Abstract

We present a new method for intra-cavity control of the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency of ultrafast lasers that combines high feedback bandwidth with low loss, low nonlinearity, and low dispersion. A semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror (SESAM) inside a modelocked laser is optically pumped with a continuous-wave (cw) laser. In this way, the SESAM acts as intra-cavity opto-optical modulator (OOM): the optical power of the cw-laser corresponds to a high-bandwidth modulation channel for CEO frequency control. We experimentally verified this method for a femtosecond Er:Yb:glass oscillator (ERGO), in which one SESAM is in parallel used for modelocking and as intra-cavity OOM for achieving a tight CEO lock. This laser can also be CEO-stabilized in the usual scheme, in which the laser pump current is modulated, i.e., the gain element acts as intra-cavity OOM. We compare the performance with gain and SESAM OOM measuring CEO transfer function, frequency noise power spectral density (PSD), and Allan deviation for integration times up to 1000 s. In the case of the gain OOM, the millisecond upper-state lifetime of the Er:Yb:glass limits the achievable CEO-control bandwidth to <10 kHz. The feedback bandwidth of the SESAM OOM was more than a factor of 10 higher than the gain OOM bandwidth and was mainly limited by the used current driver. The residual integrated phase noise (1 Hz – 100 kHz) of the ~20-MHz CEO beat was improved by more than an order of magnitude (from 720 mrad to less than 65 mrad), and the fractional frequency stability by a factor of 4 (from 1∙10−8 to 2.5∙10−9 at 1 s).

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel lecture: passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).
  5. F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Di Domenico, S. Schilt, and P. Thomann, “Simple approach to the relation between laser frequency noise and laser line shape,” Appl. Opt.49(25), 4801–4807 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Rauschenberger, T. Fortier, D. Jones, J. Ye, and S. Cundiff, “Control of the frequency comb from a modelocked Erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express10(24), 1404–1410 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Pal, W. H. Knox, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Self referenced Yb-fiber-laser frequency comb using a dispersion micromanaged tapered holey fiber,” Opt. Express15(19), 12161–12166 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(24), 24171–24181 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J.48, 19–26 (2008).
  13. A. Klenner, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Phase-stabilization of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Opt. Express21(21), 24770–24780 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.
  15. K. Kim, B. R. Washburn, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.30(8), 932–934 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Direct diode-laser pumping of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 304–306 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian f ceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B86(2), 219–227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C.-C. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Bethge, S. Suzuki, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and T. R. Schibli, “Frequency comb stabilization with bandwidth beyond the limit of gain lifetime by an intracavity graphene electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3084–3086 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. A. Walsh, C. E. Crombie, W. Sibbett, C. T. A. Brown, V. G. Savitski, D. Burns, and S. Calvez, “Optically-induced switching between mode-locked and unmode-locked continuous wave regimes of a femtosecond Cr4+:forsterite laser,” in (2012), Vol. 8433, p. 84330G–84330G–10.
  23. G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for High-Power Oscillators: Design Guidelines and Damage Thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 29–41 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 401–408 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 2005).
  29. S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: Application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 123116 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, M. C. Stumpf, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, U. Keller, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Effect of the carrier-envelope-offset dynamics on the stabilization of a diode-pumped solid-state frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4428–4430 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 15–28 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. Wolf, Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 2006).
  33. D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express20(4), 4248–4253 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. H.-W. Chen, G. Chang, S. Xu, Z. Yang, and F. X. Kärtner, “3 GHz, fundamentally mode-locked, femtosecond Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3522–3524 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. J. Saraceno, S. Pekarek, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from an ultrafast thin disk laser,” Opt. Express20(9), 9650–9656 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express20(4), 4248–4253 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, G. Chang, S. Xu, Z. Yang, and F. X. Kärtner, “3 GHz, fundamentally mode-locked, femtosecond Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3522–3524 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, S. Pekarek, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from an ultrafast thin disk laser,” Opt. Express20(9), 9650–9656 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for High-Power Oscillators: Design Guidelines and Damage Thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, M. C. Stumpf, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, U. Keller, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Effect of the carrier-envelope-offset dynamics on the stabilization of a diode-pumped solid-state frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4428–4430 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-C. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Bethge, S. Suzuki, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and T. R. Schibli, “Frequency comb stabilization with bandwidth beyond the limit of gain lifetime by an intracavity graphene electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3084–3086 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Di Domenico, S. Schilt, and P. Thomann, “Simple approach to the relation between laser frequency noise and laser line shape,” Appl. Opt.49(25), 4801–4807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J.48, 19–26 (2008).

