Abstract

We demonstrate AuCl3-doped graphene transparent conductive electrodes integrated in GaN-based ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission peak of 363 nm. AuCl3 doping was accomplished by dipping the graphene electrodes in 5, 10 and 20 mM concentrations of AuCl3 solutions. The effects of AuCl3 doping on graphene electrodes were investigated by current-voltage characteristics, sheet resistance, scanning electron microscope, optical transmittance, micro-Raman scattering and electroluminescence images. The optical transmittance was decreased with increasing the AuCl3 concentrations. However, the forward currents of UV LEDs with p-doped (5, 10 and 20 mM of AuCl3 solutions) graphene transparent conductive electrodes at a forward bias of 8 V were increased by ~48, 63 and 73%, respectively, which can be attributed to the reduction of sheet resistance and the increase of work function of the graphene. The performance of UV LEDs was drastically improved by AuCl3 doping of graphene transparent conductive electrodes.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and Flexible ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Using Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, Conductive Graphene Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(1), 323–327 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B.-J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. H. Seo, S. J. Chae, B. K. Kim, G. Shin, Y. H. Lee, and E.-K. Suh, “Enhanced Light Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Au-Doped Graphene for Transparent and Current-Spreading Electrode,” Appl. Phys. Express5(11), 115101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J.-H. Min, C. M. Kang, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(15), 151115 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D.-H. Youn, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, S.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology24(7), 075202 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Bae, S. J. Kim, D. Shin, J.-H. Ahn, and B. H. Hong, “Towards industrial applications of graphene electrodes,” Phys. Scr.146, 014024 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. C. Eklund, A. M. Rao, S. Bandow, A. Thess, and R. E. Smalley, “Evidence for charge transfer in doped carbon nanotube bundles from Raman scattering,” Nature388(6639), 257–259 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J.-P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J.-H. Min, C. M. Kang, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(15), 151115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Youn, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, S.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology24(7), 075202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

S. Bae, S. J. Kim, D. Shin, J.-H. Ahn, and B. H. Hong, “Towards industrial applications of graphene electrodes,” Phys. Scr.146, 014024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, S. J. Chae, B. K. Kim, G. Shin, Y. H. Lee, and E.-K. Suh, “Enhanced Light Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Au-Doped Graphene for Transparent and Current-Spreading Electrode,” Appl. Phys. Express5(11), 115101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and Flexible ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Using Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, Conductive Graphene Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. C. Eklund, A. M. Rao, S. Bandow, A. Thess, and R. E. Smalley, “Evidence for charge transfer in doped carbon nanotube bundles from Raman scattering,” Nature388(6639), 257–259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-H.

S. Bae, S. J. Kim, D. Shin, J.-H. Ahn, and B. H. Hong, “Towards industrial applications of graphene electrodes,” Phys. Scr.146, 014024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appleton, B. R.

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

S. Bae, S. J. Kim, D. Shin, J.-H. Ahn, and B. H. Hong, “Towards industrial applications of graphene electrodes,” Phys. Scr.146, 014024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bandow, S.

P. C. Eklund, A. M. Rao, S. Bandow, A. Thess, and R. E. Smalley, “Evidence for charge transfer in doped carbon nanotube bundles from Raman scattering,” Nature388(6639), 257–259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bang, J.

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beak, Y. S.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berke, K.

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borysiak, M.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chae, S. J.

T. H. Seo, S. J. Chae, B. K. Kim, G. Shin, Y. H. Lee, and E.-K. Suh, “Enhanced Light Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Au-Doped Graphene for Transparent and Current-Spreading Electrode,” Appl. Phys. Express5(11), 115101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chandramohan, S.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-Y.

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choe, M.

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.-G.

D.-H. Youn, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, S.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology24(7), 075202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

D.-H. Youn, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, S.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology24(7), 075202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

D.-H. Youn, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, S.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology24(7), 075202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, L.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eddy, C. R.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eklund, P. C.

P. C. Eklund, A. M. Rao, S. Bandow, A. Thess, and R. E. Smalley, “Evidence for charge transfer in doped carbon nanotube bundles from Raman scattering,” Nature388(6639), 257–259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Han, B.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, N.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hebard, A. F.

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hite, J.

Hite, J. K.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

S. Bae, S. J. Kim, D. Shin, J.-H. Ahn, and B. H. Hong, “Towards industrial applications of graphene electrodes,” Phys. Scr.146, 014024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-H.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W.-K.

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jo, J.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and Flexible ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Using Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, C. M.

J.-P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J.-H. Min, C. M. Kang, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(15), 151115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Katharria, Y. S.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. K.

T. H. Seo, S. J. Chae, B. K. Kim, G. Shin, Y. H. Lee, and E.-K. Suh, “Enhanced Light Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Au-Doped Graphene for Transparent and Current-Spreading Electrode,” Appl. Phys. Express5(11), 115101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-J.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and Flexible ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Using Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. K.

K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

S. Bae, S. J. Kim, D. Shin, J.-H. Ahn, and B. H. Hong, “Towards industrial applications of graphene electrodes,” Phys. Scr.146, 014024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and Flexible ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Using Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

D.-H. Youn, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, S.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology24(7), 075202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, K. B.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-S.

J.-P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J.-H. Min, C. M. Kang, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(15), 151115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

T. H. Seo, S. J. Chae, B. K. Kim, G. Shin, Y. H. Lee, and E.-K. Suh, “Enhanced Light Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Au-Doped Graphene for Transparent and Current-Spreading Electrode,” Appl. Phys. Express5(11), 115101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemaitre, M.

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.-J.

