Abstract

We report on a new route to greatly enhance the photoluminescence of Eu3+ doped ferroelectric polycrystalline oxide thin films: surface modification of grains with silver nanoclusters (NCs). The Ag doped Bi3.6Eu0.4Ti3O12 (BET) thin films were prepared by a chemical solution deposition method. According to the XRD, TEM and XPS analysis, partially oxidated Ag NCs have been formed on the surfaces of the BET grains. A greatly enhanced photoluminescence was obtained in a wide range of Ag doping level. Role of the Ag NCs in the photoluminescence enhancement was investigated by means of absorption, emission and excitation spectra, as well as decay lifetime measurement. The results indicate that the intra-4f transition of Eu3+ can be intensively activated by the coupling of the charge transfer band of BET with the 5D0 state of Eu3+ ions, and the enhancement of Eu3+ ions emission in the present thin films was attributed to the surface modification of BET crystalline grains by Ag NCs. In addition, the influences of Ag NCs on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of these materials were discussed as well.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Uchida, I. Okada, H. Matsuda, T. Iijima, T. Watanabe, and H. Funakubo, “Charge-compensative ion substitution of La3+-substituted bismuth titanate thin films for enhancement of remanent polarization,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2636–2639 (2004).
  2. D. H. Bao, S. K. Lee, X. H. Zhu, M. Alexe, and D. Hesse, “Growth, structure, and properties of all-epitaxial ferroelectric (Bi,La)4Ti3O12/Pb(Zr0.4,Ti0.6)O3/(Bi,La)4Ti3O12 trilayered thin film on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 (011) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 0829061–0829063 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Zhou, G. H. Wu, F. Gao, N. Qin, and D. H. Bao, “Dual enhancement of photoluminescence and ferroelectric polarization in Pr3+/La3+-codoped bismuth titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(8), 2109–2112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. R. Molla, A. Tarafder, S. Mukherjee, and B. Karmakar, “Transparent Eu3+-doped ferroelectric bismuth titanate glass-ceramic nanocomposites: fabrication and properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3056–3063 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. B. Ruan, X. M. Chen, T. Liang, G. H. Wu, and D. H. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Eu)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated Glass Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Hayakawa, S. T. Selvan, and M. Nogami, “Field enhancement effect of small Ag particles on the fluorescence from Eu3+-doped SiO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys.74, 1513–1515 (1999).
  7. A. P. Carmo, M. J. V. Bell, V. Anjos, R. Almeida, D. M. Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Thermo-optical properties of tellurite glasses doped with Eu3+ and Au nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155404 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Kannan, F. A. Rahim, X. Teng, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, L. Huang, and D. H. Kim, “Enhanced emission of NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm nanoparticles by selective growth of Au and Ag nanoshells,” RSC Adv.3(21), 7718–7721 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Hayakawa, K. Furuhashi, and M. Nogami, “Enhancement of 5D0-7FJ emissions of Eu3+ ions in the vicinity of polymer-protected Au nanoparticles in sol−gel-derived B2O3−SiO2 glass,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(31), 11301–11307 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Nabika and S. Deki, “Surface-enhanced Luminescence from Eu3+ Complex nearby Ag Colloids,” Eur. Phys. J. D24(1-3), 369–372 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zhu, “Enhanced Blue-Violet and Ultraviolet Fuorescence from Eu3+ Doped Silver Colloids,” Chem. Phys.316(1-3), 20–24 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Strohhofer and A. Polman, “Silver as a sensitizer for erbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(8), 1414–1416 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. J. Li, R. F. Wei, X. Y. Liu, and H. Guo, “Enhanced luminescence via energy transfer from Ag+ to RE Ions (Dy3+, Sm3+, Tb3+) in glasses,” Opt. Express20(9), 10122–10127 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Eichelbaum and K. Rademann, “Plasmonic enhancement or energy transfer? on the luminescence of gold-, silver-, and lanthanide-doped silicate glasses and its potential for light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(13), 2045–2052 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. K. Tikhomirov, V. D. Rodríguez, A. Kuznetsov, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Preparation and luminescence of bulk oxyfluoride glasses doped with Ag nanoclusters,” Opt. Express18(21), 22032–22040 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Guo, X. F. Wang, J. D. Chen, and F. Li, “Ultraviolet light induced white light emission in Ag and Eu3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” Opt. Express18(18), 18900–18905 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Sumesh, M. S. Bootharaju, Anshup, and T. Pradeep, “A practical silver nanoparticle-based adsorbent for the removal of Hg2+ from water,” J. Hazard. Mater.189(1-2), 450–457 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. K. Lai, H. F. Zhang, K. P. Xie, D. G. Gong, Y. X. Tang, L. Sun, C. J. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of uniform Ag/TiO2 nanotube array structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance,” New J. Chem.34(7), 1335–1340 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. H. Ma, X. J. Meng, J. L. Sun, T. Lin, F. W. Shi, and J. H. Chu, “Ferroelectric and optical properties of Bi3.25Nd0.75Ti3O12 thin films prepared by a chemical solution method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.37(22), 3160–3164 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Guo, J. J. Li, F. Li, and H. Zhang, “Origin of white luminescence in Ag-Eu co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), 165–168 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Myint, R. Gunawidjaja, and H. Eilers, “Light-induced structural changes in Eu-doped (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171906 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides,” Anal. Biochem.315(1), 57–66 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. W. Cheng, E. J. Sie, B. Liu, C. H. A. Huan, T. C. Sum, H. D. Sun, and H. J. Fan, “Surface plasmon enhanced band edge luminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. Liu, W. P. Qin, G. S. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. J. Li, J. D. Chen, R. F. Wei, and H. Guo, “Combined white luminescence from Eu3+, ML-Ag particles and Ag+ in Ag-Eu3+ co-doped H3BO3-BaF2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(4), 1208–1211 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. J. Last and D. J. Thouless, “Percolation theory and electrical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.27(25), 1719–1721 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. H. Lin, C.-W. Nan, J. F. Wang, G. Liu, J. B. Wu, and N. Cai, “Dielectric behavior of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-based composites incorporating silver particles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.87, 742–745 (2004).
  29. F. Y. Young and H. P. R. Fredderikse, “Permittivity (dielectric constant) of inorganic solids,” J. Phys. Chem.2, 313–321 (1973).
  30. K. T. Kim, C. Kim, J. G. Kim, and G. H. Kim, “Effect of LaNiO3 electrode on microstructural and ferroelectric properties of Bi3.25Eu0.75Ti3O12 thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(20-21), 8082–8086 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013

