Abstract

A simplest saturable absorber, in the form of an unpumped section, is introduced into a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser with a strongly asymmetric broadened waveguide structure incorporating a relatively thick (80 nm) active layer. This allows for suppression of trailing oscillations and a decrease in the optical pulse width compared to the uniformly biased structure. Single optical pulses of ~80 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) and ~35 W peak power (~3 nJ pulse energy, Eopt), practically without trailing edge oscillations, were experimentally achieved under room temperature conditions by absorber-assisted gain-switching, using pumping current pulses of ~1.3 ns FWHM and ~17 A amplitude. The laser emission has a narrow (13 degrees FWHM in the transverse direction) far field.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Kilpelä, R. Pennala, and J. Kostamovaara, “Precise pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder for industrial distance measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.72(4), 2197–2202 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. U. Rafailov and E. A. Avrutin, “Ultrafast pulse generation by semiconductor lasers,” in Semiconductor lasers, A. Baranov and E. Tournie, (Woodhead, Oxford-Cambridge-Philadelphia-New Delhi, 2013), pp. 149–160.
  3. K. Y. Lau, “Gain-switching in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.52(4), 257–259 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. N. Vainshtein and J. T. Kostamovaara, “Spectral filtering for time isolation of intensive picosecond optical pulses from a Q-switched laser diode,” J. Appl. Phys.84(4), 1843–1847 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Vainshtein, J. Kostamovaara, L. Shestak, M. Sverdlov, and V. Tretyakov, “Laser diode structure for the generation of high-power picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(24), 4483–4485 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric-waveguide laser diode for high-power optical pulse generation by gain switching,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.27(12), 2125–2131 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Quantum well laser with an extremely large active layer width to optical confinement factor ratio for high-energy single picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(4), 045010 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with the active layer position detuned from standing wave antinode for picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. W. Hallman, B. Ryvkin, K. Haring, S. Ranta, T. Leinonen, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric waveguide laser diode operated in gain switching mode with high-power optical pulse generation,” Electron. Lett.46(1), 65–66 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. W. Hallman, K. Haring, L. Toikkanen, T. Leinonen, B. S. Ryvkin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “3 nJ, 100 ps laser pulses generated with an asymmetric waveguide laser diode for a single-photon avalanche diode time-of-flight (SPAD TOF) rangefinder application,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025202 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Ohya, G. Tohmon, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, and M. Kume, “Generation of picosecond blue light pulse by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode having saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(8), 2050–2059 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.
  14. P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

L. W. Hallman, K. Haring, L. Toikkanen, T. Leinonen, B. S. Ryvkin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “3 nJ, 100 ps laser pulses generated with an asymmetric waveguide laser diode for a single-photon avalanche diode time-of-flight (SPAD TOF) rangefinder application,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Quantum well laser with an extremely large active layer width to optical confinement factor ratio for high-energy single picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(4), 045010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with the active layer position detuned from standing wave antinode for picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. W. Hallman, B. Ryvkin, K. Haring, S. Ranta, T. Leinonen, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric waveguide laser diode operated in gain switching mode with high-power optical pulse generation,” Electron. Lett.46(1), 65–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric-waveguide laser diode for high-power optical pulse generation by gain switching,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.27(12), 2125–2131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Vainshtein, J. Kostamovaara, L. Shestak, M. Sverdlov, and V. Tretyakov, “Laser diode structure for the generation of high-power picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(24), 4483–4485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Kilpelä, R. Pennala, and J. Kostamovaara, “Precise pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder for industrial distance measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.72(4), 2197–2202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. N. Vainshtein and J. T. Kostamovaara, “Spectral filtering for time isolation of intensive picosecond optical pulses from a Q-switched laser diode,” J. Appl. Phys.84(4), 1843–1847 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Ohya, G. Tohmon, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, and M. Kume, “Generation of picosecond blue light pulse by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode having saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(8), 2050–2059 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Y. Lau, “Gain-switching in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.52(4), 257–259 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, E.