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian f ceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Pal, W. H. Knox, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Self referenced Yb-fiber-laser frequency comb using a dispersion micromanaged tapered holey fiber,” Opt. Express15(19), 12161–12166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel lecture: passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Kim, B. R. Washburn, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.30(8), 932–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.

G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.

Baer, C. R.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for High-Power Oscillators: Design Guidelines and Damage Thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baer, C. R. E.

Baili, G.

G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barbarin, Y.

Beil, K.

Bellancourt, A. R.

Benko, C.

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethge, J.

Bouchoule, S.

G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brons, J.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.

Bucalovic, N.

Burns, D.

Chang, G.

Chen, H.-W.

Cundiff, S.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degenhardt, C.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Di Domenico, G.

Diddams, S. A.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J.48, 19–26 (2008).

K. Kim, B. R. Washburn, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.30(8), 932–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diebold, A.

Dolfi, D.

G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dolgovskiy, V.

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eikema, K. S. E.

Emaury, F.

Erbert, G.

Fermann, M. E.

Fiebig, C.

Fortier, T.

Fortier, T. M.

Gingras, G.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golling, M.

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for High-Power Oscillators: Design Guidelines and Damage Thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Saraceno, S. Pekarek, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from an ultrafast thin disk laser,” Opt. Express20(9), 9650–9656 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel lecture: passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hashimoto, S.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heckl, O. H.

Helmcke, J.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Hoffmann, M.

Hollberg, L.

K. Kim, B. R. Washburn, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.30(8), 932–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Hollberg, L. W.

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

Jones, D.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, C. G.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Klenner, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Phase-stabilization of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Opt. Express21(21), 24770–24780 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express20(4), 4248–4253 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, M. C. Stumpf, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, U. Keller, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Effect of the carrier-envelope-offset dynamics on the stabilization of a diode-pumped solid-state frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4428–4430 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for High-Power Oscillators: Design Guidelines and Damage Thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, S. Pekarek, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from an ultrafast thin disk laser,” Opt. Express20(9), 9650–9656 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(24), 24171–24181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

Khadour, A.

G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

Kirchner, M. S.

Klenner, A.

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, W. H.

Krainer, L.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kränkel, C.

Krausz, F.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.

Kundermann, S.

Lecomte, S.

Lee, C.-C.

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemke, N.

Lisdat, C.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Liverini, V.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lücking, F.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.

Ludlow, A. D.

Maas, D. J. H. C.

Maclean, A. J.

Mangold, M.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for High-Power Oscillators: Design Guidelines and Damage Thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marchese, S. V.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

McFerran, J. J.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian f ceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, S. A.

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J.48, 19–26 (2008).

Mohr, C.

Morvan, L.

G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Oates, C.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Oates, C. W.

K. Kim, B. R. Washburn, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.30(8), 932–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehler, A. E. H.

Oudar, J.-L.

G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pal, P.

Paschke, K.

Pekarek, S.

Pervak, V.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.

Pronin, O.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.

Quinlan, F.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

Riehle, F.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Roth, P. W.

Rudin, B.

Ruehl, A.

Russell, P. S. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraceno, C. J.

Schibli, T. R.

Schilt, S.

Schnatz, H.

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Schön, S.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schori, C.

Schriber, C.

Seidel, M.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.

Spühler, G. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J.48, 19–26 (2008).

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterr, U.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Stoehr, H.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Stumpf, M. C.

Südmeyer, T.

A. Klenner, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Phase-stabilization of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Opt. Express21(21), 24770–24780 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for High-Power Oscillators: Design Guidelines and Damage Thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, M. C. Stumpf, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, U. Keller, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Effect of the carrier-envelope-offset dynamics on the stabilization of a diode-pumped solid-state frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4428–4430 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express20(4), 4248–4253 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, S. Pekarek, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from an ultrafast thin disk laser,” Opt. Express20(9), 9650–9656 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(24), 24171–24181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

Swann, W. C.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian f ceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. A.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomann, P.

Thorpe, M. J.

Tombez, L.

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: Application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 123116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

Weingarten, K. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilpers, G.

