Abstract

Optoelectronic imaging of integrated-circuits has revolutionized device design debug, failure analysis and electrical fault isolation; however modern probing techniques like laser-assisted device alteration (LADA) have failed to keep pace with the semiconductor industry’s aggressive device scaling, meaning that previously satisfactory techniques no longer exhibit a sufficient ability to localize electrical faults, instead casting suspicion upon dozens of potential root-cause transistors. Here, we introduce a new high-resolution probing technique, two-photon laser-assisted device alteration (2pLADA), which exploits two-photon absorption (TPA) to provide precise three-dimensional localization of the photo-carriers injected by the TPA process, enabling us to implicate individual transistors separated by 100 nm. Furthermore, we illustrate the technique's capability to reveal speed-limiting transistor switching evolution with an unprecedented timing resolution approaching <10 ps. Together, the exceptional spatial and temporal resolutions demonstrated here now make it possible to extend optical fault localization to sub-14 nm technology nodes.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

K. A. Serrels, C. Farrell, T. R. Lundquist, D. T. Reid, and P. Vedagarbha, “Solid-immersion-lens-enhanced nonlinear frequency-variation mapping of a silicon integrated-circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 193103 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, and D. T. Reid, “70nm resolution in subsurface optical imaging of silicon integrated-circuits using pupil-function engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 073113 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. Douin, V. Pouget, M. De Matos, D. Lewis, P. Perdu, and P. Fouillat, “Time-resolved imaging using synchronous picosecond photoelectric laser stimulation,” Microelectron. Reliab. 46(9-11), 1514–1519 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Douin, V. Pouget, F. Darracq, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and P. Perdu, “Influence of laser pulse duration in single event upset testing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(4), 1799 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Buchner and J. Howard, JrC. Poivey, D. McMorrow, and R. Pease, “Pulsed-laser testing methodology for single event transients in linear devices,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(6), 3716 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Buchner and J. Howard, JrC. Poivey, D. McMorrow, and R. Pease, “Pulsed-laser testing methodology for single event transients in linear devices,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(6), 3716 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, Y. Boulghassoul, L. W. Massengill, and R. Pease, “Three dimensional mapping of single-event effects using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(6), 2199–2207 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. Lewis, V. Pouget, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, H. Lapuyade, P. Fouillat, and A. Touboul, “Backside laser testing of IC’s for SET sensitivity evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(6), 2193–2201 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. C. Moss, S. D. LaLumondiere, J. R. Scarpulla, K. P. MacWilliams, W. R. Crain, and R. Koga, “Correlation of picosecond laser-induced latch-up and energetic particle-induced latch-up in CMOS test structures,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42(6), 1948–1956 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, W. J. Stapor, T. R. Weatherford, A. B. Campbell, and H. Eisen, “Critical Evaluation of the Pulsed Laser Method for Single Event Effects Testing and Fundamental Studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41(6), 2574–2584 (1994).
[Crossref]

Anghel, L.

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

Beaudoin, F.

D. Lewis, V. Pouget, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, H. Lapuyade, P. Fouillat, and A. Touboul, “Backside laser testing of IC’s for SET sensitivity evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(6), 2193–2201 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boulghassoul, Y.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, Y. Boulghassoul, L. W. Massengill, and R. Pease, “Three dimensional mapping of single-event effects using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(6), 2199–2207 (2003).
[Crossref]

Buchner, S.

S. Buchner and J. Howard, JrC. Poivey, D. McMorrow, and R. Pease, “Pulsed-laser testing methodology for single event transients in linear devices,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(6), 3716 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, Y. Boulghassoul, L. W. Massengill, and R. Pease, “Three dimensional mapping of single-event effects using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(6), 2199–2207 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, W. J. Stapor, T. R. Weatherford, A. B. Campbell, and H. Eisen, “Critical Evaluation of the Pulsed Laser Method for Single Event Effects Testing and Fundamental Studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41(6), 2574–2584 (1994).
[Crossref]

Campbell, A. B.

J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, W. J. Stapor, T. R. Weatherford, A. B. Campbell, and H. Eisen, “Critical Evaluation of the Pulsed Laser Method for Single Event Effects Testing and Fundamental Studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41(6), 2574–2584 (1994).
[Crossref]

Crain, W. R.

S. C. Moss, S. D. LaLumondiere, J. R. Scarpulla, K. P. MacWilliams, W. R. Crain, and R. Koga, “Correlation of picosecond laser-induced latch-up and energetic particle-induced latch-up in CMOS test structures,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42(6), 1948–1956 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dalgarno, P. A.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

Darracq, F.

