Abstract

We report the theoretical description and the experimental demonstration of an optical resonator formed by inserting a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) in a closed fiber loop. The spectral characteristics of such a resonator strongly depend on the reflectivity of the FBG. In the wavelength region where the FBG reflectivity R is negligible, the system behaves like a conventional ring resonator. On the other hand, when R is not vanishing, a split-mode structure can be observed, associated to the degeneracy removal of two counterpropagating resonant modes. The magnitude of the mode splitting can be used to sense small variations of the FBG physical parameters, such as length, temperature or group index. An example of strain sensing with this setup is reported, showing that the mode splitting is sensitive to a mechanical strain applied to the FBG, while it is almost insensitive to a strain applied to any other point of the resonator. This peculiar feature allows to perform cavity-enhanced, local strain measurements with a reduced sensitivity to environmental perturbations, which represents an important improvement in the framework of the fiber-optic sensors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Avino, A. Giorgini, M. Salza, M. Fabian, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(20), 201116 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.37(2), 51–107 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Optimized design of integrated optical angular velocity sensors based on a passive ring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(14), 2658–2666 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. T.-Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, “Optical fiber three-axis accelerometer based on lasers locked to π phase-shifted Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21, 094010 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 726–730 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Choi, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Ring fiber resonators based on fused-fiber grating add-drop filters:application to resonator coupling,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1598–1600 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Vollmer and P. Fischer, “Frequency-domain displacement sensing with a fiber ring-resonator containing a variable gap,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 410–413 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett.36(4), 321 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Sinor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide coupled ring micro-resonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(9–11), 781–797 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Fast light generation through velocity manipulation in two vertically-stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Express18(3), 2973–2986 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Structural polarization conversion in integrated optical vertically stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Laser Technol.48, 294–301 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013

S. Avino, A. Giorgini, M. Salza, M. Fabian, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(20), 201116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Structural polarization conversion in integrated optical vertically stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Laser Technol.48, 294–301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Fast light generation through velocity manipulation in two vertically-stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Express18(3), 2973–2986 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T.-Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, “Optical fiber three-axis accelerometer based on lasers locked to π phase-shifted Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

F. Vollmer and P. Fischer, “Frequency-domain displacement sensing with a fiber ring-resonator containing a variable gap,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 410–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Sinor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide coupled ring micro-resonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(9–11), 781–797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 726–730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett.36(4), 321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Structural polarization conversion in integrated optical vertically stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Laser Technol.48, 294–301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Fast light generation through velocity manipulation in two vertically-stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Express18(3), 2973–2986 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Optimized design of integrated optical angular velocity sensors based on a passive ring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(14), 2658–2666 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avino, S.

S. Avino, A. Giorgini, M. Salza, M. Fabian, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(20), 201116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boschi, E.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 726–730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campanella, C. E.

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Structural polarization conversion in integrated optical vertically stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Laser Technol.48, 294–301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Fast light generation through velocity manipulation in two vertically-stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Express18(3), 2973–2986 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Optimized design of integrated optical angular velocity sensors based on a passive ring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(14), 2658–2666 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campanella, C. M.

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Carlino, S.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. M.

Chow, J. H.

T. T.-Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, “Optical fiber three-axis accelerometer based on lasers locked to π phase-shifted Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ciminelli, C.

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Structural polarization conversion in integrated optical vertically stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Laser Technol.48, 294–301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Fast light generation through velocity manipulation in two vertically-stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Express18(3), 2973–2986 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Optimized design of integrated optical angular velocity sensors based on a passive ring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(14), 2658–2666 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ctyroký, J.

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Sinor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide coupled ring micro-resonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(9–11), 781–797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, G.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

S. Avino, A. Giorgini, M. Salza, M. Fabian, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(20), 201116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. T.-Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, “Optical fiber three-axis accelerometer based on lasers locked to π phase-shifted Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Olio, F.

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, and M. N. Armenise, “Fast light generation through velocity manipulation in two vertically-stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Express18(3), 2973–2986 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Maio, A.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, M.

S. Avino, A. Giorgini, M. Salza, M. Fabian, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(20), 201116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

F. Vollmer and P. Fischer, “Frequency-domain displacement sensing with a fiber ring-resonator containing a variable gap,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 410–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

S. Avino, A. Giorgini, M. Salza, M. Fabian, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(20), 201116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. T.-Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, “Optical fiber three-axis accelerometer based on lasers locked to π phase-shifted Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giorgini, A.

S. Avino, A. Giorgini, M. Salza, M. Fabian, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(20), 201116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 726–730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. J.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 726–730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lam, T. T.-Y.

T. T.-Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, “Optical fiber three-axis accelerometer based on lasers locked to π phase-shifted Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Richter, I.

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Sinor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide coupled ring micro-resonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(9–11), 781–797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salza, M.

S. Avino, A. Giorgini, M. Salza, M. Fabian, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(20), 201116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. T.-Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, “Optical fiber three-axis accelerometer based on lasers locked to π phase-shifted Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schweinsberg, A.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 726–730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sinor, M.

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Sinor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide coupled ring micro-resonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(9–11), 781–797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and P. Fischer, “Frequency-domain displacement sensing with a fiber ring-resonator containing a variable gap,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 410–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, V.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 726–730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

J. M. Choi, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Ring fiber resonators based on fused-fiber grating add-drop filters:application to resonator coupling,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1598–1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett.36(4), 321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Avino, A. Giorgini, M. Salza, M. Fabian, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(20), 201116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett.36(4), 321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(6), 726–730 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, A. Di Maio, S. Carlino, G. De Natale, and E. Boschi, “Design and test of a laser-based optical-fiber Bragg-grating accelerometer for seismic applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(8), 085306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. T.-Y. Lam, G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, J. H. Chow, and P. De Natale, “Optical fiber three-axis accelerometer based on lasers locked to π phase-shifted Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.21, 094010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

C. Ciminelli, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Structural polarization conversion in integrated optical vertically stacked ring resonators,” Opt. Laser Technol.48, 294–301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Sinor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide coupled ring micro-resonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(9–11), 781–797 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

C. Ciminelli, C. M. Campanella, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.37(2), 51–107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

F. Vollmer and P. Fischer, “Frequency-domain displacement sensing with a fiber ring-resonator containing a variable gap,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 410–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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