Abstract

ZnO nanowires have relatively high sensitivity as ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors, while the bandgap of 3.37 eV is an important limitation for their applications in solar-blind UV (SBUV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) range. Besides UV response, in this study, we demonstrate the promising applications of individual undoped ZnO NWs as high performance SBUV-VIS-NIR broad-spectral-response photodetectors, strongly depended on applied bias voltage and illumination intensity. The dominant mechanism is attributed to the existence of surface states in nanostructured ZnO. At a negative bias voltage electrons can be injected into surface states from electrode, and moreover, under light illumination photogenerated electron-hole pairs can be separated efficiently by surface built-in electric field, resulting into a decrease of potential barrier height and depletion region width, and simultaneously accompanying a filling of oxygen vacancy and a rise of ZnO Fermi level.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Cheng, X. H. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. T. Zhang, and Z. L. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 203105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. I. Reyes, C. J. Ku, Z. Q. Duan, Y. Xu, E. Garfunkel, and Y. C. Lu, “Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031118 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Seager and S. M. Myers, “Quantitative comparisons of dissolved hydrogen density and the electrical and optical properties of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 2888–2894 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.93(7), 3963–3970 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. S. Arnold, P. Avouris, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Field-effect transistors based on single semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 659–663 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. C. Cheng, Z. Y. Ouyang, C. Chen, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Individual Zn2SnO4-sheathed ZnO heterostructure nanowires for efficient resistive switching memory controlled by interface states,” Sci. Rep.3, 3249 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. C. Lai, J. T. Chen, and Y. Y. Yang, “Optoelectrical and low-frequency noise characteristics of flexible ZnO-SiO2 photodetectors with organosilicon buffer layer,” Opt. Express21(8), 9643–9651 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Y. Chen, J. H. Huang, K. Y. Lai, Y. J. Jen, C. P. Liu, and J. H. He, “Giant optical anisotropy of oblique-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express20(3), 2015–2024 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Lin, H. Wu, and W. Pan, “Photoswitches and memories assembled by electrospinning aluminum-doped zinc oxide single nanowires,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3968–3972 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, Z. L. Wang, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Periodically twinned nanowires and polytypic nanobelts of ZnS: the role of mass diffusion in vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1650–1655 (2006).
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  18. B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “The vibrational properties of one-dimensional ZnO:Ce nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 416–418 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Reversible blue light emission from self-assembled silica nanocords,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(3), 033106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. C. Cheng, X. M. Yu, H. J. Liu, M. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhanced effect of electron-hole plasma emission in Dy, Li codoped ZnO nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.105(1), 014311 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticle based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 561–572 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. C. Cheng, B. X. Tian, W. Sun, Y. H. Xiao, S. J. Lei, and Z. G. Wang, “Ordered zinc antimonate nanoisland attachment and morphology control of ZnO nanobelts by Sb doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(22), 9638–9643 (2009).
  23. H. B. Zeng, W. P. Cai, J. L. Hu, G. T. Duan, P. S. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171910 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. C. Cheng, Z. D. Zhang, H. J. Liu, Z. H. Han, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Power- and energy-dependent photoluminescence of Eu3+ incorporated and segregated ZnO polycrystalline nanobelts synthesized by a facile combustion method followed by heat treatment,” J. Mater. Chem.20(36), 7821–7826 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “Controlled growth and properties of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures with Ce as activator/dopant,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14, 913–919 (2004).
  26. Y. Jin, J. Wang, B. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. Lao, Y. Li, C. P. Wong, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing the electrical and optoelectronic performance of nanobelt devices by molecular surface functionalization,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1323–1328 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(11), 1795–1800 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. C. Kung, W. E. van der Veer, F. Yang, K. C. Donavan, and R. M. Penner, “20 micros photocurrent response from lithographically patterned nanocrystalline cadmium selenide nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1481–1485 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. L. Porter, A. L. Cai, J. F. Muth, and J. Narayan, “Enhanced photoconductivity of ZnO films Co-doped with nitrogen and tellurium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211918 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. N. Kouklin, “Cu-doped ZnO nanowires for efficient and multispectral photodetection applications,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2190–2194 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 123117 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  37. X. W. Fu, Z. M. Liao, Y. B. Zhou, H. C. Wu, Y. Q. Bie, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Graphene/ZnO nanowire/graphene vertical structure based fast-response ultraviolet photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223114 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  38. G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, “Nanostructured materials for photon detection,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(6), 391–400 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. D. Basak, G. Amin, B. Mallik, G. K. Paul, and S. K. Sen, “Photoconductive UV detectors on sol-gel-synthesized ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth256(1-2), 73–77 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  41. T. E. Murphy, K. Moazzami, and J. D. Phillips, “Trap-related photoconductivity in ZnO epilayers,” J. Electron. Mater.35(4), 543–549 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. B. K. Law and J. T. L. Thong, “Admittance of CdS nanowires embedded in porous alumina template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 113114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