A. Douin, V. Pouget, F. Darracq, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and P. Perdu, “Influence of laser pulse duration in single event upset testing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(4), 1799 (2006).
[Crossref]

De Matos, M.

A. Douin, V. Pouget, M. De Matos, D. Lewis, P. Perdu, and P. Fouillat, “Time-resolved imaging using synchronous picosecond photoelectric laser stimulation,” Microelectron. Reliab. 46(9-11), 1514–1519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Douin, A.

A. Douin, V. Pouget, M. De Matos, D. Lewis, P. Perdu, and P. Fouillat, “Time-resolved imaging using synchronous picosecond photoelectric laser stimulation,” Microelectron. Reliab. 46(9-11), 1514–1519 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Douin, V. Pouget, F. Darracq, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and P. Perdu, “Influence of laser pulse duration in single event upset testing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(4), 1799 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

V. Pouget, A. Douin, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and R. Velazco, “Dynamic testing of an SRAM-based FPGA by time-resolved laser fault injection” 14th IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium, 295–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eisen, H.

J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, W. J. Stapor, T. R. Weatherford, A. B. Campbell, and H. Eisen, “Critical Evaluation of the Pulsed Laser Method for Single Event Effects Testing and Fundamental Studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41(6), 2574–2584 (1994).
[Crossref]

Farrell, C.

C. Farrell, K. A. Serrels, T. R. Lundquist, P. Vedagarbha, and D. T. Reid, “Octave-spanning super-continuum from a silica photonic crystal fiber pumped by a 386 MHz Yb:fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1778–1780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Serrels, C. Farrell, T. R. Lundquist, D. T. Reid, and P. Vedagarbha, “Solid-immersion-lens-enhanced nonlinear frequency-variation mapping of a silicon integrated-circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 193103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferron, J. B.

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

Foucard, G.

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

V. Pouget, A. Douin, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and R. Velazco, “Dynamic testing of an SRAM-based FPGA by time-resolved laser fault injection” 14th IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium, 295–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fouillat, P.

A. Douin, V. Pouget, F. Darracq, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and P. Perdu, “Influence of laser pulse duration in single event upset testing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(4), 1799 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Douin, V. Pouget, M. De Matos, D. Lewis, P. Perdu, and P. Fouillat, “Time-resolved imaging using synchronous picosecond photoelectric laser stimulation,” Microelectron. Reliab. 46(9-11), 1514–1519 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lewis, V. Pouget, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, H. Lapuyade, P. Fouillat, and A. Touboul, “Backside laser testing of IC’s for SET sensitivity evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(6), 2193–2201 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

V. Pouget, A. Douin, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and R. Velazco, “Dynamic testing of an SRAM-based FPGA by time-resolved laser fault injection” 14th IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium, 295–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gerardot, B. D.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

Hadfield, R. H.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

Howard, J.

S. Buchner and J. Howard, JrC. Poivey, D. McMorrow, and R. Pease, “Pulsed-laser testing methodology for single event transients in linear devices,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(6), 3716 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koga, R.

S. C. Moss, S. D. LaLumondiere, J. R. Scarpulla, K. P. MacWilliams, W. R. Crain, and R. Koga, “Correlation of picosecond laser-induced latch-up and energetic particle-induced latch-up in CMOS test structures,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42(6), 1948–1956 (1995).
[Crossref]

LaLumondiere, S. D.

S. C. Moss, S. D. LaLumondiere, J. R. Scarpulla, K. P. MacWilliams, W. R. Crain, and R. Koga, “Correlation of picosecond laser-induced latch-up and energetic particle-induced latch-up in CMOS test structures,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42(6), 1948–1956 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lapuyade, H.

D. Lewis, V. Pouget, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, H. Lapuyade, P. Fouillat, and A. Touboul, “Backside laser testing of IC’s for SET sensitivity evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(6), 2193–2201 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leveugle, R.

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

Lewis, D.

