Abstract

Methane is an efficient absorber of infrared radiation and a potent greenhouse gas with a warming potential 72 times greater than carbon dioxide on a per molecule basis. Development of methane active remote sensing capability using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique enables scientific assessments of the gas emission and impacts on the climate. A performance evaluation of a pulsed DIAL system for monitoring atmospheric methane is presented. This system leverages a robust injection-seeded pulsed Nd:YAG pumped Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) laser technology operating in the 1.645 µm spectral band. The system also leverages an efficient low noise, commercially available, InGaAs avalanche photo-detector (APD). Lidar signals and error budget are analyzed for system operation on ground in the range-resolved DIAL mode and from airborne platforms in the integrated path DIAL (IPDA) mode. Results indicate system capability of measuring methane concentration profiles with <1.0% total error up to 4.5 km range with 5 minute averaging from ground. For airborne IPDA, the total error in the column dry mixing ratio is less than 0.3% with 0.1 sec average using ground returns. This system has a unique capability of combining signals from the atmospheric scattering from layers above the surface with ground return signals, which provides methane column measurement between the atmospheric scattering layer and the ground directly. In such case 0.5% and 1.2% total errors are achieved with 10 sec average from airborne platforms at 8 km and 15.24 km altitudes, respectively. Due to the pulsed nature of the transmitter, the system is relatively insensitive to aerosol and cloud interferences. Such DIAL system would be ideal for investigating high latitude methane releases over polar ice sheets, permafrost regions, wetlands, and over ocean during day and night. This system would have commercial potential for fossil fuel leaks detection and industrial monitoring applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

T. Shuman, R. Burnham, A. Nehrir, S. Ismail, J. Hair, and T. Refaat, “Efficient 1.6 micron laser source for methane DIAL,” Proc. SPIE8872, 88720A (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

E. Saiki, C. Weimer, and M. Stephens, “An investigation of high spectral resolution lidar measurements over the ocean,” Proc. SPIE8159, 81590F (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(4), 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Refaat and S. Ismail, “A feasibility study of atmospheric methane DIAL measurements at 1.65 micron spectral region,” EGU General Assembly13, 9675 (2011).

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Numata, J. R. Chen, S. T. Wu, J. B. Abshire, and M. A. Krainak, “Frequency stabilization of distributed-feedback laser diodes at 1572 nm for lidar measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt.50(7), 1047–1056 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, Y. Ota, T. Tanaka, H. Watanabe, and S. Maksyutov, “Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: First preliminary results,” SOLA5, 160–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4 and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Isquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt.47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

X. Xiong, C. Barnet, E. Maddy, C. Sweeney, X. Liu, L. Zhou, and M. Goldberg, “Characterization and validation of methane products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS),” J. Geophys. Res.113, G00A01 (2007).

2006 (2)

M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, S. Noel, J. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, O. Schneising, I. Khlystova, M. Bruns, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Korner, and M. Heimann, “Atmospheric carbon gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Version 0.5 CO and CH4 and impact of calibration improvements on CO2 retrieval,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(9), 2727–2751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, “Complementary study of differential absorption lidar optimization in direct and heterodyne detections,” Appl. Opt.45(20), 4898–4908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 153–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1989 (1)

1983 (1)

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

S. Drayson, “Rapid computation of the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.16(7), 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, N.

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J. B.

Alvarez, R.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amediek, A.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4 and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atlas, E.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Auwer, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avery, M.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Banta, R.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnet, C.

X. Xiong, C. Barnet, E. Maddy, C. Sweeney, X. Liu, L. Zhou, and M. Goldberg, “Characterization and validation of methane products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS),” J. Geophys. Res.113, G00A01 (2007).

Bartlett, K.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berg, L.

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
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M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, S. Noel, J. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, O. Schneising, I. Khlystova, M. Bruns, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Korner, and M. Heimann, “Atmospheric carbon gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Version 0.5 CO and CH4 and impact of calibration improvements on CO2 retrieval,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(9), 2727–2751 (2006).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, S. Noel, J. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, O. Schneising, I. Khlystova, M. Bruns, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Korner, and M. Heimann, “Atmospheric carbon gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Version 0.5 CO and CH4 and impact of calibration improvements on CO2 retrieval,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(9), 2727–2751 (2006).
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E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
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M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, S. Noel, J. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, O. Schneising, I. Khlystova, M. Bruns, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Korner, and M. Heimann, “Atmospheric carbon gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Version 0.5 CO and CH4 and impact of calibration improvements on CO2 retrieval,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(9), 2727–2751 (2006).
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S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
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E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
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S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
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E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
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A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
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S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
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E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

Fix, A.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4 and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 153–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

Flaud, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Ford, G.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Froyd, K.

