Abstract

We present analytical considerations of “self-mode-locked” operation in a typical vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) cavity geometry by means of Kerr lens action in the semiconductor gain chip. We predict Kerr-lens mode-locked operation for both soft- and hard-apertures placed at the optimal intra-cavity positions. These predictions are experimentally verified in a Kerr-lens mode-locked VECSEL capable of producing pulse durations of below 500 fs at 1 GHz repetition rate.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Cryogenic optical refrigeration,” Adv. Opt. Photon.4(1), 78–107 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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  4. C. Hessenius, P. Y. Guinet, M. Lukowski, J. Moloney, and M. Fallahi, “589-nm single-frequency VECSEL for sodium guidestar applications,” Proc. SPIE8242, 82420E (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(5), 417–419 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.59(6), 635–637 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. L. Hall, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Femtosecond index nonlinearities in InGaAsP optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(12), 1320–1322 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng.30, 1228–1235 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, J. G. Cederberg, D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Progress towards cryogenic temperatures in intra-cavity optical refrigeration using a VECSEL,” Proc. SPIE8638, 863805 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. G. Cederberg, A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Growth and testing of vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) for intracavity cooling of Yb:YLF,” J. Cryst. Growth (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. G. Wilcox and A. C. Tropper, “Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(3), 422–423 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, and J. P. Gordon, “Generation of optical pulses as short as 27 femtoseconds directly from a laser balancing self-phase modulation, group-velocity dispersion, saturable absorption, and saturable gain,” Opt. Lett.10(3), 131–133 (1985).
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  28. R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.70(6), 066612 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

K. Seger, N. Meiser, S. Y. Choi, B. H. Jung, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, O. Okhotnikov, F. Laurell, and V. Pasiskevicius, “Carbon nanotube mode-locked optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express21(15), 17806–17813 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, J. G. Cederberg, D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Progress towards cryogenic temperatures in intra-cavity optical refrigeration using a VECSEL,” Proc. SPIE8638, 863805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox and A. C. Tropper, “Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(3), 422–423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Liang, Y.-C. Lee, J.-C. Tung, K.-W. Su, K.-F. Huang, and Y.-F. Chen, “Exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics of an optically pumped semiconductor laser with intracavity second harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4609–4611 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Cryogenic optical refrigeration,” Adv. Opt. Photon.4(1), 78–107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Hessenius, P. Y. Guinet, M. Lukowski, J. Moloney, and M. Fallahi, “589-nm single-frequency VECSEL for sodium guidestar applications,” Proc. SPIE8242, 82420E (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae and E. W. Van Stryland, “Ultrafast nonlinearities in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(19), 14171–14178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. L. Hall, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Femtosecond index nonlinearities in InGaAsP optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(12), 1320–1322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (5)

M. Piche, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 156–160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng.30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.16(1), 42–44 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.59(6), 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(5), 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Akhmediev, N.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, A. R.

A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, J. G. Cederberg, D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Progress towards cryogenic temperatures in intra-cavity optical refrigeration using a VECSEL,” Proc. SPIE8638, 863805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cederberg, A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Growth and testing of vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) for intracavity cooling of Yb:YLF,” J. Cryst. Growth (2013).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, K. K.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(5), 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asom, M. T.

Bellancourt, A. R.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

Brabec, T.

Butkus, M.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cederberg, J. G.

A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, J. G. Cederberg, D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Progress towards cryogenic temperatures in intra-cavity optical refrigeration using a VECSEL,” Proc. SPIE8638, 863805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cederberg, A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Growth and testing of vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) for intracavity cooling of Yb:YLF,” J. Cryst. Growth (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-F.

Chiu, T. H.

Choi, S. Y.

Curley, P. F.

Darwish, A. M.

K. L. Hall, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Femtosecond index nonlinearities in InGaAsP optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(12), 1320–1322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dhanjal, S.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ebling, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elsmere, S. P.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R. I.

Fallahi, M.

