–450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med.17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “A case of lipid core plaque progression and rupture at the edge of a coronary stent: elucidating the mechanisms of drug-eluting stent failure,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv.3(2), 193–196 (2010).
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G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shrestha, S.

Shubochkin, R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med.17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
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R. D. Madder, D. H. Steinberg, and R. D. Anderson, “Multimodality direct coronary imaging with combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound: Initial US experience,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv.81(3), 551–557 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, G. W.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Stuber, M.

C. M. Matter, M. Stuber, and M. Nahrendorf, “Imaging of the unstable plaque: how far have we got?” Eur. Heart J.30(21), 2566–2574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukmawan, R.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, H. Okura, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Measurement of the thickness of the fibrous cap by optical coherence tomography,” Am. Heart J.152(4), 755e1–755e4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sum, S. T.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “A case of lipid core plaque progression and rupture at the edge of a coronary stent: elucidating the mechanisms of drug-eluting stent failure,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv.3(2), 193–196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Goldberg, B. J. Vakoc, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express17(19), 16957–16968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, H.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

C. P. Fleming, J. Eckert, E. F. Halpern, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Depth resolved detection of lipid using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(8), 1269–1284 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med.17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “A case of lipid core plaque progression and rupture at the edge of a coronary stent: elucidating the mechanisms of drug-eluting stent failure,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv.3(2), 193–196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Goldberg, B. J. Vakoc, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express17(19), 16957–16968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, B. J. Vakoc, A. E. Desjardins, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Increased ranging depth in optical frequency domain imaging by frequency encoding,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2768–2770 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Templin, B.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyota, E.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, H. Okura, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Measurement of the thickness of the fibrous cap by optical coherence tomography,” Am. Heart J.152(4), 755e1–755e4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A. R.

Utzinger, U.

Vakoc, B. J.

B. D. Goldberg, B. J. Vakoc, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express17(19), 16957–16968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, B. J. Vakoc, A. E. Desjardins, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Increased ranging depth in optical frequency domain imaging by frequency encoding,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2768–2770 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F. W.

G. van Soest, E. Regar, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. J. L. H. van Leenders, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Pitfalls in plaque characterization by OCT: Image artifacts in native coronary arteries,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(7), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, E. Regar, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Imaging atherosclerotic plaque composition with intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Neth. Heart J.17(11), 448–450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leenders, G. J. L. H.

G. van Soest, E. Regar, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. J. L. H. van Leenders, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Pitfalls in plaque characterization by OCT: Image artifacts in native coronary arteries,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(7), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leenders, G. L. J. H.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, E. Regar, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Imaging atherosclerotic plaque composition with intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Neth. Heart J.17(11), 448–450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Noorden, S.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Soest, G.

G. van Soest, E. Regar, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. J. L. H. van Leenders, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Pitfalls in plaque characterization by OCT: Image artifacts in native coronary arteries,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(7), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. P. M. Goderie, N. Gonzalo, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, E. Regar, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Imaging atherosclerotic plaque composition with intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Neth. Heart J.17(11), 448–450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verpillat, F.

Virmani, R.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “A case of lipid core plaque progression and rupture at the edge of a coronary stent: elucidating the mechanisms of drug-eluting stent failure,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv.3(2), 193–196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, H. K. Gold, J. Yuan, J. Narula, A. V. Finn, and R. Virmani, “The thin-cap fibroatheroma: a type of vulnerable plaque: the major precursor lesion to acute coronary syndromes,” Curr. Opin. Cardiol.16(5), 285–292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, Q.

Watanabe, N.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, H. Okura, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Measurement of the thickness of the fibrous cap by optical coherence tomography,” Am. Heart J.152(4), 755e1–755e4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waxman, S.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “A case of lipid core plaque progression and rupture at the edge of a coronary stent: elucidating the mechanisms of drug-eluting stent failure,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv.3(2), 193–196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Goldberg, B. J. Vakoc, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express17(19), 16957–16968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W.-Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, “Detection and treatment of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: novel approaches to prevention of coronary events,” Circulation114(22), 2390–2411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Caplan, S. Waxman, R. W. Nesto, and J. E. Muller, “Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of vulnerable coronary artery plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.47(8Suppl), C92–C96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, G. H.

