Abstract

We present high-sensitivity photoreceivers based on a vertical- illumination-type 100% Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors (PDs), which operate up to 50 Gb/s with high responsivity. A butterfly-packaged photoreceiver using a Ge PD with 3-dB bandwidth (f-3dB) of 29 GHz demonstrates the sensitivities of −10.15 dBm for 40 Gb/s data rate and −9.47 dBm for 43 Gb/s data rate, at BER of 10−12 and λ ~1550 nm. Also a photoreceiver based on a Ge PD with f-3dB~19 GHz shows −14.14 dBm sensitivity at 25 Gb/s operation. These results prove the high performance levels of vertical-illumination type Ge PDs ready for practical high-speed network applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

2011 (2)

2010 (8)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express18(1), 96–101 (2010).

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 658–660 (2010).

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, “High-sensitivity 10 Gbps Ge-on-Si photoreceiver operating at λ~1.55μm,” Opt. Express18, 16474 (2010).

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express18, 204–211 (2010).

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 112–114 (2010).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464, 80–85 (2010).

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4, 527–534 (2010).

2009 (4)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 69–79 (2009).

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30, 1161–1163 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput.57, 1246–1260 (2008).

2006 (2)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

2005 (2)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1510–1512 (2005).

2004 (2)

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2547–2549 (2004).

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

2003 (2)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2044–2046 (2003).

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1249–1251 (2003).

Abbadie, A.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

Alon, E.

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

Aruga, H.

H. Aruga, K. Mochizuki, H. Itamoto, R. Takemura, K. Yamagishi, M. Nakaji, and A. Sugitatsu, “Four-channel 25Gbps optical receiver for 100Gbps ethernet with buit-in demultiplexer optics,” Proc. ECOC 2010, 1623-1625 (2010).

Asghari, M.

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 658–660 (2010).

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 69–79 (2009).

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464, 80–85 (2010).

Baek, J.

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1249–1251 (2003).

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput.57, 1246–1260 (2008).

Berroth, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1510–1512 (2005).

Billon, T.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Bolle, C. A.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 112–114 (2010).

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2044–2046 (2003).

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput.57, 1246–1260 (2008).

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

Chen, H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Chen, Y.-K.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 112–114 (2010).

Chi, H.

Cho, M.

Chu, J. O.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2547–2549 (2004).

Cohen, R.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Colace, L.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 658–660 (2010).

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 69–79 (2009).

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J. F.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

Davids, P. S.

Dehlinger, G.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2547–2549 (2004).

DeRose, C. T.

Doerr, C. R.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 112–114 (2010).

Dong, P.

Dosunmu, O.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Earnshaw, M. P.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 112–114 (2010).

El Melhaoui, L.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

Fedeli, J. M.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Fédéli, J. M.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fisher, M.

Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

Gardes, F. Y.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Gill, D. M.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 112–114 (2010).

Ginsburg, E.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Grill, A.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2547–2549 (2004).

Grosse, P.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Hartmann, J. M.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

Ho, R.

Holliger, P.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Hu, Y.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Hwang, M.

Ikonic, Z.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Ishikawa, Y.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2044–2046 (2003).

Itamoto, H.

H. Aruga, K. Mochizuki, H. Itamoto, R. Takemura, K. Yamagishi, M. Nakaji, and A. Sugitatsu, “Four-channel 25Gbps optical receiver for 100Gbps ethernet with buit-in demultiplexer optics,” Proc. ECOC 2010, 1623-1625 (2010).

Jang, K.

Jeong, D.

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

Joo, J.

Jung, W.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30, 1161–1163 (2009).

Jutzi, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1510–1512 (2005).

Kang, Y.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Kasper, E.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1510–1512 (2005).

Kelsall, R. W.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Kim, D.

Kim, G.

Kim, H.

Kim, I.

Kim, J.

Kim, S.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4, 527–534 (2010).

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2044–2046 (2003).

Koester, S. J.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2547–2549 (2004).

Kopp, C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Kwon, O.

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1249–1251 (2003).

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

Laval, S.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Le Cunff, Y.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Le Roux, X.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Leadley, D. R.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Lee, J.

Lever, L.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

Litski, S.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Liu, F.

Liu, H. D.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Liu, H.-D.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4, 527–534 (2010).

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2044–2046 (2003).

Lo, G.-Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

Luan, H.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2044–2046 (2003).

Luo, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mazzochi, V.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

McIntosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Mekis, A.

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4, 527–534 (2010).

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

Miller, D. A. B.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30, 1161–1163 (2009).

Mochizuki, K.

