Abstract

We report a two-colored plasmonic antenna which can control the directivity of the excitation and emission light independently and simultaneously. By carefully tuning the phase difference of the constituting elements of the antenna, unidirectional fluorescence emission and laser light scattering can be obtained. In particular, the direction of the maximum emission and minimum scattering can be tailored in the same direction resulting improvement of signal to noise ratio in single molecule experiment. A two-dipole model is applied to describe the phenomena. The radiation and scattering pattern can be further tuned by varying the antenna structure.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. V. Giannini and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Excitation and emission enhancement of single molecule fluorescence through multiple surface-plasmon resonances on metal trimer nanoantennas,” Opt. Lett.33, 899–901 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  28. S. Weiss, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of single biomolecules,” Science283, 1676–1683 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. G. Rodrigo, H. Harutyunyan, and L. Novotny, “Coherent control of light scattering from nanostructured materials by second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 177405 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

D. Wang, W. Zhu, M. D. Best, J. P. Camden, and K. B. Crozier, “Directional raman scattering from single molecules in the feed gaps of optical antennas,” Nano Lett.13, 2194–2198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, H. pov, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cia, K. Hegnerov, J. Homola, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Ultra-sensitive broadband probing of molecular vibrational modes with multifrequency optical antennas,” ACS Nano7, 669–675 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Vercruysse, Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, F. B. Fuchs, G. Di Martino, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, S. A. Maier, and P. Van Dorpe, “Unidirectional side scattering of light by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett.13, 3843–3849 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Person, M. Jain, Z. Lapin, J. J. Senz, G. Wicks, and L. Novotny, “Demonstration of zero optical backscattering from single nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.13, 1806–1809 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Lukyanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun.4, 1527 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Rodrigo, H. Harutyunyan, and L. Novotny, “Coherent control of light scattering from nanostructured materials by second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 177405 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

J. Geffrin, B. García-Camara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, J. S. Nieto-Vesperinas, Saenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward-and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere,” Nat. Commun.3, 1171 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Broadband unidirectional scattering by magneto-electric core–shell nanoparticles,” ACS Nano6, 5489–5497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Thyagarajan, S. Rivier, A. Lovera, and O. J. Martin, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation from double resonant plasmonic antennae,” Opt. Express20, 12860–12865 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Harutyunyan, G. Volpe, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Enhancing the nonlinear optical response using multi-frequency gold-nanowire antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 217403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Aouani, M. Navarro-Cia, M. Rahmani, T. P. Sidiropoulos, M. Hong, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Mul-tiresonant broadband optical antennas as efficient tunable nanosources of second harmonic light,” Nano Lett.12, 4997–5002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

B. Rolly, B. Stout, S. Bidault, and N. Bonod, “Crucial role of the emitter–particle distance on the directivity of optical antennas,” Opt. Lett.36, 3368–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. D. Miljković, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Commun.2, 481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

N. Bonod, A. Devilez, B. Rolly, S. Bidault, and B. Stout, “Ultracompact and unidirectional metallic antennas,” Phys. Rev. B82, 115429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics4, 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Pakizeh and M. Kall, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.9, 2343–2349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

V. Giannini and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Excitation and emission enhancement of single molecule fluorescence through multiple surface-plasmon resonances on metal trimer nanoantennas,” Opt. Lett.33, 899–901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taminiau, F. Stefani, F. Segerink, and N. Van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Joo, H. Balci, Y. Ishitsuka, C. Buranachai, and T. Ha, “Advances in single-molecule fluorescence methods for molecular biology,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77, 51–76 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. m. c. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74, 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Weiss, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of single biomolecules,” Science283, 1676–1683 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Science275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

Albella, P.

J. Geffrin, B. García-Camara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, J. S. Nieto-Vesperinas, Saenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward-and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere,” Nat. Commun.3, 1171 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, H. pov, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cia, K. Hegnerov, J. Homola, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Ultra-sensitive broadband probing of molecular vibrational modes with multifrequency optical antennas,” ACS Nano7, 669–675 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Aouani, M. Navarro-Cia, M. Rahmani, T. P. Sidiropoulos, M. Hong, R. F. Oulton, and S. A. Maier, “Mul-tiresonant broadband optical antennas as efficient tunable nanosources of second harmonic light,” Nano Lett.12, 4997–5002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balci, H.

C. Joo, H. Balci, Y. Ishitsuka, C. Buranachai, and T. Ha, “Advances in single-molecule fluorescence methods for molecular biology,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77, 51–76 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best, M. D.

D. Wang, W. Zhu, M. D. Best, J. P. Camden, and K. B. Crozier, “Directional raman scattering from single molecules in the feed gaps of optical antennas,” Nano Lett.13, 2194–2198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bidault, S.

B. Rolly, B. Stout, S. Bidault, and N. Bonod, “Crucial role of the emitter–particle distance on the directivity of optical antennas,” Opt. Lett.36, 3368–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bonod, A. Devilez, B. Rolly, S. Bidault, and B. Stout, “Ultracompact and unidirectional metallic antennas,” Phys. Rev. B82, 115429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

B. Rolly, B. Stout, S. Bidault, and N. Bonod, “Crucial role of the emitter–particle distance on the directivity of optical antennas,” Opt. Lett.36, 3368–3370 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bonod, A. Devilez, B. Rolly, S. Bidault, and B. Stout, “Ultracompact and unidirectional metallic antennas,” Phys. Rev. B82, 115429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. m. c. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buranachai, C.