P. Kannan, F. A. Rahim, X. Teng, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, L. Huang, and D. H. Kim, “Enhanced emission of NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm nanoparticles by selective growth of Au and Ag nanoshells,” RSC Adv.3(21), 7718–7721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Molla, A. Tarafder, S. Mukherjee, and B. Karmakar, “Transparent Eu3+-doped ferroelectric bismuth titanate glass-ceramic nanocomposites: fabrication and properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3056–3063 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Li, J. D. Chen, R. F. Wei, and H. Guo, “Combined white luminescence from Eu3+, ML-Ag particles and Ag+ in Ag-Eu3+ co-doped H3BO3-BaF2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(4), 1208–1211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Li, R. F. Wei, X. Y. Liu, and H. Guo, “Enhanced luminescence via energy transfer from Ag+ to RE Ions (Dy3+, Sm3+, Tb3+) in glasses,” Opt. Express20(9), 10122–10127 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

N. Liu, W. P. Qin, G. S. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Sumesh, M. S. Bootharaju, Anshup, and T. Pradeep, “A practical silver nanoparticle-based adsorbent for the removal of Hg2+ from water,” J. Hazard. Mater.189(1-2), 450–457 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Guo, J. J. Li, F. Li, and H. Zhang, “Origin of white luminescence in Ag-Eu co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), 165–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Myint, R. Gunawidjaja, and H. Eilers, “Light-induced structural changes in Eu-doped (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. K. Lai, H. F. Zhang, K. P. Xie, D. G. Gong, Y. X. Tang, L. Sun, C. J. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of uniform Ag/TiO2 nanotube array structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance,” New J. Chem.34(7), 1335–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhou, G. H. Wu, F. Gao, N. Qin, and D. H. Bao, “Dual enhancement of photoluminescence and ferroelectric polarization in Pr3+/La3+-codoped bismuth titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(8), 2109–2112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Cheng, E. J. Sie, B. Liu, C. H. A. Huan, T. C. Sum, H. D. Sun, and H. J. Fan, “Surface plasmon enhanced band edge luminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, X. F. Wang, J. D. Chen, and F. Li, “Ultraviolet light induced white light emission in Ag and Eu3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” Opt. Express18(18), 18900–18905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Tikhomirov, V. D. Rodríguez, A. Kuznetsov, D. Kirilenko, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Preparation and luminescence of bulk oxyfluoride glasses doped with Ag nanoclusters,” Opt. Express18(21), 22032–22040 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Eichelbaum and K. Rademann, “Plasmonic enhancement or energy transfer? on the luminescence of gold-, silver-, and lanthanide-doped silicate glasses and its potential for light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(13), 2045–2052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Carmo, M. J. V. Bell, V. Anjos, R. Almeida, D. M. Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Thermo-optical properties of tellurite glasses doped with Eu3+ and Au nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. B. Ruan, X. M. Chen, T. Liang, G. H. Wu, and D. H. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Eu)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated Glass Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. T. Kim, C. Kim, J. G. Kim, and G. H. Kim, “Effect of LaNiO3 electrode on microstructural and ferroelectric properties of Bi3.25Eu0.75Ti3O12 thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(20-21), 8082–8086 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. H. Bao, S. K. Lee, X. H. Zhu, M. Alexe, and D. Hesse, “Growth, structure, and properties of all-epitaxial ferroelectric (Bi,La)4Ti3O12/Pb(Zr0.4,Ti0.6)O3/(Bi,La)4Ti3O12 trilayered thin film on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 (011) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 0829061–0829063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, “Enhanced Blue-Violet and Ultraviolet Fuorescence from Eu3+ Doped Silver Colloids,” Chem. Phys.316(1-3), 20–24 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. H. Ma, X. J. Meng, J. L. Sun, T. Lin, F. W. Shi, and J. H. Chu, “Ferroelectric and optical properties of Bi3.25Nd0.75Ti3O12 thin films prepared by a chemical solution method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.37(22), 3160–3164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Uchida, I. Okada, H. Matsuda, T. Iijima, T. Watanabe, and H. Funakubo, “Charge-compensative ion substitution of La3+-substituted bismuth titanate thin films for enhancement of remanent polarization,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2636–2639 (2004).