C. Hessenius, P. Y. Guinet, M. Lukowski, J. Moloney, and M. Fallahi, “589-nm single-frequency VECSEL for sodium guidestar applications,” Proc. SPIE8242, 82420E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, I.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, J. F.

Fork, R. L.

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(5), 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ghasemkhani, M.

A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, J. G. Cederberg, D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Progress towards cryogenic temperatures in intra-cavity optical refrigeration using a VECSEL,” Proc. SPIE8638, 863805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cederberg, A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Growth and testing of vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) for intracavity cooling of Yb:YLF,” J. Cryst. Growth (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Grapinet, M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grelu, P.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guinet, P. Y.

C. Hessenius, P. Y. Guinet, M. Lukowski, J. Moloney, and M. Fallahi, “589-nm single-frequency VECSEL for sodium guidestar applications,” Proc. SPIE8242, 82420E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng.30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hall, K. L.

K. L. Hall, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Femtosecond index nonlinearities in InGaAsP optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(12), 1320–1322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, C. J.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haring, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Häring, R.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hastie, J. E.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(5), 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

Heinen, B.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hessenius, C.

C. Hessenius, P. Y. Guinet, M. Lukowski, J. Moloney, and M. Fallahi, “589-nm single-frequency VECSEL for sodium guidestar applications,” Proc. SPIE8242, 82420E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S.

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.-F.

Hultgren, C. T.

C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.59(6), 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

K. L. Hall, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Femtosecond index nonlinearities in InGaAsP optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(12), 1320–1322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.59(6), 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jung, B. H.

Kean, P. N.

Keller, U.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemp, A. J.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

K. L. Hall, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Femtosecond index nonlinearities in InGaAsP optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(12), 1320–1322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kornaszewski, L.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Krysa, A. B.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, B.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

LaGasse, M. J.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(5), 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Lee, Y.-C.

Liang, H.-C.

Lorenser, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lukowski, M.

C. Hessenius, P. Y. Guinet, M. Lukowski, J. Moloney, and M. Fallahi, “589-nm single-frequency VECSEL for sodium guidestar applications,” Proc. SPIE8242, 82420E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maker, G.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malcolm, G. P. A.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meiser, N.

Melgaard, S. D.

A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, J. G. Cederberg, D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Progress towards cryogenic temperatures in intra-cavity optical refrigeration using a VECSEL,” Proc. SPIE8638, 863805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cederberg, A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Growth and testing of vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) for intracavity cooling of Yb:YLF,” J. Cryst. Growth (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mihoubi, Z.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Moloney, J.

C. Hessenius, P. Y. Guinet, M. Lukowski, J. Moloney, and M. Fallahi, “589-nm single-frequency VECSEL for sodium guidestar applications,” Proc. SPIE8242, 82420E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morton, L. G.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

Piche, M.

M. Piche, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 156–160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Quarterman, A. H.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E. U.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

K. L. Hall, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Femtosecond index nonlinearities in InGaAsP optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(12), 1320–1322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S. J.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

Rudin, B.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng.30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seger, K.

Seletskiy, D. V.

A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, J. G. Cederberg, D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Progress towards cryogenic temperatures in intra-cavity optical refrigeration using a VECSEL,” Proc. SPIE8638, 863805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Cryogenic optical refrigeration,” Adv. Opt. Photon.4(1), 78–107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, J. G. Cederberg, D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Progress towards cryogenic temperatures in intra-cavity optical refrigeration using a VECSEL,” Proc. SPIE8638, 863805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Cryogenic optical refrigeration,” Adv. Opt. Photon.4(1), 78–107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae and E. W. Van Stryland, “Ultrafast nonlinearities in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(19), 14171–14178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng.30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cederberg, A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Growth and testing of vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) for intracavity cooling of Yb:YLF,” J. Cryst. Growth (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparenberg, M.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. E.

Spielmann, C.

Stolz, W.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Su, K.-W.

Tropper, A.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

K. G. Wilcox and A. C. Tropper, “Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(3), 422–423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tung, J.-C.

Unold, H. J.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J. A.

