Abstract

We explore a cavity-enhanced spectroscopic technique based on determination of the absorbtion coefficient from direct measurement of spectral width of the mode of the optical cavity filled with absorbing medium. This technique called here the cavity mode-width spectroscopy (CMWS) is complementary to the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). While both these techniques use information on interaction time of the light with the cavity to determine absorption coefficient, the CMWS does not require to measure very fast signals at high absorption conditions. Instead the CMWS method require a very narrow line width laser with precise frequency control. As an example a spectral line shape of P7 Q6 O2 line from the B-band was measured with use of an ultra narrow laser system based on two phase-locked external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) having tunability of ± 20 GHz at wavelength range of 687 to 693 nm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nature Photon.7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Wójtewicz, K. Stec, P. Masłowski, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Low pressure line-shape study of self-broadened CO transitions in the (3 ← 0) band,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.130, 191–200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, S. Wójtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Effects of incomplete light extinction in frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE8726, 87260O (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nature Photon.6, 687692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lisak, A. Cygan, K. Bielska, M. Piwiński, F. Ozimek, T. Ido, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Ultra narrow laser for optical frequency reference,” Acta Phys. Pol. A121, 614–621 (2012).

D. Long, A. Cygan, R. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High signal-to-noise ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A.85022508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Wójtewicz, D. Lisak, A. Cygan, J. Domysławska, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Line-shape study of self-broadened O2 transitions measured by Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A84, 032511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, K. Bielska, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, R. S. Trawiński, R. Ciuryło, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 063107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science319, 18081812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, Ch. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 250801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. G. Libbrecht and M. W. Libbrecht, “Interferometric measurement of the resonant absorption and refractive index in rubidium gas,” Am. J. Phys.74, 1055–1060 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Zelevinsky, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, T. Ido, J. Ye, R. Ciuryło, P. Naidon, and P. S. Julienne, “Narrow Line Photoassociation in an Optical Lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 203201 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. T. Hodges and R. Ciuryło, “Automated high-resolution frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 023112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Takamoto, F.L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature435, 321324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus and A. Kochanov, “An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods,” Can. J. Phys.83, 975–999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. M. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instr.75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Loftus, T. Ido, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, and J. Ye, “Narrow line cooling and momentum-space crystals,” Phys. Rev. A70, 063413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Kumagai, H. Kanamori, M. Matsushita, and T. Kato, “Development of phase-lock system between two single-mode lasers for optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 6102–6106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A.S. Shelkovnikov, M. Delabachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, “Highly sensitive detection of molecular absorption using a high finesse optical cavity,” Opt. Commun.107, 369–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Abe, H.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, K. Bielska, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, R. S. Trawiński, R. Ciuryło, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 063107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abgrall, M.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

Amy-Klein, A.

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, Ch. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 250801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden and R. Engeln, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).

Bergquist, J. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science319, 18081812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bielska, K.

D. Lisak, A. Cygan, K. Bielska, M. Piwiński, F. Ozimek, T. Ido, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Ultra narrow laser for optical frequency reference,” Acta Phys. Pol. A121, 614–621 (2012).

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, K. Bielska, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, R. S. Trawiński, R. Ciuryło, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 063107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

Bordé, Ch. J.

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, Ch. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 250801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, M. M.

T. Zelevinsky, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, T. Ido, J. Ye, R. Ciuryło, P. Naidon, and P. S. Julienne, “Narrow Line Photoassociation in an Optical Lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 203201 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Loftus, T. Ido, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, and J. Ye, “Narrow line cooling and momentum-space crystals,” Phys. Rev. A70, 063413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Briaudeau, S.

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, Ch. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 250801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brusch, A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science319, 18081812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

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M. Takamoto, F.L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature435, 321324 (2005).
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D. Long, A. Cygan, R. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, J. T.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nature Photon.7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, S. Wójtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Effects of incomplete light extinction in frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE8726, 87260O (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High signal-to-noise ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A.85022508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, K. Bielska, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, R. S. Trawiński, R. Ciuryło, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 063107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Hodges and R. Ciuryło, “Automated high-resolution frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 023112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. M. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instr.75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2 × 10−12cm−1Hz−1/2with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B, in press, DOI
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Hong, F.L.

M. Takamoto, F.L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature435, 321324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
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T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science319, 18081812 (2008).
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D. Lisak, A. Cygan, K. Bielska, M. Piwiński, F. Ozimek, T. Ido, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Ultra narrow laser for optical frequency reference,” Acta Phys. Pol. A121, 614–621 (2012).