T. Hayakawa, K. Furuhashi, and M. Nogami, “Enhancement of 5D0-7FJ emissions of Eu3+ ions in the vicinity of polymer-protected Au nanoparticles in sol−gel-derived B2O3−SiO2 glass,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(31), 11301–11307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, C.-W. Nan, J. F. Wang, G. Liu, J. B. Wu, and N. Cai, “Dielectric behavior of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-based composites incorporating silver particles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.87, 742–745 (2004).

2003

H. Nabika and S. Deki, “Surface-enhanced Luminescence from Eu3+ Complex nearby Ag Colloids,” Eur. Phys. J. D24(1-3), 369–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides,” Anal. Biochem.315(1), 57–66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

C. Strohhofer and A. Polman, “Silver as a sensitizer for erbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(8), 1414–1416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Hayakawa, S. T. Selvan, and M. Nogami, “Field enhancement effect of small Ag particles on the fluorescence from Eu3+-doped SiO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys.74, 1513–1515 (1999).

1973

F. Y. Young and H. P. R. Fredderikse, “Permittivity (dielectric constant) of inorganic solids,” J. Phys. Chem.2, 313–321 (1973).

1971

B. J. Last and D. J. Thouless, “Percolation theory and electrical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.27(25), 1719–1721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Alexe, M.

D. H. Bao, S. K. Lee, X. H. Zhu, M. Alexe, and D. Hesse, “Growth, structure, and properties of all-epitaxial ferroelectric (Bi,La)4Ti3O12/Pb(Zr0.4,Ti0.6)O3/(Bi,La)4Ti3O12 trilayered thin film on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 (011) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 0829061–0829063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, R.

A. P. Carmo, M. J. V. Bell, V. Anjos, R. Almeida, D. M. Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Thermo-optical properties of tellurite glasses doped with Eu3+ and Au nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anjos, V.

A. P. Carmo, M. J. V. Bell, V. Anjos, R. Almeida, D. M. Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Thermo-optical properties of tellurite glasses doped with Eu3+ and Au nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anshup,

E. Sumesh, M. S. Bootharaju, Anshup, and T. Pradeep, “A practical silver nanoparticle-based adsorbent for the removal of Hg2+ from water,” J. Hazard. Mater.189(1-2), 450–457 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, D. H.

H. Zhou, G. H. Wu, F. Gao, N. Qin, and D. H. Bao, “Dual enhancement of photoluminescence and ferroelectric polarization in Pr3+/La3+-codoped bismuth titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(8), 2109–2112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Ruan, X. M. Chen, T. Liang, G. H. Wu, and D. H. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Eu)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated Glass Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Bao, S. K. Lee, X. H. Zhu, M. Alexe, and D. Hesse, “Growth, structure, and properties of all-epitaxial ferroelectric (Bi,La)4Ti3O12/Pb(Zr0.4,Ti0.6)O3/(Bi,La)4Ti3O12 trilayered thin film on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 (011) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 0829061–0829063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bell, M. J. V.

A. P. Carmo, M. J. V. Bell, V. Anjos, R. Almeida, D. M. Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Thermo-optical properties of tellurite glasses doped with Eu3+ and Au nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bootharaju, M. S.

E. Sumesh, M. S. Bootharaju, Anshup, and T. Pradeep, “A practical silver nanoparticle-based adsorbent for the removal of Hg2+ from water,” J. Hazard. Mater.189(1-2), 450–457 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, N.

Y. H. Lin, C.-W. Nan, J. F. Wang, G. Liu, J. B. Wu, and N. Cai, “Dielectric behavior of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-based composites incorporating silver particles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.87, 742–745 (2004).

