Abstract

We propose and evaluate through extensive numerical modelling a novel distributed hybrid amplification scheme combining first and second-order Raman pumping which gives reduced signal power excursion over a wide spatial-spectral range of 60 km × 80 nm in C + L-bands.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, “On trade-off between noise and nonlinearity in WDM systems with Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC,2002), pp. 178–180.
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous Spatial and Spectral Transparency in Ultralong Fiber Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(12), 123903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. D. Ania-Castañón, A. A. Pustovskikh, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simple design method for gain-flattened three-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.39(3), 213–220 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castanon, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE PTL18(1), 268–270 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Nelder and R. A. Mead, “Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” Comput. J.7(4), 308–313 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead Simplex Method in Low Dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9(1), 112–147 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Okuno, T. Tsuzaki, and M. Nishimura, “Novel optical hybrid line configuration for quasi-lossless transmission by distributed Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 806–808 (2001).
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  13. V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, “Optimal design of flat-gain wide-band fiber Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(2), 250–254 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, “On distributed Raman amplification for ultrabroad-band long-haul WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(3), 409–416 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. K. Turitsyn, A. Pustovskikh, S. Kobtsev, and M. P. Fedoruk, “Dual-Pump Raman amplification with increased flatness using modulation instability,” Opt. Express13(4), 1079–1084 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. D. Ania-Castañón, I. O. Nasieva, S. K. Turitsyn, N. Brochier, and E. Pincemin, “Optimal Span Length in High-Speed Transmission systems with Hybrid Raman-Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplification,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 23–25 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Jiang, B. Bristiel, Y. Jaouën, P. Gallion, E. Pincemin, and S. Capouilliet, “Full characterization of modern transmission fibers for Raman amplified-based communication systems,” Opt. Express15(8), 4883–4892 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous Spatial and Spectral Transparency in Ultralong Fiber Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(12), 123903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. D. Ania-Castañón, A. A. Pustovskikh, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simple design method for gain-flattened three-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.39(3), 213–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, B. Bristiel, Y. Jaouën, P. Gallion, E. Pincemin, and S. Capouilliet, “Full characterization of modern transmission fibers for Raman amplified-based communication systems,” Opt. Express15(8), 4883–4892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castanon, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE PTL18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2002

2001

T. Okuno, T. Tsuzaki, and M. Nishimura, “Novel optical hybrid line configuration for quasi-lossless transmission by distributed Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 806–808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead Simplex Method in Low Dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9(1), 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1965

J. A. Nelder and R. A. Mead, “Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” Comput. J.7(4), 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ania-Castanon, J. D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castanon, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE PTL18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ania-Castañón, J.

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous Spatial and Spectral Transparency in Ultralong Fiber Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(12), 123903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, A. A. Pustovskikh, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simple design method for gain-flattened three-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.39(3), 213–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. K. Turitsyn, A. Pustovskikh, S. Kobtsev, and M. P. Fedoruk, “Dual-Pump Raman amplification with increased flatness using modulation instability,” Opt. Express13(4), 1079–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, I. O. Nasieva, S. K. Turitsyn, N. Brochier, and E. Pincemin, “Optimal Span Length in High-Speed Transmission systems with Hybrid Raman-Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplification,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 23–25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babin, S. A.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bristiel, B.

Brochier, N.

Capouilliet, S.

Chen, X.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castanon, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE PTL18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churkin, D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellingham, T. J.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castanon, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE PTL18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. K. Turitsyn, A. Pustovskikh, S. Kobtsev, and M. P. Fedoruk, “Dual-Pump Raman amplification with increased flatness using modulation instability,” Opt. Express13(4), 1079–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Taher, A. E.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedoruk, M. P.

Gallion, P.

Harper, P.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous Spatial and Spectral Transparency in Ultralong Fiber Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(12), 123903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibbotson, R.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castanon, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE PTL18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaouën, Y.

Jiang, S.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karalekas, V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous Spatial and Spectral Transparency in Ultralong Fiber Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(12), 123903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobtsev, S.

Kobtsev, S. M.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, A. A. Pustovskikh, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simple design method for gain-flattened three-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.39(3), 213–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lagarias, J. C.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead Simplex Method in Low Dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9(1), 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mead, R. A.

J. A. Nelder and R. A. Mead, “Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” Comput. J.7(4), 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nasieva, I. O.

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder and R. A. Mead, “Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” Comput. J.7(4), 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

T. Okuno, T. Tsuzaki, and M. Nishimura, “Novel optical hybrid line configuration for quasi-lossless transmission by distributed Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 806–808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

T. Okuno, T. Tsuzaki, and M. Nishimura, “Novel optical hybrid line configuration for quasi-lossless transmission by distributed Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 806–808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, V. E.

Pincemin, E.

Podivilov, E. V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pustovskikh, A.

Pustovskikh, A. A.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, A. A. Pustovskikh, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simple design method for gain-flattened three-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.39(3), 213–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reeds, J. A.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead Simplex Method in Low Dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9(1), 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuzaki, T.

T. Okuno, T. Tsuzaki, and M. Nishimura, “Novel optical hybrid line configuration for quasi-lossless transmission by distributed Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 806–808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous Spatial and Spectral Transparency in Ultralong Fiber Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(12), 123903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, A. A. Pustovskikh, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simple design method for gain-flattened three-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.39(3), 213–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castanon, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE PTL18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. K. Turitsyn, A. Pustovskikh, S. Kobtsev, and M. P. Fedoruk, “Dual-Pump Raman amplification with increased flatness using modulation instability,” Opt. Express13(4), 1079–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, I. O. Nasieva, S. K. Turitsyn, N. Brochier, and E. Pincemin, “Optimal Span Length in High-Speed Transmission systems with Hybrid Raman-Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplification,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 23–25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winful, H. G.

Wright, M. H.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead Simplex Method in Low Dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9(1), 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wright, P. E.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead Simplex Method in Low Dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9(1), 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castanon, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE PTL18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Comput. J.

J. A. Nelder and R. A. Mead, “Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” Comput. J.7(4), 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Okuno, T. Tsuzaki, and M. Nishimura, “Novel optical hybrid line configuration for quasi-lossless transmission by distributed Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 806–808 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE PTL

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castanon, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE PTL18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, A. A. Pustovskikh, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simple design method for gain-flattened three-pump Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.39(3), 213–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous Spatial and Spectral Transparency in Ultralong Fiber Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(12), 123903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km Ultralong Raman Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SIAM J. Optim.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead Simplex Method in Low Dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim.9(1), 112–147 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, and C. Headley, “Quasi-constant signal power transmission,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2002), pp. 1–2.

V. Karpov, S. B. Papernyi, V. Ivanov, W. Clements, T. Araki, and Y. Koyano, “Cascaded pump delivery for remotely pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” in Proceedings of Suboptic Conference, 2004, paper We 8.8.

S. B. Papernyi, V. I. Karpov, and W. R. L. Clements, “Third-Order Cascaded Raman Amplification,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference, vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper FB4.
[CrossRef]

V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, “On trade-off between noise and nonlinearity in WDM systems with Raman amplification,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC,2002), pp. 178–180.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed transmission fiber span set-up.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Contour plot of δG in the plane of optimization parameters (k1, k3) for a fixed k2 = 0.64; (b) Contour plot of δG in the plane of optimization parameters (k1, k2) for a fixed k3 = 0.7.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical signal power excursion in the spectral-spatial plane for 60 km link. The wavelength range is 76 nm (1st-order backward pumping (a), optimized 1st-order bi-directional pumping (b) and hybrid bi-directional pumping (c))

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Amplification Schemes and Associated Pparameters

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