S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fuelberg, H.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Gibert, F.

Goldberg, M.

X. Xiong, C. Barnet, E. Maddy, C. Sweeney, X. Liu, L. Zhou, and M. Goldberg, “Characterization and validation of methane products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS),” J. Geophys. Res.113, G00A01 (2007).

Goldman, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hair, J.

T. Shuman, R. Burnham, A. Nehrir, S. Ismail, J. Hair, and T. Refaat, “Efficient 1.6 micron laser source for methane DIAL,” Proc. SPIE8872, 88720A (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hair, J. W.

Hall, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haman, C.

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, R.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harper, D.

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harper, D. B.

Heikes, B.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
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Heimann, M.

M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, S. Noel, J. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, O. Schneising, I. Khlystova, M. Bruns, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Korner, and M. Heimann, “Atmospheric carbon gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Version 0.5 CO and CH4 and impact of calibration improvements on CO2 retrieval,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(9), 2727–2751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, G.

S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C.

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C. A.

Hough, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Houweling, S.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4 and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
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Hovis, F. E.

Hu, Y.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
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Ismail, S.

T. Shuman, R. Burnham, A. Nehrir, S. Ismail, J. Hair, and T. Refaat, “Efficient 1.6 micron laser source for methane DIAL,” Proc. SPIE8872, 88720A (2013).
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T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
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T. Refaat and S. Ismail, “A feasibility study of atmospheric methane DIAL measurements at 1.65 micron spectral region,” EGU General Assembly13, 9675 (2011).

S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
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S. Ismail and E. V. Browell, “Airborne and Spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt.28(17), 3603–3615 (1989).
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Isquierdo, L. R.

Jacob, D.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khlystova, I.

M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, S. Noel, J. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, O. Schneising, I. Khlystova, M. Bruns, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Korner, and M. Heimann, “Atmospheric carbon gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Version 0.5 CO and CH4 and impact of calibration improvements on CO2 retrieval,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(9), 2727–2751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4 and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
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Kikuchi, N.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(4), 717–734 (2011).
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Kleiner, I.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koch, G.

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kooi, S.

S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Korner, S.

M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, S. Noel, J. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, O. Schneising, I. Khlystova, M. Bruns, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Korner, and M. Heimann, “Atmospheric carbon gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Version 0.5 CO and CH4 and impact of calibration improvements on CO2 retrieval,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(9), 2727–2751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M. A.

Krishnamurti, T.

S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langford, A.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Law, D.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lefer, B.

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
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Lewis, J.

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
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Liu, X.

X. Xiong, C. Barnet, E. Maddy, C. Sweeney, X. Liu, L. Zhou, and M. Goldberg, “Characterization and validation of methane products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS),” J. Geophys. Res.113, G00A01 (2007).

Machol, J.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
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Mack, T.

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
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Mack, T. L.

Maddy, E.

X. Xiong, C. Barnet, E. Maddy, C. Sweeney, X. Liu, L. Zhou, and M. Goldberg, “Characterization and validation of methane products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS),” J. Geophys. Res.113, G00A01 (2007).

Maksyutov, S.

T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, Y. Ota, T. Tanaka, H. Watanabe, and S. Maksyutov, “Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: First preliminary results,” SOLA5, 160–163 (2009).
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Mandin, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Marchbanks, R.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
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Massie, S.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 153–163 (2002).
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Merritt, D.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
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Mikhailenko, S.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Miller, C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Morino, I.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(4), 717–734 (2011).
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Naumenko, O.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Nehrir, A.

T. Shuman, R. Burnham, A. Nehrir, S. Ismail, J. Hair, and T. Refaat, “Efficient 1.6 micron laser source for methane DIAL,” Proc. SPIE8872, 88720A (2013).
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E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
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Nikitin, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Nobuta, K.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(4), 717–734 (2011).
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Noel, S.