T. Zelevinsky, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, T. Ido, J. Ye, R. Ciuryło, P. Naidon, and P. S. Julienne, “Narrow Line Photoassociation in an Optical Lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 203201 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Loftus, T. Ido, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, and J. Ye, “Narrow line cooling and momentum-space crystals,” Phys. Rev. A70, 063413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science319, 18081812 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Julienne, P. S.

T. Zelevinsky, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, T. Ido, J. Ye, R. Ciuryło, P. Naidon, and P. S. Julienne, “Narrow Line Photoassociation in an Optical Lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 203201 (2006).
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Kanamori, H.

M. Kumagai, H. Kanamori, M. Matsushita, and T. Kato, “Development of phase-lock system between two single-mode lasers for optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 6102–6106 (1999).
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Kato, T.

M. Kumagai, H. Kanamori, M. Matsushita, and T. Kato, “Development of phase-lock system between two single-mode lasers for optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 6102–6106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Katori, H.

M. Takamoto, F.L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature435, 321324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katsuda, T.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A.S. Shelkovnikov, M. Delabachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, “Highly sensitive detection of molecular absorption using a high finesse optical cavity,” Opt. Commun.107, 369–372 (1994).
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Kessler, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nature Photon.6, 687692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
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B. A. Paldus and A. Kochanov, “An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods,” Can. J. Phys.83, 975–999 (2005).
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Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, M.

M. Kumagai, H. Kanamori, M. Matsushita, and T. Kato, “Development of phase-lock system between two single-mode lasers for optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 6102–6106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
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Laurent, P.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

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J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. M. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instr.75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

Le Targat, R.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

Legero, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nature Photon.6, 687692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
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K. G. Libbrecht and M. W. Libbrecht, “Interferometric measurement of the resonant absorption and refractive index in rubidium gas,” Am. J. Phys.74, 1055–1060 (2006).
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Libbrecht, M. W.

K. G. Libbrecht and M. W. Libbrecht, “Interferometric measurement of the resonant absorption and refractive index in rubidium gas,” Am. J. Phys.74, 1055–1060 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lisak, D.

S. Wójtewicz, K. Stec, P. Masłowski, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Low pressure line-shape study of self-broadened CO transitions in the (3 ← 0) band,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.130, 191–200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Lisak, A. Cygan, K. Bielska, M. Piwiński, F. Ozimek, T. Ido, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Ultra narrow laser for optical frequency reference,” Acta Phys. Pol. A121, 614–621 (2012).

D. Long, A. Cygan, R. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High signal-to-noise ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A.85022508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Wójtewicz, D. Lisak, A. Cygan, J. Domysławska, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Line-shape study of self-broadened O2 transitions measured by Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A84, 032511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, K. Bielska, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, R. S. Trawiński, R. Ciuryło, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 063107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lodewyck, J.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

Loftus, T. H.

T. H. Loftus, T. Ido, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, and J. Ye, “Narrow line cooling and momentum-space crystals,” Phys. Rev. A70, 063413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Long, D.

D. Long, A. Cygan, R. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Long, D. A.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nature Photon.7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, S. Wójtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Effects of incomplete light extinction in frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE8726, 87260O (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2 × 10−12cm−1Hz−1/2with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B, in press, DOI
[CrossRef]

Looney, J. P.

R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney, Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences: Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies (Elsevier Science, 2002).

Lorini, L.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science319, 18081812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ludlow, A. D.

T. Zelevinsky, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, T. Ido, J. Ye, R. Ciuryło, P. Naidon, and P. S. Julienne, “Narrow Line Photoassociation in an Optical Lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 203201 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Loftus, T. Ido, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, and J. Ye, “Narrow line cooling and momentum-space crystals,” Phys. Rev. A70, 063413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nature Photon.6, 687692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maslowski, P.

S. Wójtewicz, K. Stec, P. Masłowski, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Low pressure line-shape study of self-broadened CO transitions in the (3 ← 0) band,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.130, 191–200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, K. Bielska, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, R. S. Trawiński, R. Ciuryło, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 063107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, M.

M. Kumagai, H. Kanamori, M. Matsushita, and T. Kato, “Development of phase-lock system between two single-mode lasers for optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 6102–6106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, S. E.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nature Photon.7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C.

D. Long, A. Cygan, R. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
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R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trawinski, R.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High signal-to-noise ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A.85022508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Wójtewicz, D. Lisak, A. Cygan, J. Domysławska, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Line-shape study of self-broadened O2 transitions measured by Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A84, 032511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trawinski, R. S.