B. C. Cheng, Z. Y. Ouyang, C. Chen, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Individual Zn2SnO4-sheathed ZnO heterostructure nanowires for efficient resistive switching memory controlled by interface states,” Sci. Rep.3, 3249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Lai, J. T. Chen, and Y. Y. Yang, “Optoelectrical and low-frequency noise characteristics of flexible ZnO-SiO2 photodetectors with organosilicon buffer layer,” Opt. Express21(8), 9643–9651 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

C. Y. Chen, J. H. Huang, K. Y. Lai, Y. J. Jen, C. P. Liu, and J. H. He, “Giant optical anisotropy of oblique-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express20(3), 2015–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Reyes, C. J. Ku, Z. Q. Duan, Y. Xu, E. Garfunkel, and Y. C. Lu, “Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Fu, Z. M. Liao, Y. B. Zhou, H. C. Wu, Y. Q. Bie, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Graphene/ZnO nanowire/graphene vertical structure based fast-response ultraviolet photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Bai, W. W. Wu, Y. Qin, N. Y. Cui, D. J. Bayerl, and X. D. Wang, “High-performance integrated ZnO nanowire UV sensors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(23), 4464–4469 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, X. H. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. T. Zhang, and Z. L. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. C. Kung, W. E. van der Veer, F. Yang, K. C. Donavan, and R. M. Penner, “20 micros photocurrent response from lithographically patterned nanocrystalline cadmium selenide nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1481–1485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticle based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Z. D. Zhang, H. J. Liu, Z. H. Han, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Power- and energy-dependent photoluminescence of Eu3+ incorporated and segregated ZnO polycrystalline nanobelts synthesized by a facile combustion method followed by heat treatment,” J. Mater. Chem.20(36), 7821–7826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in Ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, “Nanostructured materials for photon detection,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(6), 391–400 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, B. X. Tian, W. Sun, Y. H. Xiao, S. J. Lei, and Z. G. Wang, “Ordered zinc antimonate nanoisland attachment and morphology control of ZnO nanobelts by Sb doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(22), 9638–9643 (2009).

B. C. Cheng, X. M. Yu, H. J. Liu, M. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhanced effect of electron-hole plasma emission in Dy, Li codoped ZnO nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.105(1), 014311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Kouklin, “Cu-doped ZnO nanowires for efficient and multispectral photodetection applications,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2190–2194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, J. Wang, B. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Lin, H. Wu, and W. Pan, “Photoswitches and memories assembled by electrospinning aluminum-doped zinc oxide single nanowires,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3968–3972 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lao, Y. Li, C. P. Wong, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing the electrical and optoelectronic performance of nanobelt devices by molecular surface functionalization,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1323–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(11), 1795–1800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. B. Zeng, W. P. Cai, J. L. Hu, G. T. Duan, P. S. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, Z. L. Wang, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Periodically twinned nanowires and polytypic nanobelts of ZnS: the role of mass diffusion in vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1650–1655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Murphy, K. Moazzami, and J. D. Phillips, “Trap-related photoconductivity in ZnO epilayers,” J. Electron. Mater.35(4), 543–549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. K. Law and J. T. L. Thong, “Admittance of CdS nanowires embedded in porous alumina template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 113114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Reversible blue light emission from self-assembled silica nanocords,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(3), 033106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Porter, A. L. Cai, J. F. Muth, and J. Narayan, “Enhanced photoconductivity of ZnO films Co-doped with nitrogen and tellurium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “Controlled growth and properties of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures with Ce as activator/dopant,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14, 913–919 (2004).

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “The vibrational properties of one-dimensional ZnO:Ce nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 416–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Kolmakov and M. Moskovits, “Chemical sensing and catalysis by one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructures,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.34(1), 151–180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. S. Arnold, P. Avouris, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Field-effect transistors based on single semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 659–663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Seager and S. M. Myers, “Quantitative comparisons of dissolved hydrogen density and the electrical and optical properties of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 2888–2894 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.93(7), 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Basak, G. Amin, B. Mallik, G. K. Paul, and S. K. Sen, “Photoconductive UV detectors on sol-gel-synthesized ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth256(1-2), 73–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Kind, H. Q. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater.14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amin, G.

D. Basak, G. Amin, B. Mallik, G. K. Paul, and S. K. Sen, “Photoconductive UV detectors on sol-gel-synthesized ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth256(1-2), 73–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andreu, T.

J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aplin, D. P. R.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, M. S.

M. S. Arnold, P. Avouris, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Field-effect transistors based on single semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 659–663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

M. S. Arnold, P. Avouris, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Field-effect transistors based on single semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 659–663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bai, S.

