Abstract

This paper demonstrates that quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) within the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) can be suppressed by the growths of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the nano-sized patterned c-plane sapphire substrates (PCSSs) with reducing the space. The efficiency droop is also determined by QCSE. As verified by the experimentally measured data and the ray-tracing simulation results, the suppressed efficiency droop for the InGaN-based LED having the nano-sized PCSS with a smaller space of 200nm can be acquired due to the weaker function of the QCSE within the MQWs as a result of the smaller polarization fields coming from the lower compressive strain in the corresponding epitaxial layers.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9, 190–198 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Optical Gain and Laser Characteristics of InGaN Quantum Wells on Ternary InGaN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(2), 2600111 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(S4), A900–A907 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {101} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Hu, Lijun Wang, F. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Liu, and Z. Wang, “Micro-Raman study on chirped InGaAs–InAlAs superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 210(11), 2364–2368 (2013).
  23. S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, I. K. Park, S. H. Hong, J. J. Kim, S. E. Park, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “High-efficiency light-emitting diode with air voids embedded in lateral epitaxially overgrown GaN using a metal mask,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A943–A948 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).
  30. J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Optical Gain and Laser Characteristics of InGaN Quantum Wells on Ternary InGaN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(2), 2600111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, Lijun Wang, F. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Liu, and Z. Wang, “Micro-Raman study on chirped InGaAs–InAlAs superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 210(11), 2364–2368 (2013).

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(S4), A900–A907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A949–A955 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, I. K. Park, S. H. Hong, J. J. Kim, S. E. Park, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “High-efficiency light-emitting diode with air voids embedded in lateral epitaxially overgrown GaN using a metal mask,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A943–A948 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son and J. L. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express18(6), 5466–5471 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {101} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Gotoh, T. Tawara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Kobayashi, and T. Saitoh, “Piezoelectric effects on photoluminescence properties in 10-nm-thick InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4791–4793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, B. J.

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Banas, M. A.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

Biser, J.

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(S4), A900–A907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. J.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. W.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(S4), A900–A907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. H.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. W.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

Chi, S. W. S.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

Chung, H. J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Ding, Y. J.

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. Y.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D. F.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

Fred Schubert, E.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

Fujita, M.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gotoh, H.

H. Gotoh, T. Tawara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Kobayashi, and T. Saitoh, “Piezoelectric effects on photoluminescence properties in 10-nm-thick InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4791–4793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S. H.

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, Lijun Wang, F. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Liu, and Z. Wang, “Micro-Raman study on chirped InGaAs–InAlAs superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 210(11), 2364–2368 (2013).

Huang, H. H.

Huang, J. J.

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(S4), A900–A907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. H.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A949–A955 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(S4), A900–A907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamil, M.

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. Y.

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, T.

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {101} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

Kim, J. K.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. M.

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

Kim, Y. C.

J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

H. Gotoh, T. Tawara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Kobayashi, and T. Saitoh, “Piezoelectric effects on photoluminescence properties in 10-nm-thick InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4791–4793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

H. Gotoh, T. Tawara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Kobayashi, and T. Saitoh, “Piezoelectric effects on photoluminescence properties in 10-nm-thick InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4791–4793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

Kong, J. J.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A949–A955 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, P. C.

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {101} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

Lee, G. Y.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. L.

Lee, K. H.

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. K.

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {101} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

Li, C. K.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-H.

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W. C.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B. W.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. C.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Y. Hu, Lijun Wang, F. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Liu, and Z. Wang, “Micro-Raman study on chirped InGaAs–InAlAs superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 210(11), 2364–2368 (2013).

Liu, G.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. H.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Y. Hu, Lijun Wang, F. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Liu, and Z. Wang, “Micro-Raman study on chirped InGaAs–InAlAs superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 210(11), 2364–2368 (2013).

Liu, J. P.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A949–A955 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C. M.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, U. K.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mu, X.

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, H. S.

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. T.

J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. K.

Park, S. E.

Park, S. J.

Park, Y.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, T.

H. Gotoh, T. Tawara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Kobayashi, and T. Saitoh, “Piezoelectric effects on photoluminescence properties in 10-nm-thick InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4791–4793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

Sone, C.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9, 190–198 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. H.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Optical Gain and Laser Characteristics of InGaN Quantum Wells on Ternary InGaN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(2), 2600111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, T.