Carmo, A. P.

A. P. Carmo, M. J. V. Bell, V. Anjos, R. Almeida, D. M. Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Thermo-optical properties of tellurite glasses doped with Eu3+ and Au nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. D.

J. J. Li, J. D. Chen, R. F. Wei, and H. Guo, “Combined white luminescence from Eu3+, ML-Ag particles and Ag+ in Ag-Eu3+ co-doped H3BO3-BaF2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(4), 1208–1211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, X. F. Wang, J. D. Chen, and F. Li, “Ultraviolet light induced white light emission in Ag and Eu3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” Opt. Express18(18), 18900–18905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

P. Kannan, F. A. Rahim, X. Teng, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, L. Huang, and D. H. Kim, “Enhanced emission of NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm nanoparticles by selective growth of Au and Ag nanoshells,” RSC Adv.3(21), 7718–7721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. M.

K. B. Ruan, X. M. Chen, T. Liang, G. H. Wu, and D. H. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Eu)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated Glass Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Y. K. Lai, H. F. Zhang, K. P. Xie, D. G. Gong, Y. X. Tang, L. Sun, C. J. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of uniform Ag/TiO2 nanotube array structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance,” New J. Chem.34(7), 1335–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. W.

C. W. Cheng, E. J. Sie, B. Liu, C. H. A. Huan, T. C. Sum, H. D. Sun, and H. J. Fan, “Surface plasmon enhanced band edge luminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, J. H.

J. H. Ma, X. J. Meng, J. L. Sun, T. Lin, F. W. Shi, and J. H. Chu, “Ferroelectric and optical properties of Bi3.25Nd0.75Ti3O12 thin films prepared by a chemical solution method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.37(22), 3160–3164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deki, S.

H. Nabika and S. Deki, “Surface-enhanced Luminescence from Eu3+ Complex nearby Ag Colloids,” Eur. Phys. J. D24(1-3), 369–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eichelbaum, M.

M. Eichelbaum and K. Rademann, “Plasmonic enhancement or energy transfer? on the luminescence of gold-, silver-, and lanthanide-doped silicate glasses and its potential for light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(13), 2045–2052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eilers, H.

T. Myint, R. Gunawidjaja, and H. Eilers, “Light-induced structural changes in Eu-doped (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fafarman, A. T.

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, H. J.

C. W. Cheng, E. J. Sie, B. Liu, C. H. A. Huan, T. C. Sum, H. D. Sun, and H. J. Fan, “Surface plasmon enhanced band edge luminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fredderikse, H. P. R.

F. Y. Young and H. P. R. Fredderikse, “Permittivity (dielectric constant) of inorganic solids,” J. Phys. Chem.2, 313–321 (1973).

Funakubo, H.

H. Uchida, I. Okada, H. Matsuda, T. Iijima, T. Watanabe, and H. Funakubo, “Charge-compensative ion substitution of La3+-substituted bismuth titanate thin films for enhancement of remanent polarization,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2636–2639 (2004).

Furuhashi, K.

T. Hayakawa, K. Furuhashi, and M. Nogami, “Enhancement of 5D0-7FJ emissions of Eu3+ ions in the vicinity of polymer-protected Au nanoparticles in sol−gel-derived B2O3−SiO2 glass,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(31), 11301–11307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, F.

H. Zhou, G. H. Wu, F. Gao, N. Qin, and D. H. Bao, “Dual enhancement of photoluminescence and ferroelectric polarization in Pr3+/La3+-codoped bismuth titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(8), 2109–2112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gong, D. G.

Y. K. Lai, H. F. Zhang, K. P. Xie, D. G. Gong, Y. X. Tang, L. Sun, C. J. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of uniform Ag/TiO2 nanotube array structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance,” New J. Chem.34(7), 1335–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides,” Anal. Biochem.315(1), 57–66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides,” Anal. Biochem.315(1), 57–66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunawidjaja, R.

T. Myint, R. Gunawidjaja, and H. Eilers, “Light-induced structural changes in Eu-doped (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

J. J. Li, J. D. Chen, R. F. Wei, and H. Guo, “Combined white luminescence from Eu3+, ML-Ag particles and Ag+ in Ag-Eu3+ co-doped H3BO3-BaF2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(4), 1208–1211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Li, R. F. Wei, X. Y. Liu, and H. Guo, “Enhanced luminescence via energy transfer from Ag+ to RE Ions (Dy3+, Sm3+, Tb3+) in glasses,” Opt. Express20(9), 10122–10127 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Guo, J. J. Li, F. Li, and H. Zhang, “Origin of white luminescence in Ag-Eu co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), 165–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, X. F. Wang, J. D. Chen, and F. Li, “Ultraviolet light induced white light emission in Ag and Eu3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” Opt. Express18(18), 18900–18905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayakawa, T.