S. Bai, W. W. Wu, Y. Qin, N. Y. Cui, D. J. Bayerl, and X. D. Wang, “High-performance integrated ZnO nanowire UV sensors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(23), 4464–4469 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bando, Y.

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X. Y.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basak, D.

D. Basak, G. Amin, B. Mallik, G. K. Paul, and S. K. Sen, “Photoconductive UV detectors on sol-gel-synthesized ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth256(1-2), 73–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bayerl, D. J.

S. Bai, W. W. Wu, Y. Qin, N. Y. Cui, D. J. Bayerl, and X. D. Wang, “High-performance integrated ZnO nanowire UV sensors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(23), 4464–4469 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bie, Y. Q.

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Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
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Y. Jin, J. Wang, B. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
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H. B. Zeng, W. P. Cai, J. L. Hu, G. T. Duan, P. S. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171910 (2006).
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Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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B. C. Cheng, Z. Y. Ouyang, C. Chen, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Individual Zn2SnO4-sheathed ZnO heterostructure nanowires for efficient resistive switching memory controlled by interface states,” Sci. Rep.3, 3249 (2013).
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Chen, C. Y.

Chen, J. T.

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B. C. Cheng, Z. Y. Ouyang, C. Chen, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Individual Zn2SnO4-sheathed ZnO heterostructure nanowires for efficient resistive switching memory controlled by interface states,” Sci. Rep.3, 3249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Z. D. Zhang, H. J. Liu, Z. H. Han, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Power- and energy-dependent photoluminescence of Eu3+ incorporated and segregated ZnO polycrystalline nanobelts synthesized by a facile combustion method followed by heat treatment,” J. Mater. Chem.20(36), 7821–7826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, B. X. Tian, W. Sun, Y. H. Xiao, S. J. Lei, and Z. G. Wang, “Ordered zinc antimonate nanoisland attachment and morphology control of ZnO nanobelts by Sb doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(22), 9638–9643 (2009).

B. C. Cheng, X. M. Yu, H. J. Liu, M. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhanced effect of electron-hole plasma emission in Dy, Li codoped ZnO nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.105(1), 014311 (2009).
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G. Cheng, X. H. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. T. Zhang, and Z. L. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in Ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
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J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
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S. C. Kung, W. E. van der Veer, F. Yang, K. C. Donavan, and R. M. Penner, “20 micros photocurrent response from lithographically patterned nanocrystalline cadmium selenide nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1481–1485 (2010).
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G. Cheng, X. H. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. T. Zhang, and Z. L. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticle based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Zeng, W. P. Cai, J. L. Hu, G. T. Duan, P. S. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171910 (2006).
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P. I. Reyes, C. J. Ku, Z. Q. Duan, Y. Xu, E. Garfunkel, and Y. C. Lu, “Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031118 (2012).
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Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(11), 1795–1800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, M.

B. C. Cheng, X. M. Yu, H. J. Liu, M. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhanced effect of electron-hole plasma emission in Dy, Li codoped ZnO nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.105(1), 014311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X. S.

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
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X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
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X. W. Fu, Z. M. Liao, Y. B. Zhou, H. C. Wu, Y. Q. Bie, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Graphene/ZnO nanowire/graphene vertical structure based fast-response ultraviolet photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. Y.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, T.

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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P. I. Reyes, C. J. Ku, Z. Q. Duan, Y. Xu, E. Garfunkel, and Y. C. Lu, “Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gautam, U. K.

X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Golberg, D.

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Jin, J. Wang, B. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Z. H.

B. C. Cheng, Z. D. Zhang, H. J. Liu, Z. H. Han, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Power- and energy-dependent photoluminescence of Eu3+ incorporated and segregated ZnO polycrystalline nanobelts synthesized by a facile combustion method followed by heat treatment,” J. Mater. Chem.20(36), 7821–7826 (2010).
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Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, Z. L. Wang, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Periodically twinned nanowires and polytypic nanobelts of ZnS: the role of mass diffusion in vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1650–1655 (2006).
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Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Reversible blue light emission from self-assembled silica nanocords,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(3), 033106 (2005).
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Hernandez-Ramirez, F.

J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J. L.

H. B. Zeng, W. P. Cai, J. L. Hu, G. T. Duan, P. S. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. F.

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. H.

Im, S.

B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, Y. J.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(11), 1795–1800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(11), 1795–1800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin, J. Wang, B. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, M. H.

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in Ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, K.

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in Ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. J.

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in Ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Kind, H. Q. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater.14(2), 158–160 (2002).
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L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
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G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, “Nanostructured materials for photon detection,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(6), 391–400 (2010).
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N. Kouklin, “Cu-doped ZnO nanowires for efficient and multispectral photodetection applications,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2190–2194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ku, C. J.