S. Wójtewicz, K. Stec, P. Masłowski, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Low pressure line-shape study of self-broadened CO transitions in the (3 ← 0) band,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.130, 191–200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Lisak, A. Cygan, K. Bielska, M. Piwiński, F. Ozimek, T. Ido, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Ultra narrow laser for optical frequency reference,” Acta Phys. Pol. A121, 614–621 (2012).

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, K. Bielska, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, R. S. Trawiński, R. Ciuryło, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 063107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truong, G.-W.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nature Photon.7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2 × 10−12cm−1Hz−1/2with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B, in press, DOI
[CrossRef]

van Zee, R.

D. Long, A. Cygan, R. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Zee, R. D

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nature Photon.7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

van Zee, R. D.

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2 × 10−12cm−1Hz−1/2with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B, in press, DOI
[CrossRef]

R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney, Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences: Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies (Elsevier Science, 2002).

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
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T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science319, 18081812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wójtewicz, S.

D. A. Long, S. Wójtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Effects of incomplete light extinction in frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE8726, 87260O (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Wójtewicz, K. Stec, P. Masłowski, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Low pressure line-shape study of self-broadened CO transitions in the (3 ← 0) band,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.130, 191–200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High signal-to-noise ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A.85022508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Wójtewicz, D. Lisak, A. Cygan, J. Domysławska, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Line-shape study of self-broadened O2 transitions measured by Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A84, 032511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, K. Bielska, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, R. S. Trawiński, R. Ciuryło, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 063107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nature Photon.6, 687692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Zelevinsky, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, T. Ido, J. Ye, R. Ciuryło, P. Naidon, and P. S. Julienne, “Narrow Line Photoassociation in an Optical Lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 203201 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Loftus, T. Ido, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, and J. Ye, “Narrow line cooling and momentum-space crystals,” Phys. Rev. A70, 063413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zawada, M.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zelevinsky, T.

T. Zelevinsky, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, T. Ido, J. Ye, R. Ciuryło, P. Naidon, and P. S. Julienne, “Narrow Line Photoassociation in an Optical Lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 203201 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Phys. Pol. A

D. Lisak, A. Cygan, K. Bielska, M. Piwiński, F. Ozimek, T. Ido, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Ultra narrow laser for optical frequency reference,” Acta Phys. Pol. A121, 614–621 (2012).

Am. J. Phys.

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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
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B. A. Paldus and A. Kochanov, “An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods,” Can. J. Phys.83, 975–999 (2005).
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Chem. Phys. Lett.

D. Long, A. Cygan, R. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wójtewicz, K. Stec, P. Masłowski, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Low pressure line-shape study of self-broadened CO transitions in the (3 ← 0) band,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.130, 191–200 (2013).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Kumagai, H. Kanamori, M. Matsushita, and T. Kato, “Development of phase-lock system between two single-mode lasers for optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38, 6102–6106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

R. Le Targat, L. Lorini, Y. Le Coq, M. Zawada, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, M. Gurov, P. Rosenbusch, D. G. Rovera, B. Nagórny, R. Gartman, P.G. Westergaard, M.E. Tobar, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. Bize, P. Laurent, P. Lemonde, and J. Lodewyck, “Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks,” Nat. Commun.4, 2109 (2013).
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Nature

M. Takamoto, F.L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature435, 321324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nature Photon.7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nature Photon.6, 687692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A.S. Shelkovnikov, M. Delabachelerie, and M. Ohtsu, “Highly sensitive detection of molecular absorption using a high finesse optical cavity,” Opt. Commun.107, 369–372 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

T. H. Loftus, T. Ido, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, and J. Ye, “Narrow line cooling and momentum-space crystals,” Phys. Rev. A70, 063413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wójtewicz, D. Lisak, A. Cygan, J. Domysławska, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “Line-shape study of self-broadened O2 transitions measured by Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A84, 032511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High signal-to-noise ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A.85022508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Zelevinsky, M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, T. Ido, J. Ye, R. Ciuryło, P. Naidon, and P. S. Julienne, “Narrow Line Photoassociation in an Optical Lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 203201 (2006).
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C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, Ch. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 250801 (2007).
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Proc. SPIE

D. A. Long, S. Wójtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Effects of incomplete light extinction in frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE8726, 87260O (2013).
[CrossRef]

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J. T. Hodges and R. Ciuryło, “Automated high-resolution frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.76, 023112 (2005).
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A. Cygan, D. Lisak, P. Masłowski, K. Bielska, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, R. S. Trawiński, R. Ciuryło, H. Abe, and J. T. Hodges, “Pound-Drever-Hall-locked, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 063107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science319, 18081812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2 × 10−12cm−1Hz−1/2with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B, in press, DOI
[CrossRef]

G. Berden and R. Engeln, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).

R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney, Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences: Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies (Elsevier Science, 2002).

