Abstract

We report superior spectral characteristics of silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by 193-nm ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm silicon-on-insulator wafer. We theoretically analyze spectral characteristics, considering random phase errors caused by micro fabrication process. It will be experimentally demonstrated that the fabricated devices exhibit a low excess loss of 0.4 ± 0.2 dB, a high out-of-band rejection ratio of >40dB, and a wide flatband width of ~2 nm. Furthermore, we evaluate manufacturing tolerances for intra-dies and inter-dies, comparing with the cases for 248-nm KrF-dry lithography process. It will be shown that the 193-nm ArF-immersion lithography process can provide much less excess phase errors of Si-nanowire waveguides, thus enabling to give better filter spectral characteristics. Finally, spectral superiorities will be reconfirmed by measuring 25 Gbps modulated signals launched into the fabricated device. Clear eye diagrams are observed when the wavelengths of modulated signals are stayed within almost passband of the 5th-order CROW.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and B. J. Offrein, “Cascaded Mach-Zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band WDM (de-)multiplexing,” Opt. Express21(10), 11652–11658 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Jeong, S. Tanaka, T. Akiyama, S. Sekiguchi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Flat-topped and low loss silicon-nanowire-type optical MUX/DeMUX employing multi-stage microring resonator assisted delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express20(23), 26000–26011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

P. Dong, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, T. Banwell, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “GHz-bandwidth optical filters based on high-order silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Express18(23), 23784–23789 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing circuit on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. J. Kim, J. M. Lee, J. H. Song, J. Pyo, and G. Kim, “Crosstalk reduction in a shallow-etched silicon nanowire AWG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1615–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon-on-isulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Agarwal, A.

Akiyama, T.

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Banwell, T.

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing circuit on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Campenhout, J. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Capmany, J. J.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing circuit on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delvaux, C.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Doménech, J. D.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Feng, S.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

Jeong, S.-H.

Kim, D. J.

D. J. Kim, J. M. Lee, J. H. Song, J. Pyo, and G. Kim, “Crosstalk reduction in a shallow-etched silicon nanowire AWG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1615–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

S. Park, K. J. Kim, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “Si micro-ring MUX/DeMUX WDM filters,” Opt. Express19(14), 13531–13539 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Kim, J. M. Lee, J. H. Song, J. Pyo, and G. Kim, “Crosstalk reduction in a shallow-etched silicon nanowire AWG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1615–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. G.

Kim, K. J.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. C.

Lee, J. M.

D. J. Kim, J. M. Lee, J. H. Song, J. Pyo, and G. Kim, “Crosstalk reduction in a shallow-etched silicon nanowire AWG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1615–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lepage, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing circuit on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Liow, T. Y.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing circuit on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

Luo, X.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Menendez, R.

Milenin, A.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Mookherjea, S.

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Morito, K.

Muñoz, P.

Murdoch, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing circuit on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon-on-isulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

Ong, C.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Ong, J. R.

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing circuit on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

Pathak, S.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Patil, D.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pyo, J.

D. J. Kim, J. M. Lee, J. H. Song, J. Pyo, and G. Kim, “Crosstalk reduction in a shallow-etched silicon nanowire AWG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1615–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing circuit on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express15(19), 11934–11941 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon-on-isulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, S.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Shafiiha, R.

Shank, S. M.

Shubin, I.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

D. J. Kim, J. M. Lee, J. H. Song, J. Pyo, and G. Kim, “Crosstalk reduction in a shallow-etched silicon nanowire AWG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1615–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stercks, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Tanaka, S.

Tanaka, Y.

Thacker, H.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toliver, P.

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Vermeulen, D.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express15(19), 11934–11941 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon-on-isulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Winroth, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

Woodward, T. K.

Xia, F.