T. Hayakawa, K. Furuhashi, and M. Nogami, “Enhancement of 5D0-7FJ emissions of Eu3+ ions in the vicinity of polymer-protected Au nanoparticles in sol−gel-derived B2O3−SiO2 glass,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(31), 11301–11307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hayakawa, S. T. Selvan, and M. Nogami, “Field enhancement effect of small Ag particles on the fluorescence from Eu3+-doped SiO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys.74, 1513–1515 (1999).

Hesse, D.

D. H. Bao, S. K. Lee, X. H. Zhu, M. Alexe, and D. Hesse, “Growth, structure, and properties of all-epitaxial ferroelectric (Bi,La)4Ti3O12/Pb(Zr0.4,Ti0.6)O3/(Bi,La)4Ti3O12 trilayered thin film on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 (011) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 0829061–0829063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. H.

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huan, C. H. A.

C. W. Cheng, E. J. Sie, B. Liu, C. H. A. Huan, T. C. Sum, H. D. Sun, and H. J. Fan, “Surface plasmon enhanced band edge luminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

P. Kannan, F. A. Rahim, X. Teng, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, L. Huang, and D. H. Kim, “Enhanced emission of NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm nanoparticles by selective growth of Au and Ag nanoshells,” RSC Adv.3(21), 7718–7721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, T.

H. Uchida, I. Okada, H. Matsuda, T. Iijima, T. Watanabe, and H. Funakubo, “Charge-compensative ion substitution of La3+-substituted bismuth titanate thin films for enhancement of remanent polarization,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2636–2639 (2004).

Jiang, T.

N. Liu, W. P. Qin, G. S. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagan, C. R.

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kannan, P.

P. Kannan, F. A. Rahim, X. Teng, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, L. Huang, and D. H. Kim, “Enhanced emission of NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm nanoparticles by selective growth of Au and Ag nanoshells,” RSC Adv.3(21), 7718–7721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Karmakar, B.

A. R. Molla, A. Tarafder, S. Mukherjee, and B. Karmakar, “Transparent Eu3+-doped ferroelectric bismuth titanate glass-ceramic nanocomposites: fabrication and properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3056–3063 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kassab, L. R. P.

A. P. Carmo, M. J. V. Bell, V. Anjos, R. Almeida, D. M. Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Thermo-optical properties of tellurite glasses doped with Eu3+ and Au nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

K. T. Kim, C. Kim, J. G. Kim, and G. H. Kim, “Effect of LaNiO3 electrode on microstructural and ferroelectric properties of Bi3.25Eu0.75Ti3O12 thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(20-21), 8082–8086 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

P. Kannan, F. A. Rahim, X. Teng, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, L. Huang, and D. H. Kim, “Enhanced emission of NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm nanoparticles by selective growth of Au and Ag nanoshells,” RSC Adv.3(21), 7718–7721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. H.

K. T. Kim, C. Kim, J. G. Kim, and G. H. Kim, “Effect of LaNiO3 electrode on microstructural and ferroelectric properties of Bi3.25Eu0.75Ti3O12 thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(20-21), 8082–8086 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. G.

K. T. Kim, C. Kim, J. G. Kim, and G. H. Kim, “Effect of LaNiO3 electrode on microstructural and ferroelectric properties of Bi3.25Eu0.75Ti3O12 thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(20-21), 8082–8086 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. T.

K. T. Kim, C. Kim, J. G. Kim, and G. H. Kim, “Effect of LaNiO3 electrode on microstructural and ferroelectric properties of Bi3.25Eu0.75Ti3O12 thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(20-21), 8082–8086 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirilenko, D.

Kuznetsov, A.

Lai, Y. K.

Y. K. Lai, H. F. Zhang, K. P. Xie, D. G. Gong, Y. X. Tang, L. Sun, C. J. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of uniform Ag/TiO2 nanotube array structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance,” New J. Chem.34(7), 1335–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides,” Anal. Biochem.315(1), 57–66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Last, B. J.

B. J. Last and D. J. Thouless, “Percolation theory and electrical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.27(25), 1719–1721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. K.

D. H. Bao, S. K. Lee, X. H. Zhu, M. Alexe, and D. Hesse, “Growth, structure, and properties of all-epitaxial ferroelectric (Bi,La)4Ti3O12/Pb(Zr0.4,Ti0.6)O3/(Bi,La)4Ti3O12 trilayered thin film on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 (011) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 0829061–0829063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

H. Guo, J. J. Li, F. Li, and H. Zhang, “Origin of white luminescence in Ag-Eu co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), 165–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, X. F. Wang, J. D. Chen, and F. Li, “Ultraviolet light induced white light emission in Ag and Eu3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” Opt. Express18(18), 18900–18905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J. J.