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Quantum well laser with an extremely large active layer width to optical confinement factor ratio for high-energy single picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(4), 045010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with the active layer position detuned from standing wave antinode for picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric-waveguide laser diode for high-power optical pulse generation by gain switching,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.27(12), 2125–2131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, E. A.

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

Bugge, F.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Crump, P.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dashevskii, V.

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

Erbert, G.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Frahm, J.

E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

Frevert, C.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gadjiev, I. M.

E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gubenko, A.

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

Hallman, L. W.

L. W. Hallman, K. Haring, L. Toikkanen, T. Leinonen, B. S. Ryvkin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “3 nJ, 100 ps laser pulses generated with an asymmetric waveguide laser diode for a single-photon avalanche diode time-of-flight (SPAD TOF) rangefinder application,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hallman, B. Ryvkin, K. Haring, S. Ranta, T. Leinonen, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric waveguide laser diode operated in gain switching mode with high-power optical pulse generation,” Electron. Lett.46(1), 65–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haring, K.

L. W. Hallman, K. Haring, L. Toikkanen, T. Leinonen, B. S. Ryvkin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “3 nJ, 100 ps laser pulses generated with an asymmetric waveguide laser diode for a single-photon avalanche diode time-of-flight (SPAD TOF) rangefinder application,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hallman, B. Ryvkin, K. Haring, S. Ranta, T. Leinonen, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric waveguide laser diode operated in gain switching mode with high-power optical pulse generation,” Electron. Lett.46(1), 65–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hasler, K.-H.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Khazan, A. A.

E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kilpelä, A.

A. Kilpelä, R. Pennala, and J. Kostamovaara, “Precise pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder for industrial distance measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.72(4), 2197–2202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knigge, S.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kostamovaara, J.

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with the active layer position detuned from standing wave antinode for picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Quantum well laser with an extremely large active layer width to optical confinement factor ratio for high-energy single picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(4), 045010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hallman, B. Ryvkin, K. Haring, S. Ranta, T. Leinonen, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric waveguide laser diode operated in gain switching mode with high-power optical pulse generation,” Electron. Lett.46(1), 65–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric-waveguide laser diode for high-power optical pulse generation by gain switching,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.27(12), 2125–2131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Vainshtein, J. Kostamovaara, L. Shestak, M. Sverdlov, and V. Tretyakov, “Laser diode structure for the generation of high-power picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(24), 4483–4485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kilpelä, R. Pennala, and J. Kostamovaara, “Precise pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder for industrial distance measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.72(4), 2197–2202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kostamovaara, J. T.

L. W. Hallman, K. Haring, L. Toikkanen, T. Leinonen, B. S. Ryvkin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “3 nJ, 100 ps laser pulses generated with an asymmetric waveguide laser diode for a single-photon avalanche diode time-of-flight (SPAD TOF) rangefinder application,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Vainshtein and J. T. Kostamovaara, “Spectral filtering for time isolation of intensive picosecond optical pulses from a Q-switched laser diode,” J. Appl. Phys.84(4), 1843–1847 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubler, J.

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

Kuhl, D.

E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kume, M.

J. Ohya, G. Tohmon, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, and M. Kume, “Generation of picosecond blue light pulse by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode having saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(8), 2050–2059 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

K. Y. Lau, “Gain-switching in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.52(4), 257–259 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leinonen, T.

L. W. Hallman, K. Haring, L. Toikkanen, T. Leinonen, B. S. Ryvkin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “3 nJ, 100 ps laser pulses generated with an asymmetric waveguide laser diode for a single-photon avalanche diode time-of-flight (SPAD TOF) rangefinder application,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hallman, B. Ryvkin, K. Haring, S. Ranta, T. Leinonen, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric waveguide laser diode operated in gain switching mode with high-power optical pulse generation,” Electron. Lett.46(1), 65–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maaßdorf, A.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ohya, J.