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express15(19), 11934–11941 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon-on-isulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, M. O’Boyle, and Y. Vlasov, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon-on-isulator photonic wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength division multiplexing circuit on silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled microring based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, and S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(16), 1543–1546 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kim, J. M. Lee, J. H. Song, J. Pyo, and G. Kim, “Crosstalk reduction in a shallow-etched silicon nanowire AWG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1615–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

P. Dong, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, T. Banwell, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “GHz-bandwidth optical filters based on high-order silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Express18(23), 23784–23789 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and B. J. Offrein, “Cascaded Mach-Zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band WDM (de-)multiplexing,” Opt. Express21(10), 11652–11658 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Jeong, S. Tanaka, T. Akiyama, S. Sekiguchi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Flat-topped and low loss silicon-nanowire-type optical MUX/DeMUX employing multi-stage microring resonator assisted delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express20(23), 26000–26011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express15(19), 11934–11941 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, K. J. Kim, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “Si micro-ring MUX/DeMUX WDM filters,” Opt. Express19(14), 13531–13539 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

P. Dong, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, A. Agrawal, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, and T. K. Woodward, “A tunable optical channelizing filter using silicon coupled ring resonators,” in Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, United States of America, 2010), CThAA6.
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, C. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Stercks, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “Advanced 300-mm wafer scale patterning for silicon photonics devices with low record loss and phase error,” in Proceedings of 2012 Optoelectronics and Communication Conference (Pusan, Korea, 2012), PD22-2.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” IEEE Proc. 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).

X. Zheng, F. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for an 80 Gbps WDM optical link,” in Proceedings of 2011 Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angelis, United States of America, 2011), PDPA1.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) (a) and the cross-sectional area of a Si-nanowire waveguide (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Analytic calculation model for the 5th-order CROW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated drop channel resonance spectra for the 5th-order CROW with (a) σ(δϕ) = 0, (b) σ(δϕ) = 0.03π radian, and (c) σ(δϕ) = 0.20π radian.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top views of the fabricated Si-nanowire channel waveguide based 5th-order CROW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured transmission spectra for the fabricated device: (a) Entire spectral view and (b) magnified view at around 1556 nm

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intra-die distribution: (a) CAD image for evenly aligned five 5th-order CROWs and (b) superimposed drop channel spectra (CROW-1~5)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Inter-die distribution: (a) top view of the 300-mm SOI wafer and (b) superimposed drop channel spectra for each CROW-3 located in the areas shown in Fig. 7(a).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured drop channel response for the 5th-order CROWs fabricated by 248-nm KrF-dry lithography process on a 200-mm SOI wafer: (a) Intra-die and (b) Inter-die distributions where each chip is separated by ~3cm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured eye pattern diagrams for each 25 Gbps modulation signal wavelength within the passband of 5th-order CROW, together with the linearly plotted drop channel spectrum

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters used in analytic calculations shown in Fig. 2

Tables Icon

Table 2 Gap parameters used in the fabricated 5th-order CROW.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters used in the analytic estimation in Eq. (7)

Tables Icon

Table 4 Performance comparison for CROWs from the viewpoint of excess loss, spectral flatness, and out-of-band rejection ratio

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ a N b N ]=[ 1 κ 2 j κ 2 Exp[jβ L DC ] j κ 2 Exp[jβ L DC ] j κ 2 1 κ 2 j κ 2 ][ a ' N1 b ' N1 ]= X 5 [ a ' N1 b ' N1 ]
[ a ' N1 b ' N1 ]=[ 0 α Exp[ jβ( L M 2 ) ] 1 α Exp[ jβ( L M 2 ) ] 0 ][ a N1 b N1 ]= Y 4 [ a N1 b N1 ]
[ a N+1 b N+1 ]= X 6 K=1 5 ( Y 6K X 6K ) [ a 0 b 0 ]=[ M 1 M 2 M 3 M 4 ][ a 0 b 0 ]
b 0 a 0 = M 1 M 2
b N+1 a 0 = M 3 M 1 M 4 M 2
Y 4 =[ 0 α Exp[ jβ( L M 2 ) ]Exp[j( δ φ A )] 1 α Exp[ jβ( L M 2 ) ]Exp[j( δ φ B )] 0 ]
Δw Δλ λ N Gr d N Eq / dw

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