K. Kim, B. R. Washburn, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.30(8), 932–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witzel, B.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

Yan, M. F.

Yang, Z.

Ye, J.

Zaffalon, M.

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: Application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 123116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian f ceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J.

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J.48, 19–26 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for High-Power Oscillators: Design Guidelines and Damage Thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Baili, M. Alouini, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, A. Khadour, S. Bouchoule, and J.-L. Oudar, “Timing Jitter Reduction of a Mode-Locked VECSEL Using an Optically Triggered SESAM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1434–1436 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

C. J. Saraceno, S. Pekarek, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from an ultrafast thin disk laser,” Opt. Express20(9), 9650–9656 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Klenner, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Phase-stabilization of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Opt. Express21(21), 24770–24780 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express20(4), 4248–4253 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fortier, D. Jones, J. Ye, and S. Cundiff, “Control of the frequency comb from a modelocked Erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express10(24), 1404–1410 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pal, W. H. Knox, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Self referenced Yb-fiber-laser frequency comb using a dispersion micromanaged tapered holey fiber,” Opt. Express15(19), 12161–12166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(24), 24171–24181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett.37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-C. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Bethge, S. Suzuki, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and T. R. Schibli, “Frequency comb stabilization with bandwidth beyond the limit of gain lifetime by an intracavity graphene electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3084–3086 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, B. R. Washburn, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.30(8), 932–934 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Direct diode-laser pumping of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 304–306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, G. Chang, S. Xu, Z. Yang, and F. X. Kärtner, “3 GHz, fundamentally mode-locked, femtosecond Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3522–3524 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, M. C. Stumpf, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, U. Keller, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Effect of the carrier-envelope-offset dynamics on the stabilization of a diode-pumped solid-state frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4428–4430 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel lecture: passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: Application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 123116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. A. Walsh, C. E. Crombie, W. Sibbett, C. T. A. Brown, V. G. Savitski, D. Burns, and S. Calvez, “Optically-induced switching between mode-locked and unmode-locked continuous wave regimes of a femtosecond Cr4+:forsterite laser,” in (2012), Vol. 8433, p. 84330G–84330G–10.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, The Optical Calcium Frequency Standards of PTB and NIST (2004).

E. Wolf, Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 2006).

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 2005).

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, J. Brons, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilized thin-disk laser,” in Proceedings, ASSL Conference (2013), p. AF3A.5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of the laser setup, consisting of a 2-mm thick Er:Yb:glass gain material pumped at 976 nm, 10 GTI mirrors with a total GDD of −1000 fs2, a SESAM, and a 1.7% OC. Additionally, the SESAM is pumped with an 812-nm cw pump laser, which is not part of the actual laser cavity. This is indicated as a green line at the bottom left of the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tuning of the CEO beat frequency with the SESAM pump current. The top x-axis (pump power absorbed in the SESAM) is only valid in the linear power range of the pump diode indicated as dashed lines. Inset, LI-curve of the pump diode used for pumping the SESAM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CEO transfer functions using pump-current modulation of the gain material at 976 nm (blue), by optically-modulating the SESAM at 812 nm (red), and transfer function of the used current driver alone (black). All transfer functions have been normalized to their value at 1 Hz. In the upper panel, the dynamic tuning range is shown, whereas the lower panel displays the phase shift. The vertical line at 300 kHz corresponds to the specified bandwidth of the current driver of the SESAM pump.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF spectra of the CEO beats obtained with different locking techniques. The blue line corresponds to pump current modulation of the gain medium, the red line to our new actuator where the SESAM is optically modulated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In the top panel, the free-running (darker colors) and stabilized (lighter colors) CEO frequency-noise PSDs are plotted as a function of the Fourier frequency, as well as the β-separation line that is relevant for the determination of the linewidth of the signal [7]. Both lower panels show the same integrated phase-noise, however, in different scales. In all panels, the blue curves correspond to previously published results obtained with gain pump modulation, and the red curves to the new SESAM-pumping stabilization method presented here. For the dotted red curve in the bottom panel, we numerically removed the parasitic peak at 50 Hz and its harmonics.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In the top panel, we plot the standard (light colors) and overlapping (normal colors) Allan deviation for the standard gain-modulation (blue), and for SESAM-modulation (red). The lower panel shows the frequency fluctuations of the CEO beat recorded over around 40 minutes.

Metrics