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae and E. W. Van Stryland, “Ultrafast nonlinearities in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(19), 14171–14178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng.30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. A.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(5), 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.-L.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weber, A.

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

K. G. Wilcox and A. C. Tropper, “Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(3), 422–423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D.-I.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, C. A. Wang, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond measurements of the nonresonant nonlinear index in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(5), 417–419 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.59(6), 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, U. Koren, and G. Raybon, “Femtosecond index nonlinearities in InGaAsP optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(12), 1320–1322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, L. G. Morton, A. J. Kemp, M. D. Dawson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(6), 061114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Heinen, T.-L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48(9), 516–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100-mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, S. J. Roberts, R. Häring, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(9), 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox and A. C. Tropper, “Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(3), 422–423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Piche, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun.86(2), 156–160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng.30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae and E. W. Van Stryland, “Ultrafast nonlinearities in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(19), 14171–14178 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.70(6), 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, J. G. Cederberg, D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Progress towards cryogenic temperatures in intra-cavity optical refrigeration using a VECSEL,” Proc. SPIE8638, 863805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Hessenius, P. Y. Guinet, M. Lukowski, J. Moloney, and M. Fallahi, “589-nm single-frequency VECSEL for sodium guidestar applications,” Proc. SPIE8242, 82420E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Ghasemkhani, A. R. Albrecht, S. Melgaard, D. V. Seletskiy, J. G. Cederberg, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Cryogenic intracavity laser cooling using high power vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs),” CLEO: QELS_Fundamental Science, QTu1E.1 (2013).

C. A. Zaugg, Z. Sun, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, V. J. Wittwer, M. Mangold, O. D. Sieber, M. Golling, Y. Lee, J.-H. Ahn, A. C. Ferrari, and U. Keller, “Wavelength tunable graphene modelocked VECSEL,” CLEO: Science and Innovations, CW1G.4 (2013).

A. R. Albrecht, D. V. Seletskiy, J. G. Cederberg, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Self-mode-locked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL),” CLEO: Science and Innovations, CW1G.5, (2013).

J. G. Cederberg, A. R. Albrecht, M. Ghasemkhani, S. D. Melgaard, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Growth and testing of vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) for intracavity cooling of Yb:YLF,” J. Cryst. Growth (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A simple yet typical plano-concave cavity configuration used in analyzing the Kerr lensing in VECSELs. The Kerr medium, which is also the gain chip, is located a small distance zK from the flat end mirror. The curved mirror has a radius of curvature R and the total length of the resonator is d.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated beam-radius modulation (using Eq. (3)) at the curved mirror (red) and the gain chip (blue) as a function of the distance of the Kerr (gain) medium from the flat mirror (see Fig. 1). The parameters used are n2 = −10−12 cm/W, Ppeak = 10 kW, L~2 µm, R = 15 cm, d/R = 0.9994. Negative change (in y-axis) implies beam narrowing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated change in the beam radius along cavity length for fixed positions of the gain chip (Kerr lens) indicated by the double-arrow lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic diagram of V-shaped VECSEL cavity; (b) Oscilloscope time-traces corresponding to (bottom trace) fully open aperture (CW), and (top trace) partially closed aperture (pulse train).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Oscilloscope time-trace of VECSEL output; (b) Fourier-transform spectrum of a VECSEL pulse train.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) VECSEL mode-locked output power versus incident pump power, lasing spectra for two pump powers are shown in insets; (b) intensity autocorrelation traces and sech2 fits for different pump powers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of pulse width with the amount of intracavity GVD (fused silica thickness) for a pump power of 4.5 W.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z 0 z 0 γ P peak P c L n 0 ,
γ( z K )= R/ z 0 2( 1+ z K 2 / z 0 2 ) + ( d/ z 0 ) ( 1 z K /d ) 2 ( 1+ z K 2 / z 0 2 ) 2
w( z, P peak )w( z,0 ) w( z,0 ) γ( z K ) P peak P C L 2 z 0 n 0 1 z 2 / z 0 2 1+ z 2 / z 0 2 .

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