A. Douin, V. Pouget, F. Darracq, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and P. Perdu, “Influence of laser pulse duration in single event upset testing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(4), 1799 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Douin, V. Pouget, M. De Matos, D. Lewis, P. Perdu, and P. Fouillat, “Time-resolved imaging using synchronous picosecond photoelectric laser stimulation,” Microelectron. Reliab. 46(9-11), 1514–1519 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lewis, V. Pouget, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, H. Lapuyade, P. Fouillat, and A. Touboul, “Backside laser testing of IC’s for SET sensitivity evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(6), 2193–2201 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

V. Pouget, A. Douin, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and R. Velazco, “Dynamic testing of an SRAM-based FPGA by time-resolved laser fault injection” 14th IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium, 295–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lotshaw, W. T.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, Y. Boulghassoul, L. W. Massengill, and R. Pease, “Three dimensional mapping of single-event effects using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(6), 2199–2207 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lundquist, T. R.

C. Farrell, K. A. Serrels, T. R. Lundquist, P. Vedagarbha, and D. T. Reid, “Octave-spanning super-continuum from a silica photonic crystal fiber pumped by a 386 MHz Yb:fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1778–1780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Serrels, C. Farrell, T. R. Lundquist, D. T. Reid, and P. Vedagarbha, “Solid-immersion-lens-enhanced nonlinear frequency-variation mapping of a silicon integrated-circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 193103 (2011).
[Crossref]

MacWilliams, K. P.

S. C. Moss, S. D. LaLumondiere, J. R. Scarpulla, K. P. MacWilliams, W. R. Crain, and R. Koga, “Correlation of picosecond laser-induced latch-up and energetic particle-induced latch-up in CMOS test structures,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42(6), 1948–1956 (1995).
[Crossref]

Maingot, V.

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

Massengill, L. W.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, Y. Boulghassoul, L. W. Massengill, and R. Pease, “Three dimensional mapping of single-event effects using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(6), 2199–2207 (2003).
[Crossref]

McMorrow, D.

S. Buchner and J. Howard, JrC. Poivey, D. McMorrow, and R. Pease, “Pulsed-laser testing methodology for single event transients in linear devices,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(6), 3716 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, Y. Boulghassoul, L. W. Massengill, and R. Pease, “Three dimensional mapping of single-event effects using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(6), 2199–2207 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, W. J. Stapor, T. R. Weatherford, A. B. Campbell, and H. Eisen, “Critical Evaluation of the Pulsed Laser Method for Single Event Effects Testing and Fundamental Studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41(6), 2574–2584 (1994).
[Crossref]

Melinger, J. S.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, Y. Boulghassoul, L. W. Massengill, and R. Pease, “Three dimensional mapping of single-event effects using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(6), 2199–2207 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, W. J. Stapor, T. R. Weatherford, A. B. Campbell, and H. Eisen, “Critical Evaluation of the Pulsed Laser Method for Single Event Effects Testing and Fundamental Studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41(6), 2574–2584 (1994).
[Crossref]

Moss, S. C.

S. C. Moss, S. D. LaLumondiere, J. R. Scarpulla, K. P. MacWilliams, W. R. Crain, and R. Koga, “Correlation of picosecond laser-induced latch-up and energetic particle-induced latch-up in CMOS test structures,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42(6), 1948–1956 (1995).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, J. A.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

Pease, R.

S. Buchner and J. Howard, JrC. Poivey, D. McMorrow, and R. Pease, “Pulsed-laser testing methodology for single event transients in linear devices,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(6), 3716 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, Y. Boulghassoul, L. W. Massengill, and R. Pease, “Three dimensional mapping of single-event effects using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(6), 2199–2207 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pease, R. L.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

Perdu, P.

A. Douin, V. Pouget, F. Darracq, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and P. Perdu, “Influence of laser pulse duration in single event upset testing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(4), 1799 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Douin, V. Pouget, M. De Matos, D. Lewis, P. Perdu, and P. Fouillat, “Time-resolved imaging using synchronous picosecond photoelectric laser stimulation,” Microelectron. Reliab. 46(9-11), 1514–1519 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lewis, V. Pouget, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, H. Lapuyade, P. Fouillat, and A. Touboul, “Backside laser testing of IC’s for SET sensitivity evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(6), 2193–2201 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peronnard, P.

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

V. Pouget, A. Douin, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and R. Velazco, “Dynamic testing of an SRAM-based FPGA by time-resolved laser fault injection” 14th IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium, 295–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Poivey, C.

S. Buchner and J. Howard, JrC. Poivey, D. McMorrow, and R. Pease, “Pulsed-laser testing methodology for single event transients in linear devices,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(6), 3716 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pouget, V.