White, R.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xi, J.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabushita, H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yoo, H.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med.17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, K.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, H. Okura, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Measurement of the thickness of the fibrous cap by optical coherence tomography,” Am. Heart J.152(4), 755e1–755e4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, H. K. Gold, J. Yuan, J. Narula, A. V. Finn, and R. Virmani, “The thin-cap fibroatheroma: a type of vulnerable plaque: the major precursor lesion to acute coronary syndromes,” Curr. Opin. Cardiol.16(5), 285–292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, F.-A.

Zhang, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med.364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuluaga, A. F.

A. F. Zuluaga and S. T. DeJesus, “Miniaturized probes for intracoronary optical spectroscopy through blood,” Am. J. Cardiol.90, 128H–129H (2002).

Am. Heart J. (1)

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, H. Okura, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Measurement of the thickness of the fibrous cap by optical coherence tomography,” Am. Heart J.152(4), 755e1–755e4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Cardiol. (1)

A. F. Zuluaga and S. T. DeJesus, “Miniaturized probes for intracoronary optical spectroscopy through blood,” Am. J. Cardiol.90, 128H–129H (2002).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1)

C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies, and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of plaque lipid composition and morphology to the stability of human aortic plaques,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.17(7), 1337–1345 (1997).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. (1)

R. D. Madder, D. H. Steinberg, and R. D. Anderson, “Multimodality direct coronary imaging with combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound: Initial US experience,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv.81(3), 551–557 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. (1)

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “A case of lipid core plaque progression and rupture at the edge of a coronary stent: elucidating the mechanisms of drug-eluting stent failure,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv.3(2), 193–196 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (2)

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, “Detection and treatment of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: novel approaches to prevention of coronary events,” Circulation114(22), 2390–2411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Cardiol. (1)

F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, H. K. Gold, J. Yuan, J. Narula, A. V. Finn, and R. Virmani, “The thin-cap fibroatheroma: a type of vulnerable plaque: the major precursor lesion to acute coronary syndromes,” Curr. Opin. Cardiol.16(5), 285–292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Heart J. (1)

C. M. Matter, M. Stuber, and M. Nahrendorf, “Imaging of the unstable plaque: how far have we got?” Eur. Heart J.30(21), 2566–2574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

J. D. Caplan, S. Waxman, R. W. Nesto, and J. E. Muller, “Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of vulnerable coronary artery plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.47(8Suppl), C92–C96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System diagram for the dual-modality catheter-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The OCT-NIRS system consists of OCT/OFDI and NIRS consoles, double-clad fiber coupler, fiber-based rotary junction, and a dual-modal imaging catheter. SMF: Single-mode fiber; DCF: Double-clad fiber; AOFS: Acousto-optic frequency shifter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Double-clad fiber (DCF) coupler schematic, denoting the ports and coupling direction, (B) Transmission spectrum over the operation band. The error bar indicates deviation from the average for four DCF couplers that were fabricated using the described method. The cladding-to-cladding coupling (for NIRS signal) was nearly 4.9 dB, averaged over the entire operation band, while core insertion loss (for OCT signal) was about 0.5 dB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic for OCT-NIRS catheter. Inside the catheter, a single-mode fiber (SMF) delivered and collected OCT light to/from tissue and a multi-mode fiber (MMF) collected NIRS light. The two fibers were combined into a double-clad fiber (DCF) using a commercial power combiner such that the OCT light transceived through the core of the SMF and DCF, while NIRS light coupled to the cladding of the DCF. At the distal end (insets), the SM and MM fibers were terminated by two angle-cleaved ball lenses for efficient delivery/collection of OCT and NIRS light to/from tissue. In order to spin the catheter for cross-sectional dual-modality imaging, all optical fibers, optical power combiner, and distal optics were housed in a 2.4-Fr driveshaft and stainless steel tubing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT-NIRS images of cadaver coronary artery ex vivo. Both OCT images show lesions with reduced backscattering. NIRS image shows absorption spectra of tissue versus wavelength, representing the total attenuation normalized for the entire data set; ‘1’ and ‘0’ correspond to the maximum and minimum absorption within the data set, respectively. The NIRS signal in (A) does not demonstrate a high lipid signal, while the NIRS signal in (B) shows the presence of abundant lipid. These findings suggest that the lesion in (A) is does not contain much lipid whereas the lesion in (B) is lipid-rich. Scale bars, 500 µm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Port numbering for the double-clad fiber coupler and their purposes

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