P. I. Reyes, C. J. Ku, Z. Q. Duan, Y. Xu, E. Garfunkel, and Y. C. Lu, “Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kung, S. C.

S. C. Kung, W. E. van der Veer, F. Yang, K. C. Donavan, and R. M. Penner, “20 micros photocurrent response from lithographically patterned nanocrystalline cadmium selenide nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1481–1485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, K. Y.

Lai, W. C.

Lao, C.

C. Lao, Y. Li, C. P. Wong, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing the electrical and optoelectronic performance of nanobelt devices by molecular surface functionalization,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1323–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurent, K.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. B. K. Law and J. T. L. Thong, “Admittance of CdS nanowires embedded in porous alumina template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 113114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

H. Kind, H. Q. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater.14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. P.

Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in Ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. H.

B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. T.

Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(11), 1795–1800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lei, S. J.

B. C. Cheng, Z. Y. Ouyang, C. Chen, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Individual Zn2SnO4-sheathed ZnO heterostructure nanowires for efficient resistive switching memory controlled by interface states,” Sci. Rep.3, 3249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Z. D. Zhang, H. J. Liu, Z. H. Han, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Power- and energy-dependent photoluminescence of Eu3+ incorporated and segregated ZnO polycrystalline nanobelts synthesized by a facile combustion method followed by heat treatment,” J. Mater. Chem.20(36), 7821–7826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, B. X. Tian, W. Sun, Y. H. Xiao, S. J. Lei, and Z. G. Wang, “Ordered zinc antimonate nanoisland attachment and morphology control of ZnO nanobelts by Sb doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(22), 9638–9643 (2009).

Leprince-Wang, Y.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B.

G. Cheng, X. H. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. T. Zhang, and Z. L. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P. J.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. H.

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. L.

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticle based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Lao, Y. Li, C. P. Wong, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing the electrical and optoelectronic performance of nanobelt devices by molecular surface functionalization,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1323–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Zeng, W. P. Cai, J. L. Hu, G. T. Duan, P. S. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liao, M. Y.

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Z. M.

X. W. Fu, Z. M. Liao, Y. B. Zhou, H. C. Wu, Y. Q. Bie, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Graphene/ZnO nanowire/graphene vertical structure based fast-response ultraviolet photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

D. Lin, H. Wu, and W. Pan, “Photoswitches and memories assembled by electrospinning aluminum-doped zinc oxide single nanowires,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3968–3972 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

G. Cheng, X. H. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. T. Zhang, and Z. L. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. P.

Liu, H. J.

B. C. Cheng, Z. D. Zhang, H. J. Liu, Z. H. Han, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Power- and energy-dependent photoluminescence of Eu3+ incorporated and segregated ZnO polycrystalline nanobelts synthesized by a facile combustion method followed by heat treatment,” J. Mater. Chem.20(36), 7821–7826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, X. M. Yu, H. J. Liu, M. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhanced effect of electron-hole plasma emission in Dy, Li codoped ZnO nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.105(1), 014311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. B. Zeng, W. P. Cai, J. L. Hu, G. T. Duan, P. S. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J. G.

Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

P. I. Reyes, C. J. Ku, Z. Q. Duan, Y. Xu, E. Garfunkel, and Y. C. Lu, “Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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D. Basak, G. Amin, B. Mallik, G. K. Paul, and S. K. Sen, “Photoconductive UV detectors on sol-gel-synthesized ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth256(1-2), 73–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, G. W.

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, Z. L. Wang, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Periodically twinned nanowires and polytypic nanobelts of ZnS: the role of mass diffusion in vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1650–1655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Reversible blue light emission from self-assembled silica nanocords,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(3), 033106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. M.

Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(11), 1795–1800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. Kind, H. Q. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater.14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moazzami, K.

T. E. Murphy, K. Moazzami, and J. D. Phillips, “Trap-related photoconductivity in ZnO epilayers,” J. Electron. Mater.35(4), 543–549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morante, J. R.

J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
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A. Kolmakov and M. Moskovits, “Chemical sensing and catalysis by one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructures,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.34(1), 151–180 (2004).
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T. E. Murphy, K. Moazzami, and J. D. Phillips, “Trap-related photoconductivity in ZnO epilayers,” J. Electron. Mater.35(4), 543–549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muth, J. F.

H. L. Porter, A. L. Cai, J. F. Muth, and J. Narayan, “Enhanced photoconductivity of ZnO films Co-doped with nitrogen and tellurium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Myers, S. M.

C. H. Seager and S. M. Myers, “Quantitative comparisons of dissolved hydrogen density and the electrical and optical properties of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 2888–2894 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Narayan, J.