K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S. K.

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mastro, M. A.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Min, J.-H.

J.-P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J.-H. Min, C. M. Kang, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(15), 151115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, Conductive Graphene Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, S. I.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and Flexible ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Using Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nasrollahi, Z.

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. B.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, W.

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R. D.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, A. M.

P. C. Eklund, A. M. Rao, S. Bandow, A. Thess, and R. E. Smalley, “Evidence for charge transfer in doped carbon nanotube bundles from Raman scattering,” Nature388(6639), 257–259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reina, A.

K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, F.

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R. S.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, B. D.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seo, T. H.

J.-P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J.-H. Min, C. M. Kang, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(15), 151115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, S. J. Chae, B. K. Kim, G. Shin, Y. H. Lee, and E.-K. Suh, “Enhanced Light Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Au-Doped Graphene for Transparent and Current-Spreading Electrode,” Appl. Phys. Express5(11), 115101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, J.-P.

J.-P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J.-H. Min, C. M. Kang, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(15), 151115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.

S. Bae, S. J. Kim, D. Shin, J.-H. Ahn, and B. H. Hong, “Towards industrial applications of graphene electrodes,” Phys. Scr.146, 014024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shin, G.

T. H. Seo, S. J. Chae, B. K. Kim, G. Shin, Y. H. Lee, and E.-K. Suh, “Enhanced Light Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Au-Doped Graphene for Transparent and Current-Spreading Electrode,” Appl. Phys. Express5(11), 115101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smalley, R. E.

P. C. Eklund, A. M. Rao, S. Bandow, A. Thess, and R. E. Smalley, “Evidence for charge transfer in doped carbon nanotube bundles from Raman scattering,” Nature388(6639), 257–259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E.-K.

J.-P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J.-H. Min, C. M. Kang, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(15), 151115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Seo, S. J. Chae, B. K. Kim, G. Shin, Y. H. Lee, and E.-K. Suh, “Enhanced Light Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Au-Doped Graphene for Transparent and Current-Spreading Electrode,” Appl. Phys. Express5(11), 115101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, D. B.

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thess, A.

P. C. Eklund, A. M. Rao, S. Bandow, A. Thess, and R. E. Smalley, “Evidence for charge transfer in doped carbon nanotube bundles from Raman scattering,” Nature388(6639), 257–259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tongay, S.

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, Conductive Graphene Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Youn, D.-H.

D.-H. Youn, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, S.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology24(7), 075202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.-J.

D.-H. Youn, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, S.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology24(7), 075202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhi, L.

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, Conductive Graphene Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, F.

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, J. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Efficient and Flexible ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Using Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes,” Adv. Mater.20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

T. H. Seo, S. J. Chae, B. K. Kim, G. Shin, Y. H. Lee, and E.-K. Suh, “Enhanced Light Output Power of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Au-Doped Graphene for Transparent and Current-Spreading Electrode,” Appl. Phys. Express5(11), 115101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J.-P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J.-H. Min, C. M. Kang, E.-K. Suh, and D.-S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(15), 151115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J.-P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W.-K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, F. Zhu, and K. P. Loh, “Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

S. Chandramohan, J. H. Kang, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, Y. S. Beak, K. B. Ko, J. B. Park, B. D. Ryu, H. K. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “Chemically modified multilayer graphene with metal interlayer as an efficient current spreading electrode for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(14), 145101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, Conductive Graphene Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, and B. R. Appleton, “Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency,” Nanotechnology22(42), 425701 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Kim, A. Reina, Y. Shi, H. Park, L.-J. Li, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kong, “Enhancing the conductivity of transparent graphene films via doping,” Nanotechnology21(28), 285205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Youn, Y.-J. Yu, H. Choi, S.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene transparent electrode for enhanced optical power and thermal stability in GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology24(7), 075202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

P. C. Eklund, A. M. Rao, S. Bandow, A. Thess, and R. E. Smalley, “Evidence for charge transfer in doped carbon nanotube bundles from Raman scattering,” Nature388(6639), 257–259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Scr.

S. Bae, S. J. Kim, D. Shin, J.-H. Ahn, and B. H. Hong, “Towards industrial applications of graphene electrodes,” Phys. Scr.146, 014024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin, M. A. Mastro, C. R. Eddy, J. K. Hite, S. H. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of ultraviolet light emitting diodes by patterning of SiO2 nanosphere arrays,” Thin Solid Films517(8), 2742–2744 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic image of GaN-based UV LED with AuCl3-doped graphene transparent conductive electrode (b) EL spectrum from UV LED with AuCl3-doped graphene transparent conductive electrode. Inset is EL image at an injection current of 10 mA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of tri-layer graphene after p-type doping using (a) 5 mM, (b) 10 mM and (c) 20 mM AuCl3 solutions. High resolution SEM images after p-type doping using (d) 5 mM, (e) 10 mM and (f) 20 mM AuCl3 solutions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmittance spectra of tri-layer graphene on quartz substrate before and after p-type doping (b) Sheet resistance and the change in sheet resistance before and after p-type doping using 5, 10 and 20 mM AuCl3 solutions. (c, d) Raman spectra before and after p-type doping using various concentrations of AuCl3 solutions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EL images of GaN-based UV LEDs with graphene transparent conductive electrodes (a) before and after p-type doping using (b) 5 mM, (c) 10 mM and (d) 20 mM AuCl3 solutions at a forward voltage of 6.5 V. I-V characteristics of UV LEDs with graphene transparent conductive electrodes before and after p-type doping using (e) 5 mM, (f) 10 mM and (g) 20 mM AuCl3 solutions.

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