J. Ohya, G. Tohmon, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, and M. Kume, “Generation of picosecond blue light pulse by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode having saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(8), 2050–2059 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paraskevopoulos, A.

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

Pennala, R.

A. Kilpelä, R. Pennala, and J. Kostamovaara, “Precise pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder for industrial distance measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.72(4), 2197–2202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Portnoi, E. L.

E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

Ranta, S.

L. W. Hallman, B. Ryvkin, K. Haring, S. Ranta, T. Leinonen, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric waveguide laser diode operated in gain switching mode with high-power optical pulse generation,” Electron. Lett.46(1), 65–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryvkin, B.

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Quantum well laser with an extremely large active layer width to optical confinement factor ratio for high-energy single picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(4), 045010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with the active layer position detuned from standing wave antinode for picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hallman, B. Ryvkin, K. Haring, S. Ranta, T. Leinonen, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric waveguide laser diode operated in gain switching mode with high-power optical pulse generation,” Electron. Lett.46(1), 65–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric-waveguide laser diode for high-power optical pulse generation by gain switching,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.27(12), 2125–2131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryvkin, B. S.

L. W. Hallman, K. Haring, L. Toikkanen, T. Leinonen, B. S. Ryvkin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “3 nJ, 100 ps laser pulses generated with an asymmetric waveguide laser diode for a single-photon avalanche diode time-of-flight (SPAD TOF) rangefinder application,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schelhase, S.

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

Schultz, C. M.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shestak, L.

S. Vainshtein, J. Kostamovaara, L. Shestak, M. Sverdlov, and V. Tretyakov, “Laser diode structure for the generation of high-power picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(24), 4483–4485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shmarcev, A. Yu.

E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Staske, R.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sumpf, B.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sverdlov, M.

S. Vainshtein, J. Kostamovaara, L. Shestak, M. Sverdlov, and V. Tretyakov, “Laser diode structure for the generation of high-power picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(24), 4483–4485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taniuchi, T.

J. Ohya, G. Tohmon, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, and M. Kume, “Generation of picosecond blue light pulse by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode having saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(8), 2050–2059 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tohmon, G.

J. Ohya, G. Tohmon, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, and M. Kume, “Generation of picosecond blue light pulse by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode having saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(8), 2050–2059 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toikkanen, L.

L. W. Hallman, K. Haring, L. Toikkanen, T. Leinonen, B. S. Ryvkin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “3 nJ, 100 ps laser pulses generated with an asymmetric waveguide laser diode for a single-photon avalanche diode time-of-flight (SPAD TOF) rangefinder application,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tränkle, G.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, V.

S. Vainshtein, J. Kostamovaara, L. Shestak, M. Sverdlov, and V. Tretyakov, “Laser diode structure for the generation of high-power picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(24), 4483–4485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vainshtein, S.

S. Vainshtein, J. Kostamovaara, L. Shestak, M. Sverdlov, and V. Tretyakov, “Laser diode structure for the generation of high-power picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(24), 4483–4485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vainshtein, S. N.

S. N. Vainshtein and J. T. Kostamovaara, “Spectral filtering for time isolation of intensive picosecond optical pulses from a Q-switched laser diode,” J. Appl. Phys.84(4), 1843–1847 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Venus, G. B.

E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

Wenzel, H.