J. J. Li, R. F. Wei, X. Y. Liu, and H. Guo, “Enhanced luminescence via energy transfer from Ag+ to RE Ions (Dy3+, Sm3+, Tb3+) in glasses,” Opt. Express20(9), 10122–10127 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Li, J. D. Chen, R. F. Wei, and H. Guo, “Combined white luminescence from Eu3+, ML-Ag particles and Ag+ in Ag-Eu3+ co-doped H3BO3-BaF2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(4), 1208–1211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, J. J. Li, F. Li, and H. Zhang, “Origin of white luminescence in Ag-Eu co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), 165–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T.

K. B. Ruan, X. M. Chen, T. Liang, G. H. Wu, and D. H. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Eu)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated Glass Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. J.

Y. K. Lai, H. F. Zhang, K. P. Xie, D. G. Gong, Y. X. Tang, L. Sun, C. J. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of uniform Ag/TiO2 nanotube array structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance,” New J. Chem.34(7), 1335–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.

J. H. Ma, X. J. Meng, J. L. Sun, T. Lin, F. W. Shi, and J. H. Chu, “Ferroelectric and optical properties of Bi3.25Nd0.75Ti3O12 thin films prepared by a chemical solution method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.37(22), 3160–3164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, C.-W. Nan, J. F. Wang, G. Liu, J. B. Wu, and N. Cai, “Dielectric behavior of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-based composites incorporating silver particles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.87, 742–745 (2004).

Liu, B.

C. W. Cheng, E. J. Sie, B. Liu, C. H. A. Huan, T. C. Sum, H. D. Sun, and H. J. Fan, “Surface plasmon enhanced band edge luminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

Y. H. Lin, C.-W. Nan, J. F. Wang, G. Liu, J. B. Wu, and N. Cai, “Dielectric behavior of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-based composites incorporating silver particles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.87, 742–745 (2004).

Liu, N.

N. Liu, W. P. Qin, G. S. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. Y.

Ma, J. H.

J. H. Ma, X. J. Meng, J. L. Sun, T. Lin, F. W. Shi, and J. H. Chu, “Ferroelectric and optical properties of Bi3.25Nd0.75Ti3O12 thin films prepared by a chemical solution method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.37(22), 3160–3164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malicka, J.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides,” Anal. Biochem.315(1), 57–66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuda, H.

H. Uchida, I. Okada, H. Matsuda, T. Iijima, T. Watanabe, and H. Funakubo, “Charge-compensative ion substitution of La3+-substituted bismuth titanate thin films for enhancement of remanent polarization,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2636–2639 (2004).

Meng, X. J.

J. H. Ma, X. J. Meng, J. L. Sun, T. Lin, F. W. Shi, and J. H. Chu, “Ferroelectric and optical properties of Bi3.25Nd0.75Ti3O12 thin films prepared by a chemical solution method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.37(22), 3160–3164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molla, A. R.

A. R. Molla, A. Tarafder, S. Mukherjee, and B. Karmakar, “Transparent Eu3+-doped ferroelectric bismuth titanate glass-ceramic nanocomposites: fabrication and properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3056–3063 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

Mukherjee, S.

A. R. Molla, A. Tarafder, S. Mukherjee, and B. Karmakar, “Transparent Eu3+-doped ferroelectric bismuth titanate glass-ceramic nanocomposites: fabrication and properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3056–3063 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. B.

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myint, T.

T. Myint, R. Gunawidjaja, and H. Eilers, “Light-induced structural changes in Eu-doped (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nabika, H.

H. Nabika and S. Deki, “Surface-enhanced Luminescence from Eu3+ Complex nearby Ag Colloids,” Eur. Phys. J. D24(1-3), 369–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nan, C.-W.

Y. H. Lin, C.-W. Nan, J. F. Wang, G. Liu, J. B. Wu, and N. Cai, “Dielectric behavior of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-based composites incorporating silver particles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.87, 742–745 (2004).

Nogami, M.

T. Hayakawa, K. Furuhashi, and M. Nogami, “Enhancement of 5D0-7FJ emissions of Eu3+ ions in the vicinity of polymer-protected Au nanoparticles in sol−gel-derived B2O3−SiO2 glass,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(31), 11301–11307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hayakawa, S. T. Selvan, and M. Nogami, “Field enhancement effect of small Ag particles on the fluorescence from Eu3+-doped SiO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys.74, 1513–1515 (1999).

Oh, S. J.

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, I.

H. Uchida, I. Okada, H. Matsuda, T. Iijima, T. Watanabe, and H. Funakubo, “Charge-compensative ion substitution of La3+-substituted bismuth titanate thin films for enhancement of remanent polarization,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2636–2639 (2004).

Polman, A.

C. Strohhofer and A. Polman, “Silver as a sensitizer for erbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(8), 1414–1416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pradeep, T.