A. Foltynowicz, Fiber-laser-Based Noise-Immune Cavity-Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Molecular Spectrometry, Doctoral Thesis, Umeå University, Sweden 2009.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 1: Basic Principles (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the cavity mode-width spectroscopy experiment. νMS and νOFL are frequencies of the master and the offset-frequency locked slave lasers, respectively. δνBeat is a frequency offset between lasers, and δνm is the mode width of the cavity, which increases with laser light absorption α(ν) (red curve on the graph) in the cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. Master and Slave are ECDL lasers, EOM is a 20-MHz electro-optic modulator to generate sidebands for the PDH lock of the Master laser to the reference cavity, λ/4 is a quarter-wave plate, Pol is a linear polarizer, Gen1 and Gen2 are signal generators, PBS are polarizing beam splitters, DetPDH and DetBN are detectors for PDH lock signal and for beat note signal between both lasers, ⊗ are RF mixers. The probe cavity is high-finesse optical cavity filled with an absorbing gas. The detector DetCMWS registers OFL laser light transmitted through the cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectrum of the high finesse cavity filled with 20.4 Torrs of O2 near the absorption line P7 Q6 from the O2 B-band. Three individual cavity modes are enlarged in the insets with fitted Lorentzian profiles, from which the mode widths δνm are determined.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative differences σδνm/δνm between mode widths δνm calculated from Eq. (5) and from approximated formulas: (10) and (11) - solid line, and (13) and (14) - dashed line. Horizontal axis corresponds to increasing absorption α, which for N = 1 is equal to our experimental conditions shown in the inset plot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectrum of the P7 Q6 line from the O2 B-band determined from the cavity mode widths measurement. Solid line corresponds to the Voigt profile fit to the experimental data. Dashed line is a simulated Voigt profile using the HITRAN data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of relative precision of absorption determination σ(α)/α on absorption α for CRDS and CMWS techniques - solid lines. Dependence of transmission signal IT (νm) for the cavity mode center νm on absorption - dashed line. See text for details.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( t , z ) = E 0 e i ( 2 π ν t k n z )
n a ( ν ) = n ( ν ) i κ ( ν ) .
E ( t , z ) = E 0 e k κ ( ν ) z e i { 2 π ν t k [ n + n ( ν ) 1 ] z }
E T = t 2 E 0 e k κ ( ν ) L e i { 2 π ν t k [ n + n ( ν ) 1 ] L } 1 1 r 2 e 2 k κ ( ν ) L e i 2 k ( n + n ( ν ) 1 ) L ,
I T ( ν ) = I 0 ( 1 R ) 2 e α ( ν ) L ( 1 R e α ( ν ) L ) 2 ( 1 R e α ( ν ) L ) 2 ( 1 R e α ( ν ) L ) 2 + 4 R e α ( ν ) L sin 2 ( π ν ν FSR ( ν ) ) ,
n ( ν ) = 1 + α ( ν ) k γ ( ν ν 0 ) ,
ν FSR ( ν ) = c 2 L n [ 1 α ( ν ) c ( ν ν 0 ) 2 π n ν γ ] .
ν FSR c 2 L n ; α α ( ν m ) .
I T = I 0 ( 1 R eff ) 2 ( 1 R eff ) 2 + 4 R eff sin 2 ( ν 2 ν FSR ) .
δ ν m = 1 2 π n τ eff R eff
τ eff = L c ( 1 R eff )
1 c τ eff = 1 R eff L = [ 2 + ( π δ ν m / ν FSR ) 2 ] 2 4 ( π δ ν m / ν FSR ) 2 2 L
δ ν m 1 2 π n τ eff ,
τ eff L c ( 1 R + α L ) .
1 c τ eff α bg + α
σ ( τ eff ) = σ ( τ bg ) τ bg I 0 I T ( ν m ) 1 τ min / τ bg 1 τ min / τ eff τ eff
σ ( δ ν m ) = ( σ ( δ ν ) δ ν bg I 0 I T ( ν m ) δ ν m ) 2 + ( σ freq ) 2 ,

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