M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, S. Noel, J. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, O. Schneising, I. Khlystova, M. Bruns, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Korner, and M. Heimann, “Atmospheric carbon gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Version 0.5 CO and CH4 and impact of calibration improvements on CO2 retrieval,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(9), 2727–2751 (2006).
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Notari, A.

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
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S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
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Numata, K.

Obland, M.

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
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S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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Orphal, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Ota, Y.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(4), 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, Y. Ota, T. Tanaka, H. Watanabe, and S. Maksyutov, “Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: First preliminary results,” SOLA5, 160–163 (2009).
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Pelon, J.

Perevalov, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Perrin, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Pesch, M.

A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 153–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
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Refaat, T.

T. Shuman, R. Burnham, A. Nehrir, S. Ismail, J. Hair, and T. Refaat, “Efficient 1.6 micron laser source for methane DIAL,” Proc. SPIE8872, 88720A (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Refaat and S. Ismail, “A feasibility study of atmospheric methane DIAL measurements at 1.65 micron spectral region,” EGU General Assembly13, 9675 (2011).

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, R.

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, R. Rogers, M. Obland, C. Butler, A. Cook, D. Harper, and K. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements - methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.5(1), 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rubio, M.

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saiki, E.

E. Saiki, C. Weimer, and M. Stephens, “An investigation of high spectral resolution lidar measurements over the ocean,” Proc. SPIE8159, 81590F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, S.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sandholm, S.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scarino, A.

A. Scarino, M. Obland, J. Fast, S. Burton, R. Ferrare, C. Hostetler, L. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. Hair, R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. Cook, and D. Harper, “Comparison of mixed layer heights from airborne high spectral resolution lidar, ground-based measurements, and the WRF-Chem model during CalNex and CARES,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.13(5), 13721–13772 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schneising, O.

M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, S. Noel, J. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, O. Schneising, I. Khlystova, M. Bruns, H. Bremer, P. Bergamaschi, S. Korner, and M. Heimann, “Atmospheric carbon gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY by WFM-DOAS: Version 0.5 CO and CH4 and impact of calibration improvements on CO2 retrieval,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.6(9), 2727–2751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Senff, C.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shuman, T.

T. Shuman, R. Burnham, A. Nehrir, S. Ismail, J. Hair, and T. Refaat, “Efficient 1.6 micron laser source for methane DIAL,” Proc. SPIE8872, 88720A (2013).
[CrossRef]

Simeckova, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, H.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U.

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

E. Saiki, C. Weimer, and M. Stephens, “An investigation of high spectral resolution lidar measurements over the ocean,” Proc. SPIE8159, 81590F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, C.

X. Xiong, C. Barnet, E. Maddy, C. Sweeney, X. Liu, L. Zhou, and M. Goldberg, “Characterization and validation of methane products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS),” J. Geophys. Res.113, G00A01 (2007).

Talbot, R.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, Y. Ota, T. Tanaka, H. Watanabe, and S. Maksyutov, “Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: First preliminary results,” SOLA5, 160–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tran, H.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(4), 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, and J. Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vay, S.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, Y. Ota, T. Tanaka, H. Watanabe, and S. Maksyutov, “Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: First preliminary results,” SOLA5, 160–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weickmann, A.

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weidauer, D.

A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 153–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weimer, C.

E. Saiki, C. Weimer, and M. Stephens, “An investigation of high spectral resolution lidar measurements over the ocean,” Proc. SPIE8159, 81590F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Welch, W.

Wirth, M.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4 and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 153–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Wulfmeyer, V.

Xiong, X.

X. Xiong, C. Barnet, E. Maddy, C. Sweeney, X. Liu, L. Zhou, and M. Goldberg, “Characterization and validation of methane products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS),” J. Geophys. Res.113, G00A01 (2007).

Yokota, T.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(4), 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, Y. Ota, T. Tanaka, H. Watanabe, and S. Maksyutov, “Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: First preliminary results,” SOLA5, 160–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(4), 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, Y. Ota, T. Tanaka, H. Watanabe, and S. Maksyutov, “Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: First preliminary results,” SOLA5, 160–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. De

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

X. Xiong, C. Barnet, E. Maddy, C. Sweeney, X. Liu, L. Zhou, and M. Goldberg, “Characterization and validation of methane products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS),” J. Geophys. Res.113, G00A01 (2007).

