Abstract

Q-switched operation of a high-quality Nd:YAG optical vortex laser with the first order Laguerre-Gaussian mode and well-determined helical wavefronts using a fiber-based pump beam conditioning scheme is reported. A simple two-mirror resonator incorporating an acousto-optic Q-switch was employed, along with an etalon and a Brewster plate to enforce the particular helicity of the output. The laser yielded Q-switched pulses with ~250 μJ pulse energy and ~33 ns pulse duration (FWHM) at a 0.1 kHz repetition rate for 5.1 W of absorbed pump power. The handedness of the helical wavefronts was preserved regardless of the repetition rates. The prospects of further power scaling and improved laser performance are discussed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsue, “Transfer of Light helicity to Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(14), 143603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim and W. A. Clarkson, “Selective generation of Laguerre–Gaussian(LG0n) mode output in a diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.296, 109–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams:from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Okida, Y. Hayashi, T. Omatsu, J. Hamazaki, and R. Morita, “Characterization of 1.06 μm optical vortex laser based on a side-pumped Nd:GdVO4 bounce oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 69–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Chard, P. C. Shardlow, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power non-astigmatic TEM00 and vortex mode generation in a compact bounce laser design,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 275–280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser & Photon. Rev.2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, G. R. Dennis, and J. D. Close, “A pumped atom laser,” Nat. Phys.4(9), 731–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. Sizyuk, A. Hassanein, and T. Sizyuk, “Hollow laser self-confined plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications,” Laser Part. Beams25(01), 143–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2003

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

1996

C. Paterson and R. Smith, “Higher order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-based holograms,” Opt. Commun.124(1-2), 121–130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

C. Tamm, “Frequency locking of two transverse optical modes of a laser,” Phys. Rev. A38(11), 5960–5963 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser & Photon. Rev.2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, “The orbital angular momentum of Light,” Prog. Opt.39, 291–372 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

Babiker, M.

L. Allen, M. J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, “The orbital angular momentum of Light,” Prog. Opt.39, 291–372 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bernet, S.

Chard, S. P.

S. P. Chard, P. C. Shardlow, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power non-astigmatic TEM00 and vortex mode generation in a compact bounce laser design,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 275–280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power Q-switched laser with high-order Laguerre–Gaussian modes: application for extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 385–390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, P. Y.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power Q-switched laser with high-order Laguerre–Gaussian modes: application for extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 385–390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chujo, K.

Clarkson, W. A.

Close, J. D.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, G. R. Dennis, and J. D. Close, “A pumped atom laser,” Nat. Phys.4(9), 731–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coerwinkel, R.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Damzen, M. J.

S. P. Chard, P. C. Shardlow, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power non-astigmatic TEM00 and vortex mode generation in a compact bounce laser design,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 275–280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, G. R.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, G. R. Dennis, and J. D. Close, “A pumped atom laser,” Nat. Phys.4(9), 731–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Felgate, N. S.

Figl, C.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, G. R. Dennis, and J. D. Close, “A pumped atom laser,” Nat. Phys.4(9), 731–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser & Photon. Rev.2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fürhapter, S.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamazaki, J.

J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, K. Chujo, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Optical-vortex laser ablation,” Opt. Express18(3), 2144–2151 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okida, Y. Hayashi, T. Omatsu, J. Hamazaki, and R. Morita, “Characterization of 1.06 μm optical vortex laser based on a side-pumped Nd:GdVO4 bounce oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 69–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

Hassanein, A.

V. Sizyuk, A. Hassanein, and T. Sizyuk, “Hollow laser self-confined plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications,” Laser Part. Beams25(01), 143–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, Y.

M. Okida, Y. Hayashi, T. Omatsu, J. Hamazaki, and R. Morita, “Characterization of 1.06 μm optical vortex laser based on a side-pumped Nd:GdVO4 bounce oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 69–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. R.

Huang, Y. J.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power Q-switched laser with high-order Laguerre–Gaussian modes: application for extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 385–390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, M.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, G. R. Dennis, and J. D. Close, “A pumped atom laser,” Nat. Phys.4(9), 731–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jesacher, A.

Kim, J. W.