H. Aruga, K. Mochizuki, H. Itamoto, R. Takemura, K. Yamagishi, M. Nakaji, and A. Sugitatsu, “Four-channel 25Gbps optical receiver for 100Gbps ethernet with buit-in demultiplexer optics,” Proc. ECOC 2010, 1623-1625 (2010).

Morini, D. M.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Morse, M.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Myronov, M.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Nakaji, M.

H. Aruga, K. Mochizuki, H. Itamoto, R. Takemura, K. Yamagishi, M. Nakaji, and A. Sugitatsu, “Four-channel 25Gbps optical receiver for 100Gbps ethernet with buit-in demultiplexer optics,” Proc. ECOC 2010, 1623-1625 (2010).

Nelson, N. A.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

Oehme, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1510–1512 (2005).

Oh, J.

Okyay, A. K.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30, 1161–1163 (2009).

Osmond, J.

Ouyang, Q. C.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2547–2549 (2004).

Owens, N.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Papon, A. M.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Park, G.

Park, J.

Park, K.

Pascal, D.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Patil, D.

Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Pinguet, T.

Polzer, A.

Poncet, S.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

Raj, K.

Rasras, M. S.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 112–114 (2010).

Reed, G. T.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Ren, S.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30, 1161–1163 (2009).

Rolland, G.

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Romagnoli, M.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 658–660 (2010).

Rouvière, M.

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Saraswat, K. C.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30, 1161–1163 (2009).

Sarid, G.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Schaub, J. D.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2547–2549 (2004).

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput.57, 1246–1260 (2008).

Shafiiha, R.

Shi, J.

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

Sorianello, V.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 658–660 (2010).

Starbuck, A. L.

Sugitatsu, A.

H. Aruga, K. Mochizuki, H. Itamoto, R. Takemura, K. Yamagishi, M. Nakaji, and A. Sugitatsu, “Four-channel 25Gbps optical receiver for 100Gbps ethernet with buit-in demultiplexer optics,” Proc. ECOC 2010, 1623-1625 (2010).

Takemura, R.

H. Aruga, K. Mochizuki, H. Itamoto, R. Takemura, K. Yamagishi, M. Nakaji, and A. Sugitatsu, “Four-channel 25Gbps optical receiver for 100Gbps ethernet with buit-in demultiplexer optics,” Proc. ECOC 2010, 1623-1625 (2010).

Thacker, H.

Trotter, D. C.

Valavanis, A.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464, 80–85 (2010).

Wada, K.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2044–2046 (2003).

Watts, M. R.

Weiner, J. S.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 112–114 (2010).

Wöhl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1510–1512 (2005).

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464, 80–85 (2010).

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

Yamagishi, K.

H. Aruga, K. Mochizuki, H. Itamoto, R. Takemura, K. Yamagishi, M. Nakaji, and A. Sugitatsu, “Four-channel 25Gbps optical receiver for 100Gbps ethernet with buit-in demultiplexer optics,” Proc. ECOC 2010, 1623-1625 (2010).

Yao, J.

Yin, T.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Yu, H.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30, 1161–1163 (2009).

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

Zadka, M.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Zhang, J.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express18, 204–211 (2010).

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

Zimmermann, H.

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2044–2046 (2003).

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 011110 (2005).

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 1249–1251 (2003).

ECS Trans. (1)

J. M. Fedeli, J. F. Damlencourt, L. El Melhaoui, Y. Le Cunff, V. Mazzochi, P. Grosse, S. Poncet, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, M. Rouvière, D. Pascal, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, and S. Laval, “Germanium Photodetectors for Photonics on CMOS,” ECS Trans.3(7), 771–777 (2006).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30, 1161–1163 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1699–1705 (2006).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J.1, 69–79 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 658–660 (2010).

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 2547–2549 (2004).

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17, 1510–1512 (2005).

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22, 112–114 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput.57, 1246–1260 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 5905–5913 (2004).

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, Y. Hu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Optical absorption in highly-strained Ge/SiGe quantum wells: the role of Γ-to-Δ scattering,” J. Appl. Phys.112(12), 123105 (2012).

Nat. Photonics (2)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics3, 59–63 (2009).

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4, 527–534 (2010).

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464, 80–85 (2010).

Opt. Express (6)

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express18(1), 96–101 (2010).

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express18, 204–211 (2010).

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).

G. Kim, J. Park, I. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. Lee, G. Park, J. Joo, K. Jang, J. Oh, S. Kim, J. Kim, J. Lee, J. Park, D. Kim, D. Jeong, M. Hwang, J. Kim, K. Park, H. Chi, H. Kim, D. Kim, and M. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19, 26936–26947 (2011).

