Abstract

A technique to enhance the depth range of the multi-layer light field three-dimensional display is proposed. A set of the optical plates are stacked in front of the conventional multi-layer light field display, creating additional internal reflection for one polarization state. By switching between two orthogonal polarization states in synchronization with the displayed three-dimensional images, the depth range of the display can be doubled. The proposed method is verified experimentally, confirming its feasibility.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Lee, “Three-dimensional displays, past and present,” Phys. Today66(4), 36–41 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues,” Appl. Opt.50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph.30(4), 1–11 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph.29(6), 163–172 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph.29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gotoda, “A multilayer liquid crystal display for autostereoscopic 3D viewing,” Proc. SPIE7524, 75240P (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-Q. Pham, N. Kim, K.-C. Kwon, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, B. Lee, and J.-H. Park, “Depth enhancement of integral imaging by using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films and a dual-depth configuration,” Opt. Lett.35(18), 3135–3137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

1984 (1)

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): a superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[PubMed]

Andersen, A. H.

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): a superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[PubMed]

Bourhill, G.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

Choi, H.-J.

Date, M.

Evans, A.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gass, P.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gay, G.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gotoda, H.

H. Gotoda, “A multilayer liquid crystal display for autostereoscopic 3D viewing,” Proc. SPIE7524, 75240P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, J.

Heidrich, W.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph.30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, M.

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph.29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hisaki, T.

Hong, J.

Hong, K.

Jacobs, A.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, and A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications,” Appl. Opt.52(4), 546–560 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Ray phase space approach for 3-D imaging and 3-D optical data representation,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 141–150 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K.-M.

Jung, J.-H.

Kak, A. C.

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): a superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, N.

Kim, Y.

J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues,” Appl. Opt.50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph.29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwack, K.-D.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, K.-C.

Lanman, D.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph.30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph.29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Martinez-Corral, M.

Min, S.-W.

Nakazawa, K.

Park, J.-H.

Pham, D.-Q.

Raskar, R.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph.30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph.29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stern, A.

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, and A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications,” Appl. Opt.52(4), 546–560 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Ray phase space approach for 3-D imaging and 3-D optical data representation,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 141–150 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suyama, S.

Takada, H.

Walton, E.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walton, H.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wetzstein, G.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph.30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wynne-Powell, T.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

ACM Trans. Graph. (3)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph.30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph.29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Ray phase space approach for 3-D imaging and 3-D optical data representation,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 141–150 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Today (1)

B. Lee, “Three-dimensional displays, past and present,” Phys. Today66(4), 36–41 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Gotoda, “A multilayer liquid crystal display for autostereoscopic 3D viewing,” Proc. SPIE7524, 75240P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ultrason. Imaging (1)

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): a superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[PubMed]

Other (2)

J.-H. Park, “Light field analysis of autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” in The 19th international display workshops in conjunction with Asia Display 2012 (IDW/AD'12), Kyoto International Conference Center, Kyoto, Japan, paper 3D1–1, Dec. (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of multi-layer light field display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Depth dependent resolution characteristic of a multi-layer light field display (a) Light field spectrum of a single panel, (b) Resolution of a depth slice in a multi-layer display and conventional displays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of the proposed method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematics of the experimental setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pictures of the implemented system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittance characteristics of the panel stack (a) Two panels (b) Three panels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

3D scene used for experiment (a) Conventional scheme (b) Proposed scheme with polarization dependent internal reflection.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Generated panel images for (a) Conventional multi-layer display and (b) Proposed multi-layer display.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental result (a) Conventional multi-layer display and (b) Proposed multi-layer display.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Causes of the image artifacts in the experimental results (a) Ghost artifact, (b) Color artifact.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of the implemented multi-layer light field display

Equations (1)

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L n ( f x , f θ )= G n ( f x )δ( f θ + z n f x ),

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