J. W. Kim and W. A. Clarkson, “Selective generation of Laguerre–Gaussian(LG0n) mode output in a diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.296, 109–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, J. R. Hayes, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power Er:YAG laser with radially-polarized Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) mode output,” Opt. Express19(15), 14526–14531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. C.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power Q-switched laser with high-order Laguerre–Gaussian modes: application for extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 385–390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. I.

Miyamoto, K.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsue, “Transfer of Light helicity to Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(14), 143603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morita, R.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsue, “Transfer of Light helicity to Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(14), 143603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, K. Chujo, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Optical-vortex laser ablation,” Opt. Express18(3), 2144–2151 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okida, Y. Hayashi, T. Omatsu, J. Hamazaki, and R. Morita, “Characterization of 1.06 μm optical vortex laser based on a side-pumped Nd:GdVO4 bounce oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 69–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okida, M.

M. Okida, Y. Hayashi, T. Omatsu, J. Hamazaki, and R. Morita, “Characterization of 1.06 μm optical vortex laser based on a side-pumped Nd:GdVO4 bounce oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 69–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Omatsu, T.

J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, K. Chujo, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Optical-vortex laser ablation,” Opt. Express18(3), 2144–2151 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okida, Y. Hayashi, T. Omatsu, J. Hamazaki, and R. Morita, “Characterization of 1.06 μm optical vortex laser based on a side-pumped Nd:GdVO4 bounce oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 69–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Omatsue, T.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsue, “Transfer of Light helicity to Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(14), 143603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser & Photon. Rev.2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum:origns, behaviour and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, “The orbital angular momentum of Light,” Prog. Opt.39, 291–372 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, C.

C. Paterson and R. Smith, “Higher order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-based holograms,” Opt. Commun.124(1-2), 121–130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Robins, N. P.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, G. R. Dennis, and J. D. Close, “A pumped atom laser,” Nat. Phys.4(9), 731–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shardlow, P. C.

S. P. Chard, P. C. Shardlow, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power non-astigmatic TEM00 and vortex mode generation in a compact bounce laser design,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 275–280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sizyuk, T.

V. Sizyuk, A. Hassanein, and T. Sizyuk, “Hollow laser self-confined plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications,” Laser Part. Beams25(01), 143–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sizyuk, V.

V. Sizyuk, A. Hassanein, and T. Sizyuk, “Hollow laser self-confined plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications,” Laser Part. Beams25(01), 143–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

C. Paterson and R. Smith, “Higher order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-based holograms,” Opt. Commun.124(1-2), 121–130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Su, K. W.

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power Q-switched laser with high-order Laguerre–Gaussian modes: application for extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 385–390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, F.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsue, “Transfer of Light helicity to Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(14), 143603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, S.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsue, “Transfer of Light helicity to Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(14), 143603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tamm, C.

C. Tamm, “Frequency locking of two transverse optical modes of a laser,” Phys. Rev. A38(11), 5960–5963 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanda, S.

Tokizane, Y.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsue, “Transfer of Light helicity to Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(14), 143603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys.3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsue, “Transfer of Light helicity to Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(14), 143603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, A. M.

Yu, H.

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, H.

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, S.

Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, H. Yu, S. Zhuang, H. Zhang, X. Xu, J. Xu, X. Xu, and J. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power Q-switched laser with high-order Laguerre–Gaussian modes: application for extra-cavity harmonic generations,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 385–390 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Okida, Y. Hayashi, T. Omatsu, J. Hamazaki, and R. Morita, “Characterization of 1.06 μm optical vortex laser based on a side-pumped Nd:GdVO4 bounce oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 69–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the Nd:YAG laser resonator. IC: input coupler, OC: output coupler, BP: Brewster plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nd:YAG laser output power as a function of absorbed pump power in cw and Q-switched mode of operation. The inset is the cw output beam profile at an absorbed pump power of 5.1 W.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Q-switched pulse energy, pulse width (FWHM), peak power and average output power versus a pulse repetition rate, (b) the single Q-switched pulse and its pulse train at the repetition rate of 5 kHz, and (c) the output beam profiles at the repetition rate of 1 kHz, 5 kHz, and 20 kHz for an absorbed pump power of 5.1 W.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The spiral interference patterns with left or right-handedness at the repetition rates of 1 kHz, 5 kHz, and 20 kHz for an absorbed pump power of 5.1 W.

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