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, “High-sensitivity 10 Gbps Ge-on-Si photoreceiver operating at λ~1.55μm,” Opt. Express18, 16474 (2010).

Physica E (1)

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E41, 1076–1081 (2009).

Other (4)

T-Y. Liow, A. E-J. Lim, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G-Q. Lo, “Waveguide germanium photodetector with high bandwidth and high L-band responsivity,” OFC/NFOEC Technical Digest, OM3K.2 (2013).

K. Preston, L. Chen, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Silicon Photonic Interconnect with Micrometer-Scale Devices,” 6th International conference on Group IV photonics, WA2, pp.1-3 (2009).

J. Joo, S. Kim, I. Kim, K. Jang, and G. Kim, “Progress in high-responsivity vertical-illumination type Ge-on-Si photodetector operating at λ~1.55μm,” Proc. OFC’11, OWZ7 (2011).

H. Aruga, K. Mochizuki, H. Itamoto, R. Takemura, K. Yamagishi, M. Nakaji, and A. Sugitatsu, “Four-channel 25Gbps optical receiver for 100Gbps ethernet with buit-in demultiplexer optics,” Proc. ECOC 2010, 1623-1625 (2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) High-resolution TEM image of a 1.5 μm-thick Ge epilayer grown on a bulk-silicon by RPCVD. (b) Top-view SEM image and 52 degree-tilted cross sectional FIB SEM image of a fabricated 20 μm-diameter device with 2 μm-thick Ge absorption layer. (c) The strain. vs. Ge thickness curve for the Ge-on-Si epitaxial layer. Insets show the measured extinction coefficients, κ (top), and the measured high resolution θ-2θ X-ray diffraction profiles around (004) order (bottom), for Ge epitaxial layers with various Ge thicknesses from 0.34 μm to 4 μm. (d) The responsivity curve in the wavelength range from 650 nm to 1640 nm, measured with the 160 μm-diameter Ge PDs optimized for each wavelength to obtain maximum responsivity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The on-chip measurements of the frequency responses (a) for a 20 μm-diameter (ϕ) PD with a 2 μm-thick Ge layer, and (b) for a 40 μm-ϕ PD with a 3 μm-thick Ge layer. (c) The measured current-voltage characteristics of a 20 μm-ϕ PD with a WGe ~2μm, and a 40 μm-ϕ PD with a 3 μm-thick Ge layer Here, the dash-dotted lines indicate the dark current, and the solid lines indicate the photocurrent under illumination of λ~1.55 μm. (d) The measured capacitances .vs. device mesa area for various WGe. (e) The dependency of the measured f-3dB on the Ge thickness at −3V, and (f) the responsivity on the Ge absorption layer thickness, for the 20 μm-ϕ PDs (black line), and the 40 μm-ϕ PDs (red line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

On-wafer measurements of the eye-diagrams of (a) a 20 μm-ϕ PD with a WGe ~2 μm at 40 Gb/s data rate, (b) a 20 μm-ϕ PD with a WGe ~1.5 μm at 50 Gb/s data rate, (c) a 40 μm-ϕ PD with a WGe ~3 μm at 25 Gb/s data rate, and (d) a 40 μm-ϕ PD with a WGe ~2 μm at 30 Gb/s data rate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photographic image of a 40 Gb/s butterfly-packaged Ge photoreceiver module, and the microscopic image of a high speed submount where a 20 μm-ϕ Ge PD with a WGe ~2 μm is wire-bonded with a TIA in a housing. (b) Measured sensitivity curve of the Ge photoreceiver at data rate of 40 Gb/s (red line) and 43 Gb/s (blue line) for λ ~1.55 μm. The measured sensitivity of the photoreceiver is −10.15 dBm and −9.47 for a BER of 10−12, respectively. Top Insets show measured 40 Gb/s and 43 Gb/s eye diagrams of the photoreceiver module. Bottom inset shows a 40 Gb/s eye-diagram of the optical transmitter used in the measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Sensitivity curves of Ge photoreceivers with a 40 μm-ϕ PD with a WGe ~3 μm for a BER of 10−12 at data rates of 25 Gb/s (red line) and 28 Gb/s (blue line) at λ ~1.55 μm. Top inset shows the measured current-voltage characteristic of the photoreceiver module. The measured sensitivity is −14.14 dBm and −13.55 dBm. Here, the extinction ratio of the input optical transmitter signal was 9.2 dB in the measurement. Bottom inset shows a 25 Gb/s eye-diagram of the optical transmitter used in the measurement. (b) The measured 25 Gb/s and 28Gb/s eye diagrams of the Ge photoreceiver at λ ~1.55 μm, with the optical input power of −15 dBm.

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