Abstract

An overview is presented of the impact of NLO on today’s daily life. While NLO researchers have promised many applications, only a few have changed our lives so far. This paper categorizes applications of NLO into three areas: improving lasers, interaction with materials, and information technology. NLO provides: coherent light of different wavelengths; multi-photon absorption for plasma-materials interaction; advanced spectroscopy and materials analysis; and applications to communications and sensors. Applications in information processing and storage seem less mature.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

V. R. Supradeepa and J. W. Nicholson, “Power scaling of high-efficiency 1.5 μm cascaded Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.38(14), 2538–2541 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

E. Garmire, “Resource letter NO-1: nonlinear optics,” Am. J. Phys.79(3), 245–255 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Z. Cong, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Chen, S. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Zhang, X. Tao, and S. Li, “Theoretical and experimental study on the Nd:YAG/BaWO4/KTP yellow laser generating 8.3 W output power,” Opt. Express18(12), 12111–12118 (2010).
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B.-G. Wang, K. König, and K.-J. Halbhuber, “Two-photon microscopy of deep intravital tissues and its merits in clinical research,” J. Microsc.238(1), 1–20 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K. Hollemeyer, W. Altmeyer, E. Heinzle, and C. Pitra, “Species identification of Oetzi’s clothing with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on peptide pattern similarities of hair digests,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.22(18), 2751–2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. X. Liu and E. Garmire, “Understanding the formation of the SRS Stokes spectrum in fused-silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(4), 1022–1030 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Altmeyer, W.

K. Hollemeyer, W. Altmeyer, E. Heinzle, and C. Pitra, “Species identification of Oetzi’s clothing with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on peptide pattern similarities of hair digests,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.22(18), 2751–2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bablumian, A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

Blanche, P.-A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Chihara, M.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christenson, C.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, Z.

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Fan, S.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flores, D.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garlick, J.

Garmire, E.

E. Garmire, “Resource letter NO-1: nonlinear optics,” Am. J. Phys.79(3), 245–255 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. X. Liu and E. Garmire, “Understanding the formation of the SRS Stokes spectrum in fused-silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(4), 1022–1030 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gu, T.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halbhuber, K.-J.

B.-G. Wang, K. König, and K.-J. Halbhuber, “Two-photon microscopy of deep intravital tissues and its merits in clinical research,” J. Microsc.238(1), 1–20 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzle, E.

K. Hollemeyer, W. Altmeyer, E. Heinzle, and C. Pitra, “Species identification of Oetzi’s clothing with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on peptide pattern similarities of hair digests,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.22(18), 2751–2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, S.

Hollemeyer, K.

K. Hollemeyer, W. Altmeyer, E. Heinzle, and C. Pitra, “Species identification of Oetzi’s clothing with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on peptide pattern similarities of hair digests,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.22(18), 2751–2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, W.-Y.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inui, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

Kathaperumal, M.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchner, M.

König, K.

B.-G. Wang, K. König, and K.-J. Halbhuber, “Two-photon microscopy of deep intravital tissues and its merits in clinical research,” J. Microsc.238(1), 1–20 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Lin, W.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, K. X.

K. X. Liu and E. Garmire, “Understanding the formation of the SRS Stokes spectrum in fused-silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(4), 1022–1030 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Murnane, M.

Nicholson, J. W.

Noda, S.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norwood, R. A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitra, C.

K. Hollemeyer, W. Altmeyer, E. Heinzle, and C. Pitra, “Species identification of Oetzi’s clothing with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on peptide pattern similarities of hair digests,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.22(18), 2751–2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rachwal, B.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shea, K.

Siddiqui, O.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

Storz, T.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taft, G.

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, X.

Terawaki, R.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, J.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voorakaranam, R.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.-G.

B.-G. Wang, K. König, and K.-J. Halbhuber, “Two-photon microscopy of deep intravital tissues and its merits in clinical research,” J. Microsc.238(1), 1–20 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Yamamoto, M.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

E. Garmire, “Resource letter NO-1: nonlinear optics,” Am. J. Phys.79(3), 245–255 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. X. Liu and E. Garmire, “Understanding the formation of the SRS Stokes spectrum in fused-silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(4), 1022–1030 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

B.-G. Wang, K. König, and K.-J. Halbhuber, “Two-photon microscopy of deep intravital tissues and its merits in clinical research,” J. Microsc.238(1), 1–20 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (1)

K. Hollemeyer, W. Altmeyer, E. Heinzle, and C. Pitra, “Species identification of Oetzi’s clothing with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on peptide pattern similarities of hair digests,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.22(18), 2751–2767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme for organizing nonlinear optical applications.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of a green Diode-pumped solid state laser pointer [3].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Biomedical stent: Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stent.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser “crystal” photograph by the author.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman gain spectrum in a telecommunication fiber, adapted from Liu and Garmire [25].

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