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Appl. Phys. B (3)

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4 and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, M. Wirth, A. Meister, G. Ehret, M. Pesch, and D. Weidauer, “Tunable ultraviolet optical parametric oscillator for differential absorption lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Phys. B75(2-3), 153–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

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Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4(4), 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

EGU General Assembly (1)

T. Refaat and S. Ismail, “A feasibility study of atmospheric methane DIAL measurements at 1.65 micron spectral region,” EGU General Assembly13, 9675 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

T. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. Koch, M. Rubio, T. Mack, A. Notari, J. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, N. Abedin, and U. Singh, “Backscatter 2-μm lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.49(1), 572–580 (2011).
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J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

R. Alvarez, C. Senff, A. Langford, A. Weickmann, D. Law, J. Machol, D. Merritt, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, W. Brewer, R. Hardesty, and R. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.28(10), 1258–1272 (2011).
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J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dunion, G. Heymsfield, A. Notari, C. Butler, S. Burton, M. Fenn, T. Krishnamurti, M. Biswas, G. Chen, and B. Anderson, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosol, and cloud distributions in Saharan air layers and tropical disturbances,” J. Atmos. Sci.67(4), 1026–1047 (2010).
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E. Browell, M. Fenn, C. Butler, W. Grant, V. Brackett, J. Hair, M. Avery, R. Newell, Y. Hu, H. Fuelberg, D. Jacob, B. Anderson, E. Atlas, D. Blake, W. Brune, J. Dibb, A. Fried, B. Heikes, G. Sachse, S. Sandholm, H. Singh, R. Talbot, S. Vay, R. Weber, and K. Bartlett, “Large-scale ozone and aerosol distributions, air mass characteristics, and ozone fluxes over the western Pacific Ocean in late-winter/early-spring,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D20), 8805 (2003).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the CH4, CO2 and H2O absorption spectra derived using the HITRAN 2008 database for line parameters and Voigt line profile at three altitudes. Altitude specification was based on the CH4 DIAL operating platforms from; ground (0 km), small aircraft (8 km) and UAV (15.24 km). Metrological data were obtained from the US Standard model. Vertical lines mark the instrument operating wavelengths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature and pressure profiles as well as CH4, CO2 and H2O dry mixing ratio profiles used in the calculations. The profiles were obtained from the US Standard model with nominal values of CH4 and CO2 mixing ratios of 1.8 and 390 ppm, respectively, at ground [21]. Aerosol extinction profile at 1.6 µm wavelength was obtained from [24]. An enhanced backscatter layer was introduced to the model assuming a Gaussian distribution versus altitude with a peak backscatter coefficient of 2.4 × 10−6 m−1⋅sr−1 occurring at 1.4 km altitude and 200 m width. Horizontal dash lines mark the airborne platform altitude.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated double-path differential optical depth for atmospheric CH4, H2O and CO2 molecules and aerosol from an aircraft (dashed) and UAV (solid) at 8km and 15.24 km altitudes, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CH4 pressure-based, peak-normalized weighting function at the selected spectral positions for nadir IPDA measurements. Tuning the on-line wavelength 8 pm and 35 pm away from the selected location would optimize the IPDA measurement to the free troposphere or ground surface, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ground-based horizontal measurements on-line and off-line return signals and background signals as a function of range calculations. The associated noises are compared indicating that the total noise is shot-noise limited in near-field and limited by the detection circuit noise in far-field.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ground-based horizontal measurements optical depth errors. Total error is dominated by the receiver error due to the noise sources. Averaging reduces the error thereby extending the measurement range.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ground-based horizontal measurements RR-DIAL error. A fixed error of 0.13% indicates a measurement bias attributed to systematic sources. By averaging in time, the random error for a fixed range could be reduced or for a fixed error (0.5% horizontal dashed line) the measurement range could be extended. A 500-m range cell was assumed for this calculation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The backscatter lidar return signal simulation for the aircraft and UAV platforms. The background signals are shown for ocean and vegetation surfaces assuming overhead sun.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ground return pulse strength per shot versus ground elevation for ocean and vegetation surfaces for the aircraft and UAV platforms.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Error analysis for the UAV (top) and the aircraft (bottom) platforms. (Left) Atmospheric sensitivities to ± 1°C temperature, ± 2 mBar pressure, ± 20% relative humidity and interfering molecules. The total atmospheric sensitivity is dominated by temperature. (Middle) Laser transmitter error due to ± 10MHz jitter and 20 MHz line half-width for the on-line and off-line. Off-line width error is less than 10−4% and not shown. Total transmitter error is dominated by the on-line. (Right) Receiver error for ocean and vegetation targets with 0.1 second average, marking the random error source. Combining the atmospheric sensitivity and transmitter error define the systematic error. Adding the receiver error produce the total measurement error that is less than 0.3%.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Optical depth error versus averaging time calculated for the top of the boundary layer measurements from aircraft and UAV platforms. The total errors are dominated by the random error which can be reduced by averaging.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Instrument parameters list applied for analysis based on existing technology.