H. Gotoh, T. Tawara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Kobayashi, and T. Saitoh, “Piezoelectric effects on photoluminescence properties in 10-nm-thick InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4791–4793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thaler, G.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tripathy, S. K.

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vinci, R. P.

Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. B.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A949–A955 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Lijun

Y. Hu, Lijun Wang, F. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Liu, and Z. Wang, “Micro-Raman study on chirped InGaAs–InAlAs superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 210(11), 2364–2368 (2013).

Wang, S. C.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. C.

H. C. Lin, H. H. Liu, G. Y. Lee, J. I. Chyi, C. M. Lu, C. W. Chao, T. C. Wang, C. J. Chang, and S. W. S. Chi, “Effects of lens shape on GaN grown on microlens patterned sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(3), H304–H307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Hu, Lijun Wang, F. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Liu, and Z. Wang, “Micro-Raman study on chirped InGaAs–InAlAs superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 210(11), 2364–2368 (2013).

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. R.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(S4), A900–A907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. S.

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A949–A955 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. C.

Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, S. C. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, S. C. Yang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. K. Li, Y. R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed ingan/gan light-emitting diodes induced by p-Type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yanqun, D.

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. C.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {101} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Y. Hu, Lijun Wang, F. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Liu, and Z. Wang, “Micro-Raman study on chirped InGaAs–InAlAs superlattices,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 210(11), 2364–2368 (2013).

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Optical Gain and Laser Characteristics of InGaN Quantum Wells on Ternary InGaN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(2), 2600111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

H. Gotoh, T. Tawara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Kobayashi, and T. Saitoh, “Piezoelectric effects on photoluminescence properties in 10-nm-thick InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(23), 4791–4793 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, and P. C. Ku, “Photoluminescence study of semipolar {101} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 141906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Tripathy, G. Xu, X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, M. Jamil, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, and J. B. Khurgin, “Phonon-assisted ultraviolet anti-Stokes photoluminescence from GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(20), 201107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Cheng, Y. S. Wu, W. C. Liao, and B. W. Lin, “Improved crystal quality and performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by decreasing the slanted angle of patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 231114 (2007).

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

S. M. Kim, H. S. Oh, J. H. Baek, K. H. Lee, G. Y. Jung, J. H. Song, H. J. Kim, B. J. Ahn, D. Yanqun, and J. H. Song, “Effects of Patterned Sapphire Substrates on Piezoelectric Field in Blue-Emitting InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.31(8), 842–844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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IEEE Photonics Journal (1)

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Optical Gain and Laser Characteristics of InGaN Quantum Wells on Ternary InGaN Substrates,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(2), 2600111 (2013).
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D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.9, 190–198 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The SEM images of nano-sized PCSSs with the space of (a) 200nm, (b) 400nm, (c) 600nm, and (d) 800nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The room-temperature PL spectra, and (b) the related room-temperature PL relative peak intensity and PL line width, of the InGaN-based LEDs grown on the CSS and the nano-sized PCSSs with the various spaces.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The difference of PL peak energy versus various spaces, based on the inserted figure. The inset of (a) shows the correlated PL peak energy, and (b) reveals the correlated PL peak intensity, as a function of the excitation power density for the InGaN-based LEDs grown on the CSS and the nano-sized PCSSs with different spaces.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The room-temperature Raman spectra, and (b) the related room-temperature Raman shift and Raman line width, of the InGaN-based LEDs grown on the CSS and the nano-sized PCSSs with the various spaces.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Trace-Pro ray-tracing results for the InGaN-based LEDs having the nano-sized PCSSs with the space of (a) 200nm, (b) 400nm, (c) 600nm, (d) 800nm, and (e) grown on the CSS, respectively. (f) The associated LEE with respect to space, evaluated from the bare LED simulation results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The EL spectra at an injection current of 350mA, and (b) the light output power, (c) EQE and (d) normalized EQE, as a function of forward current, for the InGaN-based LEDs having the 200nm-space nano-sized PCSS and the CSS, respectively. The inset of (a) shows forward current versus forward voltage of the InGaN-based LEDs.

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