C. Joo, H. Balci, Y. Ishitsuka, C. Buranachai, and T. Ha, “Advances in single-molecule fluorescence methods for molecular biology,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77, 51–76 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camden, J. P.

D. Wang, W. Zhu, M. D. Best, J. P. Camden, and K. B. Crozier, “Directional raman scattering from single molecules in the feed gaps of optical antennas,” Nano Lett.13, 2194–2198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capoulade, J.

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. m. c. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

T. Shegai, S. Chen, V. D. Miljković, G. Zengin, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “A bimetallic nanoantenna for directional colour routing,” Nat. Commun.2, 481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

D. Wang, W. Zhu, M. D. Best, J. P. Camden, and K. B. Crozier, “Directional raman scattering from single molecules in the feed gaps of optical antennas,” Nano Lett.13, 2194–2198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devilez, A.

N. Bonod, A. Devilez, B. Rolly, S. Bidault, and B. Stout, “Ultracompact and unidirectional metallic antennas,” Phys. Rev. B82, 115429 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Di Martino, G.

D. Vercruysse, Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, F. B. Fuchs, G. Di Martino, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, S. A. Maier, and P. Van Dorpe, “Unidirectional side scattering of light by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett.13, 3843–3849 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. m. c. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. m. c. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Science275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyraud, C.

J. Geffrin, B. García-Camara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, J. S. Nieto-Vesperinas, Saenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward-and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere,” Nat. Commun.3, 1171 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Farahani, J. N.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

W. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74, 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Froufe-Pérez, L.

J. Geffrin, B. García-Camara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, J. S. Nieto-Vesperinas, Saenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward-and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere,” Nat. Commun.3, 1171 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. H.

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Lukyanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun.4, 1527 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, F. B.

D. Vercruysse, Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, F. B. Fuchs, G. Di Martino, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, S. A. Maier, and P. Van Dorpe, “Unidirectional side scattering of light by a single-element nanoantenna,” Nano Lett.13, 3843–3849 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Camara, B.

J. Geffrin, B. García-Camara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, J. S. Nieto-Vesperinas, Saenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward-and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere,” Nat. Commun.3, 1171 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Geffrin, J.

J. Geffrin, B. García-Camara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, J. S. Nieto-Vesperinas, Saenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward-and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere,” Nat. Commun.3, 1171 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giannini, V.

Giles, C.

Gómez-Medina, R.

J. Geffrin, B. García-Camara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, J. S. Nieto-Vesperinas, Saenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward-and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere,” Nat. Commun.3, 1171 (2012).
[CrossRef]

González, F.

J. Geffrin, B. García-Camara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, J. S. Nieto-Vesperinas, Saenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward-and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere,” Nat. Commun.3, 1171 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ha, T.

C. Joo, H. Balci, Y. Ishitsuka, C. Buranachai, and T. Ha, “Advances in single-molecule fluorescence methods for molecular biology,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77, 51–76 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Håkanson, U.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harutyunyan, H.

S. G. Rodrigo, H. Harutyunyan, and L. Novotny, “Coherent control of light scattering from nanostructured materials by second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 177405 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Harutyunyan, G. Volpe, R. Quidant, and L. Novotny, “Enhancing the nonlinear optical response using multi-frequency gold-nanowire antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 217403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegnerov, K.

H. Aouani, H. pov, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cia, K. Hegnerov, J. Homola, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Ultra-sensitive broadband probing of molecular vibrational modes with multifrequency optical antennas,” ACS Nano7, 669–675 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, H. F.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics4, 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

H. Aouani, H. pov, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cia, K. Hegnerov, J. Homola, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Ultra-sensitive broadband probing of molecular vibrational modes with multifrequency optical antennas,” ACS Nano7, 669–675 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The geometry of the proposed antenna structure with g1 = 62nm g2 = 46nm a = 40nm L = 100nm d = 10nm. (b) Resonance of the antenna obtained by measuring the magnetic field Hy at point p1 and p2 in the middle of the dimer shown in Fig. 1(a). Insets show the magnetic field distribution at resonance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far-field pattern plot at excitation and emission wavelength of (a–d) TCPA and (e–h) a SNA with cross section axa = 40nmx40nm and length L1 = 170nm. For the excitation, the normalized electric far field pattern is plotted. For the emission, the emission enhancement factor S is plotted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)Phase difference of nanorods 1 and 2 under plane wave excitation and (b) phase difference of nanorods 1 and 3 under dipole excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Excitation and emission of the antenna array Px = Py = 398nm. (a), (b) show the normalized farfield power pattern. (c), (d) show the field enhancement factor S.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Tunability of the excitation and emission pattern when two metallic dimers are aligned perpendicular to each other. (a), (b) are the normalized scattered far field power pattern when the plane wave is propagating in +y direction. (c), (d) are the field enhancement factor S which lies mainly in −x direction. g1 = 59nm g2 = 46nm.

Equations (4)

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S ( θ , ϕ ) = P ( θ , ϕ , λ e m ) Max ( P 0 ( θ , ϕ , λ e m ) ) × | E z , λ e x | 2 | E 0 , λ e x | 2
E tot = d = i j E d = d = i j ( ω c ) 2 1 4 π ε 0 e i k ( r x d ) ( e r × p d ) × e r
Δ P = P + x + P x = ω 3 k | p i | | p j | 8 π 2 ε 0 c 2 r 2 sin ( ϕ i j ) sin ( k d ) x
P S N R = 20 log P S M A X P N 0

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