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Table 2 Platform and environmental conditions assumed in this study.

Equations (27)

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O D gas ( λ, R G )= R A R G χ gas ( r ) σ gas ( λ,r ) n dry ( r )dr
n dry ( r )= P( r ) kT( r )[ 1+ χ wv ( r ) ]
d O D g a s ( R G ) = 2 [ O D g a s ( λ o n ) O D g a s ( λ o f f ) ]
W F ( λ o n , λ o f f , P , T ) = σ m n ( λ o n , P , T ) σ m n ( λ o f f , P , T ) g ( P ) [ m d r y + m w v χ w v ( P ) ]
N S ( λ,r )= λE( λ ) 2h τA η d ( λ ) η r ( λ,r )β( λ,r ) exp[ OD( λ,r ) ] r 2
N S ( λ, R G )= λE( λ ) πhc A η d ( λ ) η r ( λ, R G )ρ( λ ) exp[ OD( λ, R G ) ] R G 2
τ w = τ L 2 + ( 1/ 3BW ) 2 + ( 2Δh /c ) 2
N BG ( λ )= πλ S BG ( λ ) 4hc τA η d ( λ ) η r ( λ )FWFO V 2
V S = qM R f N S /τ
I n = 2q I d MF+ I nA 2 + V nA 2 / R f 2 + 4kT / R f + ( 2π V nA C d BW ) 2 /3
N n,C = I n τ BW qM
N n,S = 2 N S FτBW
SNR= N S / N n,C 2 + N n,S 2 + N n,BG 2
X mn = dO D mn P A P G WF( λ on , λ off ,P,T )dP
ε= δ[ dO D mn ] dO D mn = ε R / s + ε A 2 + ε T 2
ε R SN R on 2 +SN R off 2 dO D mn
ε A = ε A,t 2 + ε A,p 2 + ε A,wv 2 + ε A,m 2
ε A,t =max{ | dO D mn ( T )dO D mn ( T±ΔT ) | dO D mn ( T ) }
ε A,p =max{ | dO D mn ( P )dO D mn ( P±ΔP ) | dO D mn ( P ) }
ε A,wv =max{ | dO D wv ( χ wv )+dO D wv ( χ wv ±Δ χ wv ) | dO D mn ( χ wv ) }
ε A,m = dO D wv +dO D cd dO D mn
ε T = ε j,on 2 + ε j,off 2 + ε p,on 2 + ε p,off 2
ε j,on/off =max{ | dO D mn ( λ on/off )dO D mn ( λ on/off ±Δ λ on/off ) | dO D mn ( λ on/off ) }
ε p,on/off =max{ | dO D mn ( λ on/off )dO D mn eff ( λ on/off ) | dO D mn ( λ on/off ) }
σ mn eff ( L,r )= G( L,r ) σ mn ( L,r )dL G( L,r )dL
n m n ( r ) = 1 2 Δ σ m n ( λ o n , λ o f f , r ) ( r 2 r 1 ) ln [ N S ( λ o n , r 1 ) N S ( λ o f f , r 2 ) N S ( λ o n , r 2 ) N S ( λ o f f , r 1 ) ]
Δ n m n ( r ) n m n ( r ) = 1 2 Δ σ m n ( λ o n , λ o f f , r ) n m n ( r ) ( r 2 r 1 ) { i = o n o f f j = 1 2 [ N S ( λ i , r j ) + N B G ] F + N n , C N S ( λ i , r j ) 2 } 0.5

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