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

J. Ohya, G. Tohmon, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, and M. Kume, “Generation of picosecond blue light pulse by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode having saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(8), 2050–2059 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Y. Lau, “Gain-switching in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.52(4), 257–259 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Vainshtein, J. Kostamovaara, L. Shestak, M. Sverdlov, and V. Tretyakov, “Laser diode structure for the generation of high-power picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(24), 4483–4485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. W. Hallman, B. Ryvkin, K. Haring, S. Ranta, T. Leinonen, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric waveguide laser diode operated in gain switching mode with high-power optical pulse generation,” Electron. Lett.46(1), 65–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Asymmetric-waveguide laser diode for high-power optical pulse generation by gain switching,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.27(12), 2125–2131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Ohya, G. Tohmon, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, and M. Kume, “Generation of picosecond blue light pulse by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode having saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(8), 2050–2059 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Crump, G. Erbert, H. Wenzel, C. Frevert, C. M. Schultz, K.-H. Hasler, R. Staske, B. Sumpf, A. Maaßdorf, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, and G. Tränkle, “Efficient high power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(4), 1501211 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, A. A. Khazan, I. M. Gadjiev, A. Yu. Shmarcev, J. Frahm, and D. Kuhl, “Superhigh-power picosecond optical pulses from q-switched diode laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 256–260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. N. Vainshtein and J. T. Kostamovaara, “Spectral filtering for time isolation of intensive picosecond optical pulses from a Q-switched laser diode,” J. Appl. Phys.84(4), 1843–1847 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with the active layer position detuned from standing wave antinode for picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

L. W. Hallman, K. Haring, L. Toikkanen, T. Leinonen, B. S. Ryvkin, and J. T. Kostamovaara, “3 nJ, 100 ps laser pulses generated with an asymmetric waveguide laser diode for a single-photon avalanche diode time-of-flight (SPAD TOF) rangefinder application,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(2), 025202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Kilpelä, R. Pennala, and J. Kostamovaara, “Precise pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder for industrial distance measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.72(4), 2197–2202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, and J. Kostamovaara, “Quantum well laser with an extremely large active layer width to optical confinement factor ratio for high-energy single picosecond pulse generation by gain switching,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(4), 045010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. U. Rafailov and E. A. Avrutin, “Ultrafast pulse generation by semiconductor lasers,” in Semiconductor lasers, A. Baranov and E. Tournie, (Woodhead, Oxford-Cambridge-Philadelphia-New Delhi, 2013), pp. 149–160.

G. B. Venus, A. Gubenko, V. Dashevskii, E. L. Portnoi, E. A. Avrutin, J. Frahm, J. Kubler, S. Schelhase, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Multi-section ion-implantation-induced saturable absorbers for high-power 1.5-µm picosecond laser diodes,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference, (Monterey, CA, 2000), pp. 145–146.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical waveguide structure of the laser and the corresponding modal intensity distribution [7].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

3-D schematic of the 1.4 mm long laser diode with 128 µm wide oxide stripe (left) and a SEM graph of a 30 µm long saturable absorber area implemented close to the laser diode front facet by focused ion beam technique (inset, right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pump current pulses of different amplitudes (a) and the corresponding optical responses from a laser diode with 20 µm (b), and with 30 µm (c) long saturable absorber (filled curves). Optical pulses from the structure before SA implementation (lSA = 0), are shown in (b) and (c) as solid lines. Pulse shapes were measured with the streak camera.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time resolved spectra measured with a streak camera at room temperature show the laser diode response to a 17 A, 1.3 ns input current pulse of a structure (a) before SA implementation (lSA = 0), (b) lSA = 20 µm, and (c) lSA = 30 µm. (d) Energy spectral density profiles of a structure with lSA = 0, lSA = 20 µm, and lSA = 30 µm. Pumping current pulse amplitudes of 10 A – 17 A were applied to the structure and correspond to Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser diode far-field emission profile (fast axis) (a), and input efficiency, showing the 95% input efficiency angle (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pumping current of ~17 A amplitude with optical responses from a laser diode before and after implementation of a 20 µm, 40 µm long saturable absorber, measured with a PIN photodetector 21 µm in diameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical pulse energy versus current pulse amplitudes for laser diode structures with the saturable absorber length of 0, 20 µm and 30 µm. The total energy and the trailing part energy are shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of measured optical pulse width (FWHM) before and after SA implementation on pumping current pulse amplitude.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of optical peak power before and after SA implementation on pumping current pulse amplitude.

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