H. L. Porter, A. L. Cai, J. F. Muth, and J. Narayan, “Enhanced photoconductivity of ZnO films Co-doped with nitrogen and tellurium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Z. Y.

B. C. Cheng, Z. Y. Ouyang, C. Chen, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Individual Zn2SnO4-sheathed ZnO heterostructure nanowires for efficient resistive switching memory controlled by interface states,” Sci. Rep.3, 3249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

D. Lin, H. Wu, and W. Pan, “Photoswitches and memories assembled by electrospinning aluminum-doped zinc oxide single nanowires,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3968–3972 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z. W.

M. S. Arnold, P. Avouris, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Field-effect transistors based on single semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 659–663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. H.

B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, G. K.

D. Basak, G. Amin, B. Mallik, G. K. Paul, and S. K. Sen, “Photoconductive UV detectors on sol-gel-synthesized ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth256(1-2), 73–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. M.

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Penner, R. M.

S. C. Kung, W. E. van der Veer, F. Yang, K. C. Donavan, and R. M. Penner, “20 micros photocurrent response from lithographically patterned nanocrystalline cadmium selenide nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1481–1485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. D.

T. E. Murphy, K. Moazzami, and J. D. Phillips, “Trap-related photoconductivity in ZnO epilayers,” J. Electron. Mater.35(4), 543–549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Porter, H. L.

H. L. Porter, A. L. Cai, J. F. Muth, and J. Narayan, “Enhanced photoconductivity of ZnO films Co-doped with nitrogen and tellurium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prades, J. D.

J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, Y.

S. Bai, W. W. Wu, Y. Qin, N. Y. Cui, D. J. Bayerl, and X. D. Wang, “High-performance integrated ZnO nanowire UV sensors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(23), 4464–4469 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rao, K. V.

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.93(7), 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, P. I.

P. I. Reyes, C. J. Ku, Z. Q. Duan, Y. Xu, E. Garfunkel, and Y. C. Lu, “Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Romano-Rodriguez, A.

J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, B.

B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, “Nanostructured materials for photon detection,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(6), 391–400 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seager, C. H.

C. H. Seager and S. M. Myers, “Quantitative comparisons of dissolved hydrogen density and the electrical and optical properties of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 2888–2894 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sen, S. K.

D. Basak, G. Amin, B. Mallik, G. K. Paul, and S. K. Sen, “Photoconductive UV detectors on sol-gel-synthesized ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth256(1-2), 73–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, P.

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.93(7), 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soci, C.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sreenivas, K.

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.93(7), 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

Y. Jin, J. Wang, B. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, B. Q.

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

B. C. Cheng, B. X. Tian, W. Sun, Y. H. Xiao, S. J. Lei, and Z. G. Wang, “Ordered zinc antimonate nanoisland attachment and morphology control of ZnO nanobelts by Sb doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(22), 9638–9643 (2009).

Thong, J. T. L.

J. B. K. Law and J. T. L. Thong, “Admittance of CdS nanowires embedded in porous alumina template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 113114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B. X.

B. C. Cheng, B. X. Tian, W. Sun, Y. H. Xiao, S. J. Lei, and Z. G. Wang, “Ordered zinc antimonate nanoisland attachment and morphology control of ZnO nanobelts by Sb doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(22), 9638–9643 (2009).

van der Veer, W. E.

S. C. Kung, W. E. van der Veer, F. Yang, K. C. Donavan, and R. M. Penner, “20 micros photocurrent response from lithographically patterned nanocrystalline cadmium selenide nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1481–1485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, E. C.

Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Q.

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Y. Jin, J. Wang, B. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. P.

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. H.

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. D.

S. Bai, W. W. Wu, Y. Qin, N. Y. Cui, D. J. Bayerl, and X. D. Wang, “High-performance integrated ZnO nanowire UV sensors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(23), 4464–4469 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. G.

B. C. Cheng, B. X. Tian, W. Sun, Y. H. Xiao, S. J. Lei, and Z. G. Wang, “Ordered zinc antimonate nanoisland attachment and morphology control of ZnO nanobelts by Sb doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(22), 9638–9643 (2009).

Wang, Z. L.

C. Lao, Y. Li, C. P. Wong, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing the electrical and optoelectronic performance of nanobelt devices by molecular surface functionalization,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1323–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, Z. L. Wang, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Periodically twinned nanowires and polytypic nanobelts of ZnS: the role of mass diffusion in vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1650–1655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Arnold, P. Avouris, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Field-effect transistors based on single semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 659–663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. X.

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. P.

C. Lao, Y. Li, C. P. Wong, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing the electrical and optoelectronic performance of nanobelt devices by molecular surface functionalization,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1323–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, G. S.

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “The vibrational properties of one-dimensional ZnO:Ce nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 416–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “Controlled growth and properties of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures with Ce as activator/dopant,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14, 913–919 (2004).