A. Douin, V. Pouget, F. Darracq, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and P. Perdu, “Influence of laser pulse duration in single event upset testing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(4), 1799 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Douin, V. Pouget, M. De Matos, D. Lewis, P. Perdu, and P. Fouillat, “Time-resolved imaging using synchronous picosecond photoelectric laser stimulation,” Microelectron. Reliab. 46(9-11), 1514–1519 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lewis, V. Pouget, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, H. Lapuyade, P. Fouillat, and A. Touboul, “Backside laser testing of IC’s for SET sensitivity evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(6), 2193–2201 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

V. Pouget, A. Douin, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and R. Velazco, “Dynamic testing of an SRAM-based FPGA by time-resolved laser fault injection” 14th IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium, 295–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ramsay, E.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, and D. T. Reid, “70nm resolution in subsurface optical imaging of silicon integrated-circuits using pupil-function engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 073113 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reid, D. T.

C. Farrell, K. A. Serrels, T. R. Lundquist, P. Vedagarbha, and D. T. Reid, “Octave-spanning super-continuum from a silica photonic crystal fiber pumped by a 386 MHz Yb:fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1778–1780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Serrels, C. Farrell, T. R. Lundquist, D. T. Reid, and P. Vedagarbha, “Solid-immersion-lens-enhanced nonlinear frequency-variation mapping of a silicon integrated-circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 193103 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, and D. T. Reid, “70nm resolution in subsurface optical imaging of silicon integrated-circuits using pupil-function engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 073113 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scarpulla, J. R.

S. C. Moss, S. D. LaLumondiere, J. R. Scarpulla, K. P. MacWilliams, W. R. Crain, and R. Koga, “Correlation of picosecond laser-induced latch-up and energetic particle-induced latch-up in CMOS test structures,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42(6), 1948–1956 (1995).
[Crossref]

Serrels, K. A.

C. Farrell, K. A. Serrels, T. R. Lundquist, P. Vedagarbha, and D. T. Reid, “Octave-spanning super-continuum from a silica photonic crystal fiber pumped by a 386 MHz Yb:fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1778–1780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Serrels, C. Farrell, T. R. Lundquist, D. T. Reid, and P. Vedagarbha, “Solid-immersion-lens-enhanced nonlinear frequency-variation mapping of a silicon integrated-circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 193103 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, and D. T. Reid, “70nm resolution in subsurface optical imaging of silicon integrated-circuits using pupil-function engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 073113 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

Stapor, W. J.

J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, W. J. Stapor, T. R. Weatherford, A. B. Campbell, and H. Eisen, “Critical Evaluation of the Pulsed Laser Method for Single Event Effects Testing and Fundamental Studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41(6), 2574–2584 (1994).
[Crossref]

Touboul, A.

D. Lewis, V. Pouget, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, H. Lapuyade, P. Fouillat, and A. Touboul, “Backside laser testing of IC’s for SET sensitivity evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(6), 2193–2201 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vedagarbha, P.

C. Farrell, K. A. Serrels, T. R. Lundquist, P. Vedagarbha, and D. T. Reid, “Octave-spanning super-continuum from a silica photonic crystal fiber pumped by a 386 MHz Yb:fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1778–1780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Serrels, C. Farrell, T. R. Lundquist, D. T. Reid, and P. Vedagarbha, “Solid-immersion-lens-enhanced nonlinear frequency-variation mapping of a silicon integrated-circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 193103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Velazco, R.

V. Pouget, A. Douin, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and R. Velazco, “Dynamic testing of an SRAM-based FPGA by time-resolved laser fault injection” 14th IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium, 295–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

Warburton, R. J.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

Weatherford, T. R.

J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, W. J. Stapor, T. R. Weatherford, A. B. Campbell, and H. Eisen, “Critical Evaluation of the Pulsed Laser Method for Single Event Effects Testing and Fundamental Studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41(6), 2574–2584 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, and D. T. Reid, “70nm resolution in subsurface optical imaging of silicon integrated-circuits using pupil-function engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 073113 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. A. Serrels, C. Farrell, T. R. Lundquist, D. T. Reid, and P. Vedagarbha, “Solid-immersion-lens-enhanced nonlinear frequency-variation mapping of a silicon integrated-circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 193103 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (7)