E. Sumesh, M. S. Bootharaju, Anshup, and T. Pradeep, “A practical silver nanoparticle-based adsorbent for the removal of Hg2+ from water,” J. Hazard. Mater.189(1-2), 450–457 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, G. S.

N. Liu, W. P. Qin, G. S. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, N.

H. Zhou, G. H. Wu, F. Gao, N. Qin, and D. H. Bao, “Dual enhancement of photoluminescence and ferroelectric polarization in Pr3+/La3+-codoped bismuth titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(8), 2109–2112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W. P.

N. Liu, W. P. Qin, G. S. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rademann, K.

M. Eichelbaum and K. Rademann, “Plasmonic enhancement or energy transfer? on the luminescence of gold-, silver-, and lanthanide-doped silicate glasses and its potential for light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(13), 2045–2052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rahim, F. A.

P. Kannan, F. A. Rahim, X. Teng, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, L. Huang, and D. H. Kim, “Enhanced emission of NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm nanoparticles by selective growth of Au and Ag nanoshells,” RSC Adv.3(21), 7718–7721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, V. D.

Ruan, K. B.

K. B. Ruan, X. M. Chen, T. Liang, G. H. Wu, and D. H. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Eu)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated Glass Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saboktakin, M.

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selvan, S. T.

T. Hayakawa, S. T. Selvan, and M. Nogami, “Field enhancement effect of small Ag particles on the fluorescence from Eu3+-doped SiO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys.74, 1513–1515 (1999).

Shi, F. W.

J. H. Ma, X. J. Meng, J. L. Sun, T. Lin, F. W. Shi, and J. H. Chu, “Ferroelectric and optical properties of Bi3.25Nd0.75Ti3O12 thin films prepared by a chemical solution method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.37(22), 3160–3164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sie, E. J.

C. W. Cheng, E. J. Sie, B. Liu, C. H. A. Huan, T. C. Sum, H. D. Sun, and H. J. Fan, “Surface plasmon enhanced band edge luminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silva, D. M.

A. P. Carmo, M. J. V. Bell, V. Anjos, R. Almeida, D. M. Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Thermo-optical properties of tellurite glasses doped with Eu3+ and Au nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(15), 155404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Strohhofer, C.

C. Strohhofer and A. Polman, “Silver as a sensitizer for erbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(8), 1414–1416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sum, T. C.

C. W. Cheng, E. J. Sie, B. Liu, C. H. A. Huan, T. C. Sum, H. D. Sun, and H. J. Fan, “Surface plasmon enhanced band edge luminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sumesh, E.

E. Sumesh, M. S. Bootharaju, Anshup, and T. Pradeep, “A practical silver nanoparticle-based adsorbent for the removal of Hg2+ from water,” J. Hazard. Mater.189(1-2), 450–457 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H. D.

P. Kannan, F. A. Rahim, X. Teng, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, L. Huang, and D. H. Kim, “Enhanced emission of NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm nanoparticles by selective growth of Au and Ag nanoshells,” RSC Adv.3(21), 7718–7721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Cheng, E. J. Sie, B. Liu, C. H. A. Huan, T. C. Sum, H. D. Sun, and H. J. Fan, “Surface plasmon enhanced band edge luminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. L.

J. H. Ma, X. J. Meng, J. L. Sun, T. Lin, F. W. Shi, and J. H. Chu, “Ferroelectric and optical properties of Bi3.25Nd0.75Ti3O12 thin films prepared by a chemical solution method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.37(22), 3160–3164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

Y. K. Lai, H. F. Zhang, K. P. Xie, D. G. Gong, Y. X. Tang, L. Sun, C. J. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of uniform Ag/TiO2 nanotube array structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance,” New J. Chem.34(7), 1335–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. X.

Y. K. Lai, H. F. Zhang, K. P. Xie, D. G. Gong, Y. X. Tang, L. Sun, C. J. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of uniform Ag/TiO2 nanotube array structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance,” New J. Chem.34(7), 1335–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tarafder, A.

A. R. Molla, A. Tarafder, S. Mukherjee, and B. Karmakar, “Transparent Eu3+-doped ferroelectric bismuth titanate glass-ceramic nanocomposites: fabrication and properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(10), 3056–3063 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Teng, X.

P. Kannan, F. A. Rahim, X. Teng, R. Chen, H. D. Sun, L. Huang, and D. H. Kim, “Enhanced emission of NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm nanoparticles by selective growth of Au and Ag nanoshells,” RSC Adv.3(21), 7718–7721 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thouless, D. J.

B. J. Last and D. J. Thouless, “Percolation theory and electrical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.27(25), 1719–1721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, V. K.

Uchida, H.