Wu, H.

D. Lin, H. Wu, and W. Pan, “Photoswitches and memories assembled by electrospinning aluminum-doped zinc oxide single nanowires,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3968–3972 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. C.

X. W. Fu, Z. M. Liao, Y. B. Zhou, H. C. Wu, Y. Q. Bie, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Graphene/ZnO nanowire/graphene vertical structure based fast-response ultraviolet photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P. C.

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W. W.

S. Bai, W. W. Wu, Y. Qin, N. Y. Cui, D. J. Bayerl, and X. D. Wang, “High-performance integrated ZnO nanowire UV sensors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(23), 4464–4469 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. H.

G. Cheng, X. H. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. T. Zhang, and Z. L. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, B.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y. H.

B. C. Cheng, Z. Y. Ouyang, C. Chen, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Individual Zn2SnO4-sheathed ZnO heterostructure nanowires for efficient resistive switching memory controlled by interface states,” Sci. Rep.3, 3249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Z. D. Zhang, H. J. Liu, Z. H. Han, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Power- and energy-dependent photoluminescence of Eu3+ incorporated and segregated ZnO polycrystalline nanobelts synthesized by a facile combustion method followed by heat treatment,” J. Mater. Chem.20(36), 7821–7826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, B. X. Tian, W. Sun, Y. H. Xiao, S. J. Lei, and Z. G. Wang, “Ordered zinc antimonate nanoisland attachment and morphology control of ZnO nanobelts by Sb doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(22), 9638–9643 (2009).

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “The vibrational properties of one-dimensional ZnO:Ce nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 416–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “Controlled growth and properties of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures with Ce as activator/dopant,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14, 913–919 (2004).

Xu, H. L.

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

X. W. Fu, Z. M. Liao, Y. B. Zhou, H. C. Wu, Y. Q. Bie, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Graphene/ZnO nanowire/graphene vertical structure based fast-response ultraviolet photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. J.

X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. X.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticle based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

P. I. Reyes, C. J. Ku, Z. Q. Duan, Y. Xu, E. Garfunkel, and Y. C. Lu, “Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H. Q.

H. Kind, H. Q. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater.14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

S. C. Kung, W. E. van der Veer, F. Yang, K. C. Donavan, and R. M. Penner, “20 micros photocurrent response from lithographically patterned nanocrystalline cadmium selenide nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1481–1485 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

H. Kind, H. Q. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater.14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. K.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticle based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. Y.

Ye, C. H.

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, Z. L. Wang, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Periodically twinned nanowires and polytypic nanobelts of ZnS: the role of mass diffusion in vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1650–1655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Reversible blue light emission from self-assembled silica nanocords,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(3), 033106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D. P.

X. W. Fu, Z. M. Liao, Y. B. Zhou, H. C. Wu, Y. Q. Bie, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Graphene/ZnO nanowire/graphene vertical structure based fast-response ultraviolet photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, X. M.

B. C. Cheng, X. M. Yu, H. J. Liu, M. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhanced effect of electron-hole plasma emission in Dy, Li codoped ZnO nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.105(1), 014311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H. B.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticle based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Zeng, W. P. Cai, J. L. Hu, G. T. Duan, P. S. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, T. Y.

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. D.

B. C. Cheng, X. M. Yu, H. J. Liu, M. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhanced effect of electron-hole plasma emission in Dy, Li codoped ZnO nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.105(1), 014311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, Z. L. Wang, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Periodically twinned nanowires and polytypic nanobelts of ZnS: the role of mass diffusion in vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1650–1655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Reversible blue light emission from self-assembled silica nanocords,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(3), 033106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “The vibrational properties of one-dimensional ZnO:Ce nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 416–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “Controlled growth and properties of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures with Ce as activator/dopant,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14, 913–919 (2004).

Zhang, L. H.

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. J.

Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(11), 1795–1800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. J.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. T.

G. Cheng, X. H. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. T. Zhang, and Z. L. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Z.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. D.

B. C. Cheng, Z. D. Zhang, H. J. Liu, Z. H. Han, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Power- and energy-dependent photoluminescence of Eu3+ incorporated and segregated ZnO polycrystalline nanobelts synthesized by a facile combustion method followed by heat treatment,” J. Mater. Chem.20(36), 7821–7826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. B.

X. W. Fu, Z. M. Liao, Y. B. Zhou, H. C. Wu, Y. Q. Bie, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Graphene/ZnO nanowire/graphene vertical structure based fast-response ultraviolet photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H. C.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticle based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “Controlled growth and properties of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures with Ce as activator/dopant,” Adv. Funct. Mater.14, 913–919 (2004).

Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(11), 1795–1800 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Bai, W. W. Wu, Y. Qin, N. Y. Cui, D. J. Bayerl, and X. D. Wang, “High-performance integrated ZnO nanowire UV sensors on rigid and flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(23), 4464–4469 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

L. Li, P. C. Wu, X. S. Fang, T. Y. Zhai, L. Dai, M. Y. Liao, Y. Koide, H. Q. Wang, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Single-crystalline CdS nanobelts for excellent field-emitters and ultrahigh quantum-efficiency photodetectors,” Adv. Mater.22(29), 3161–3165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kouklin, “Cu-doped ZnO nanowires for efficient and multispectral photodetection applications,” Adv. Mater.20(11), 2190–2194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Lin, H. Wu, and W. Pan, “Photoswitches and memories assembled by electrospinning aluminum-doped zinc oxide single nanowires,” Adv. Mater.19(22), 3968–3972 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kind, H. Q. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater.14(2), 158–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.

A. Kolmakov and M. Moskovits, “Chemical sensing and catalysis by one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructures,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.34(1), 151–180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. C. Cheng, Y. H. Xiao, G. S. Wu, and L. D. Zhang, “The vibrational properties of one-dimensional ZnO:Ce nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(3), 416–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Reversible blue light emission from self-assembled silica nanocords,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(3), 033106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Zeng, W. P. Cai, J. L. Hu, G. T. Duan, P. S. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(17), 171910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fan, P. C. Chang, J. G. Lu, E. C. Walter, R. M. Penner, C. H. Lin, and H. P. Lee, “Photoluminescence and polarized photodetection of single ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6128–6130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 123117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Porter, A. L. Cai, J. F. Muth, and J. Narayan, “Enhanced photoconductivity of ZnO films Co-doped with nitrogen and tellurium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Fu, Z. M. Liao, Y. B. Zhou, H. C. Wu, Y. Q. Bie, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Graphene/ZnO nanowire/graphene vertical structure based fast-response ultraviolet photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(22), 223114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. B. K. Law and J. T. L. Thong, “Admittance of CdS nanowires embedded in porous alumina template,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 113114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, X. H. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. T. Zhang, and Z. L. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Reyes, C. J. Ku, Z. Q. Duan, Y. Xu, E. Garfunkel, and Y. C. Lu, “Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.

X. S. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam, T. Y. Zhai, H. B. Zeng, X. J. Xu, M. Y. Liao, and D. Golberg, “ZnO and ZnS Nanostructures: Ultravioletl-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.34(3-4), 190–223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. C. Cheng, X. M. Yu, H. J. Liu, M. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Enhanced effect of electron-hole plasma emission in Dy, Li codoped ZnO nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.105(1), 014311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Seager and S. M. Myers, “Quantitative comparisons of dissolved hydrogen density and the electrical and optical properties of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.94(5), 2888–2894 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.93(7), 3963–3970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

D. Basak, G. Amin, B. Mallik, G. K. Paul, and S. K. Sen, “Photoconductive UV detectors on sol-gel-synthesized ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth256(1-2), 73–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

T. E. Murphy, K. Moazzami, and J. D. Phillips, “Trap-related photoconductivity in ZnO epilayers,” J. Electron. Mater.35(4), 543–549 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

B. C. Cheng, Z. D. Zhang, H. J. Liu, Z. H. Han, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Power- and energy-dependent photoluminescence of Eu3+ incorporated and segregated ZnO polycrystalline nanobelts synthesized by a facile combustion method followed by heat treatment,” J. Mater. Chem.20(36), 7821–7826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

M. S. Arnold, P. Avouris, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Field-effect transistors based on single semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 659–663 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

B. C. Cheng, B. X. Tian, W. Sun, Y. H. Xiao, S. J. Lei, and Z. G. Wang, “Ordered zinc antimonate nanoisland attachment and morphology control of ZnO nanobelts by Sb doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(22), 9638–9643 (2009).

Y. Liu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. L. Xu, L. H. Zhang, Z. X. Wang, W. L. Li, L. Ding, Y. F. Hu, M. Gao, Q. Li, and L. M. Peng, “Visible light response of unintentionally doped ZnO nanowire field effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(38), 16796–16801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
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S. C. Kung, W. E. van der Veer, F. Yang, K. C. Donavan, and R. M. Penner, “20 micros photocurrent response from lithographically patterned nanocrystalline cadmium selenide nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1481–1485 (2010).
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B. Ryu, Y. T. Lee, K. H. Lee, R. Ha, J. H. Park, H. J. Choi, and S. Im, “Photostable Dynamic Rectification of One-Dimensional Schottky Diode Circuits with a Zno Nanowire Doped by H during Passivation,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4246–4250 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jin, J. Wang, B. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, “Solution-processed ultraviolet photodetectors based on colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(6), 1649–1653 (2008).
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C. Lao, Y. Li, C. P. Wong, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing the electrical and optoelectronic performance of nanobelt devices by molecular surface functionalization,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1323–1328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Hao, G. W. Meng, Z. L. Wang, C. H. Ye, and L. D. Zhang, “Periodically twinned nanowires and polytypic nanobelts of ZnS: the role of mass diffusion in vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Nano Lett.6(8), 1650–1655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett.7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in Ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
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Nanotechnology