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, Y. Boulghassoul, L. W. Massengill, and R. Pease, “Three dimensional mapping of single-event effects using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(6), 2199–2207 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, W. J. Stapor, T. R. Weatherford, A. B. Campbell, and H. Eisen, “Critical Evaluation of the Pulsed Laser Method for Single Event Effects Testing and Fundamental Studies,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41(6), 2574–2584 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. C. Moss, S. D. LaLumondiere, J. R. Scarpulla, K. P. MacWilliams, W. R. Crain, and R. Koga, “Correlation of picosecond laser-induced latch-up and energetic particle-induced latch-up in CMOS test structures,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42(6), 1948–1956 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Lewis, V. Pouget, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, H. Lapuyade, P. Fouillat, and A. Touboul, “Backside laser testing of IC’s for SET sensitivity evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(6), 2193–2201 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Buchner and J. Howard, JrC. Poivey, D. McMorrow, and R. Pease, “Pulsed-laser testing methodology for single event transients in linear devices,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(6), 3716 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Douin, V. Pouget, F. Darracq, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and P. Perdu, “Influence of laser pulse duration in single event upset testing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(4), 1799 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophoton. (1)

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, P. A. Dalgarno, B. D. Gerardot, J. A. O’Connor, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 1 (2008).

Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

A. Douin, V. Pouget, M. De Matos, D. Lewis, P. Perdu, and P. Fouillat, “Time-resolved imaging using synchronous picosecond photoelectric laser stimulation,” Microelectron. Reliab. 46(9-11), 1514–1519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

V. Pouget, A. Douin, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, V. Maingot, J. B. Ferron, L. Anghel, R. Leveugle, and R. Velazco, “Tools and methodology development for pulsed laser fault injection in SRAM-based FPGAs” 8th Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW), (2007).

V. Pouget, A. Douin, G. Foucard, P. Peronnard, D. Lewis, P. Fouillat, and R. Velazco, “Dynamic testing of an SRAM-based FPGA by time-resolved laser fault injection” 14th IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium, 295–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Sanchez, R. Desplats, F. Beaudoin, P. Perdu, S. Dudit, G. Woods, and D. Lewis, “NIR laser stimulation for dynamic timing analysis” ASM International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis – 31st Annual, ASM International, San Jose (2005), p. 106–114.
[Crossref]

M. R. Bruce, V. J. Bruce, D. H. Eppes, J. Wilcox, E. I. Cole, Jr., P. Tangyunyong, and C. F. Hawkins, “Soft defect localization (SDL) in ICs” ASM International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis - 28th Annual, ASM International, Phoenix, AZ (2002), p. 21–27.

J. Rowlette and T. Eiles, “Critical timing analysis in microprocessors using near-IR laser assisted device alteration” ITC International Test Conference, IEEE, Charlotte, NC (2003), Vol. 1, pp. 264–273.
[Crossref]

K. B. Erington, J. Asquith, and D. Bodoh, “Software enhanced time resolved laser assisted device alteration with a non-pulsed laser source” ASM International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis - 35th Annual, ASM International, San Jose, CA, 43–51 (2002).

F. Beaudoin, R. Desplats, M. Leibowitz, P. Perdu, P. Vedagarbha, and K. R. Wilsher, “Spatial and Temporal Laser Assisted Fault Localization” US Patent #6,967,491 (2005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

For LADA, the power supply voltage, V, and the clock period, (t2-t1), are chosen to make (t2-t1) ≈tp(V), so that the probability of failing the test is naturally 50%. Laser irradiation of any of the circuits affects either the effective clock period or the propagation delay, highlighting sensitive locations by modulating the probability of failure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A CW 1064 nm LADA image and (b), a 2pLADA image. The LADA images were averaged 200 times before visualization. The CAD overlay in (b) highlights the active transistor-area silicon (orange) and poly-silicon gates (green). Horizontal scale bars in (a) and (b), 500 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A 2pLADA image of LADA activation sites using 650 averages and (b), a localized, cumulative, line-cut profile, whose direction is represented by the dashed purple line in (a), representing the absolute delay of the 2pLADA sites. The resulting lateral isolation resolution was measured to be 98 ± 5 nm. Vertical scale bar in (a), 500 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), A confocal reflection image taken using a 1.28 μm confocal LSM and a 100X objective lens to capture the electrical interconnect path, or signal path (represented by the purple line), between Site A (NOR gate) and Site B (inverter). (b), A 2pLADA image of Site A captured at a laser phase interval that represented 0 ps in time and (c), another 2pLADA image of Site B captured approximately 140 ps later, with a timing accuracy in both cases approaching <10 ps. The scale bar indicates the magnitude of laser-induced relative electrical delay generated at each circuit location through 2pLADA. Horizontal scale bars in (b) and (c), 500 nm.

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