H. Uchida, I. Okada, H. Matsuda, T. Iijima, T. Watanabe, and H. Funakubo, “Charge-compensative ion substitution of La3+-substituted bismuth titanate thin films for enhancement of remanent polarization,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2636–2639 (2004).

Van Tendeloo, G.

Wang, J. F.

Y. H. Lin, C.-W. Nan, J. F. Wang, G. Liu, J. B. Wu, and N. Cai, “Dielectric behavior of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-based composites incorporating silver particles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.87, 742–745 (2004).

Wang, X. F.

Watanabe, T.

H. Uchida, I. Okada, H. Matsuda, T. Iijima, T. Watanabe, and H. Funakubo, “Charge-compensative ion substitution of La3+-substituted bismuth titanate thin films for enhancement of remanent polarization,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2636–2639 (2004).

Wei, R. F.

J. J. Li, J. D. Chen, R. F. Wei, and H. Guo, “Combined white luminescence from Eu3+, ML-Ag particles and Ag+ in Ag-Eu3+ co-doped H3BO3-BaF2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.95(4), 1208–1211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Li, R. F. Wei, X. Y. Liu, and H. Guo, “Enhanced luminescence via energy transfer from Ag+ to RE Ions (Dy3+, Sm3+, Tb3+) in glasses,” Opt. Express20(9), 10122–10127 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, G. H.

H. Zhou, G. H. Wu, F. Gao, N. Qin, and D. H. Bao, “Dual enhancement of photoluminescence and ferroelectric polarization in Pr3+/La3+-codoped bismuth titanate thin films,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(8), 2109–2112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Ruan, X. M. Chen, T. Liang, G. H. Wu, and D. H. Bao, “Photoluminescence and electrical properties of highly transparent (Bi,Eu)4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on indium-tin-oxide-coated Glass Substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.103(7), 074101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. B.

Y. H. Lin, C.-W. Nan, J. F. Wang, G. Liu, J. B. Wu, and N. Cai, “Dielectric behavior of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-based composites incorporating silver particles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.87, 742–745 (2004).

Xie, K. P.

Y. K. Lai, H. F. Zhang, K. P. Xie, D. G. Gong, Y. X. Tang, L. Sun, C. J. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of uniform Ag/TiO2 nanotube array structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance,” New J. Chem.34(7), 1335–1340 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, X. C.

M. Saboktakin, X. C. Ye, S. J. Oh, S. H. Hong, A. T. Fafarman, U. K. Chettiar, N. Engheta, C. B. Murray, and C. R. Kagan, “Metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence tunable through metal nanoparticle-nanophosphor separation,” ACS Nano6(10), 8758–8766 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD patterns of the pure and the Ag-doped Bi3.6Eu0.4Ti3O12 thin films with different molar ratio Ag:BET = 0:1, 0.1:1, 0.2:1, 0.3:1 and 0.4:1, which are denoted by BET0, BET1, BET2, BET3 and BET4, respectively. (b) XPS spectrum of the Ag 3d narrow-scan for BET4 with the highest Ag concentration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) TEM image of BET4 thin films peeled from the fused silica substrate. (b) and (d) are the amplified TEM images of the selected areas A and B in (a), of which the selected area electron diffraction patterns are presented as (c) poly-crystalline Ag and (e) semi-crystalline Ag2O nanoclusters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The optical transmission spectra of the pure and the Ag doped Bi3.6Eu0.4Ti3O12 thin films. Inset: Plot of (αE)2 versus (E) for the pure BET thin film near the optical band gap edge; linear extrapolation is performed to determine the optical band gap. (b) The UV–visible absorption spectra of pure Ag NCs and Ag doped BET thin films on fused silica substrate . Inset: TEM image of the Ag NCs thin film peeled from the substrate. (c) Excitation spectra of the Ag-BET samples monitored at 617 nm. (d) Emission spectra under the excitation wavelength of 360 nm. Inset: plot of PL intensities versus Ag:BET molar ratio.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminescence decay transients measured for the pure and the Ag-doped Bi3.6Eu0.4Ti3O12 thin films. Inset: a list of the estimated lift times.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematics of energy levels and the carrier transfer process in (a) the bare grains and (b) the Ag NCs-coated grains of Bi3.6Eu0.4Ti3O12.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dielectric spectra and (b) P-E hysteresis loops of the pure and the Ag doped Bi3.6Eu0.4Ti3O12 thin films.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of interplanar spacings determined by SAED from the selected area in Fig. 2(b) of the Ag-doped Bi3.6Eu0.4Ti3O12 thin films with the reference values obtained by XRD analysis on Ag polycrystals.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of interplanar spacings determined by SAED from the selected area in Fig. 2 (d) of the Ag-doped Bi3.6Eu0.4Ti3O12 thin films with the reference values obtained by XRD analysis on Ag2O polycrystals.

Equations (1)

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d= 1 (R/x)×5

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