J. D. Prades, F. Hernandez-Ramirez, R. Jimenez-Diaz, M. Manzanares, T. Andreu, A. Cirera, A. Romano-Rodriguez, and J. R. Morante, “The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(46), 465501 (2008).
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Nat. Nanotechnol.

G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, “Nanostructured materials for photon detection,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(6), 391–400 (2010).
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Opt. Express

Sci. Rep.

B. C. Cheng, Z. Y. Ouyang, C. Chen, Y. H. Xiao, and S. J. Lei, “Individual Zn2SnO4-sheathed ZnO heterostructure nanowires for efficient resistive switching memory controlled by interface states,” Sci. Rep.3, 3249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structural characterization of as-synthesized ZnO. (a) XRD pattern. (b) FESEM image. (c) HRTEM image of single NW, taken from [100] zone axis, indicating that ZnO NW is single crystal and grows along [001] direction (c-axis), and the below left and below right insets in (c) correspond to EDS spectrum and FFT pattern, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

At the dc bias voltage of (a) 1 V, (b) 10 V and (c) 20 V, the spectral photoresponse of a detector vs wavelengths at different illumination intensities controlled by the slot width of incident light. The inset corresponds to a schematic diagram of a photoconductive apparatus for measuring the photoresponse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

At the dc bias voltage of (a) 1 V and (b) 10 V, the photoresponsivity of the detector to the light with different wavelengths, which was illuminated in turn, indicating that all the wavelength light can show a responsivity in range of 200~900 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

At the dc bias voltage of 1 V, the excitation intensity dependence of photoresponse of the ZnO-based NW detector under the periodic illumination with the wavelength of (a) 330 nm, (b) 370 nm, (c) 650 nm and (d) 745 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

At the dc bias voltage of 10 V, the excitation intensity dependence of photoresponse of the ZnO-based NW detector under the periodic illumination with the wavelength of (a) 330 nm, (b) 370 nm, (c) 650 nm and (d) 745 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Excitation wavelength, bias voltage, and illumination intensity dependence of I-V characteristics of individual ZnO-based NWs, and the bias voltage sweeping from negative to positive. (a), (b) and (c) illuminated under 745 nm NIR light at the bias voltage of 1, 10, and 20 V, respectively. (d), (e) and (f) illuminated under 650 nm red light at the bias voltage of 1, 10, and 20 V, respectively. (g), (h) and (i) illuminated under 370 nm UV light at the bias voltage of 1, 10, and 20 V, respectively. The insets in (a) and (b) correspond to the dark current at the bias voltage of 1 and 10V, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Under the illumination with (a) 370 nm UV light and (b) 650 nm red light, the typical photoresponse and decay characteristics of the ZnO-based NW detector at a dc bias voltage of 1V. The insets in (a) and (b) correspond to the current characteristics in logarithmic scale. Besides the persistent photoconductivity, upon applying a bias voltage the current also shows a clear increase in the dark.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic diagrams of the photoresponse mechanism of the photodetector based on individual ZnO NWs. (a) Before contact, showing the work function of Ag and the electron affinity of ZnO. (b) In dark at zero bias voltage, the presence of surface states leads to the formation of back-to-back Schottky-like diode, preventing charges from passing through the Ag electrode/Zn NW interface, and correspondingly, showing a relatively low dark current. (c) Upon illuminating the end subjected to at a negative bias voltage, electrons can be injected into surface states from the electrode, resulting into a decrease and elimination of surface barrier, and moreover, photogenerated electron-hole pairs can be separated efficiently by surface built-in electric field, resulting the free transport of charges at the electrode/ZnO interface. However, electrons are injected into the electrode from interface states upon applying a positive bias voltage, resulting into an increase of surface barrier.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

At the dc bias voltage of a) −1 V, b) 1 V, c) −10 V and d) 10 V, the photoresponse of the ZnO-based NW photodetector which was irradiated periodically the same end by a micro-beam VIS light, showing a larger photocurrent on-off ratio and photoconductive gain upon illuminating the end subjected a negative bias voltage compared with a positive bias voltage. The Figures above a) and b) correspond to a schematic diagram of a photoconductive apparatus for measuring the photoresponse where the illuminated end is applied negative and positive bias voltage, respectively.

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