Abstract

We have demonstrated a highly efficient electrically tunable color filter, which provides precise control of color output, taking advantage of a nano-photonic polarization-tailored dichroic resonator combined with a liquid-crystal based polarization rotator. The visible dichroic resonator based on the guided mode resonance, which incorporates a planar dielectric waveguide in Si3N4 integrated with an asymmetric two-dimensional subwavelength Al grating with unequal pitches along its principal axes, exhibited polarization specific transmission featuring high efficiency up to 75%. The proposed tunable color filters were constructed by combining three types of dichroic resonators, each of which deals with a mixture of two primary colors (i.e. blue/green, blue/red, and green/red) with a polarization rotator exploiting a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell. The output colors could be dynamically and seamlessly customized across the blend of the two corresponding primary colors, by altering the polarization via the voltage applied to the polarization rotator. For the blue/red filter, the center wavelength was particularly adjusted from 460 to 610 nm with an applied voltage variation of 2 V, leading to a tuning range of up to 150 nm. And the spectral tuning was readily confirmed via color mapping. The proposed devices may permit the tuning span to be readily extended by tailoring the grating pitches.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. C. Kim and E. S. Kim, “Performance analysis of stereoscopic three-dimensional projection display systems,” 3D Res.1(1), 1–16 (2010).
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  5. E. H. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. S. Sohn, C. Y. Moon, N. C. Park, and Y. P. Park, “Nanoimprinted photonic crystal color filters for solar-powered reflective displays,” Opt. Express18(26), 27712–27722 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Boonruang, A. Greenwell, and M. G. Moharam, “Multiline two-dimensional guided-mode resonant filters,” Appl. Opt.45(22), 5740–5747 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Efficient guided-mode resonant tunable color filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1552–1554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, and B. S. Lee, “Nano-patterned visible wavelength filter integrated with an image sensor exploiting a 90-nm CMOS process,” Photon. Nanostructures10(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, Z. Xia, Z. Wang, R. Liu, P. Tang, G. Lv, and H. Wu, “Nonpolarizing and tunable perpendicular dual-grating guided-mode resonance filter,” Opt. Commun.285(12), 2840–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Yoon, C. H. Park, and S. S. Lee, “Highly efficient color filter incorporating a thin metal-dielectric resonant structure,” Appl. Phys. Express5(2), 22501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Park, Y. T. Yoon, and S. S. Lee, “Polarization-independent visible wavelength filter incorporating a symmetric metal-dielectric resonant structure,” Opt. Express20(21), 23769–23777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Kaplan, T. Xu, and L. J. Guo, “High efficiency resonance-based spectrum filters with tunable transmission bandwidth fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(59), 59 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Szeghalmi, M. Helgert, R. Brunner, F. Heyroth, U. Gösele, and M. Knez, “Tunable guided-mode resonance grating filter,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(13), 2053–2062 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kim and E. S. Kim, “Performance analysis of stereoscopic three-dimensional projection display systems,” 3D Res.1(1), 1–16 (2010).

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. I Regular Pap.57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).

E. H. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. S. Sohn, C. Y. Moon, N. C. Park, and Y. P. Park, “Nanoimprinted photonic crystal color filters for solar-powered reflective displays,” Opt. Express18(26), 27712–27722 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

E. H. Cho, H. S. Kim, B. H. Cheong, O. Prudnikov, W. Xianyua, J. S. Sohn, D. J. Ma, H. Y. Choi, N. C. Park, and Y. P. Park, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal color filter development,” Opt. Express17(10), 8621–8629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. S. P. Chang, K. J. Morton, H. Tan, P. F. Murphy, W. Wu, and S. Y. Chou, “Tunable liquid crystal-resonant grating filter fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1457–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Lee, Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Color filter based on a subwavelength patterned metal grating,” Opt. Express15(23), 15457–15463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

R. Magnusson and Y. Ding, “MEMS tunable resonant leaky mode filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1479–1481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Boonruang, A. Greenwell, and M. G. Moharam, “Multiline two-dimensional guided-mode resonant filters,” Appl. Opt.45(22), 5740–5747 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boonruang, S.

Brunner, R.

A. Szeghalmi, M. Helgert, R. Brunner, F. Heyroth, U. Gösele, and M. Knez, “Tunable guided-mode resonance grating filter,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(13), 2053–2062 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

Chang, A. S. P.

A. S. P. Chang, K. J. Morton, H. Tan, P. F. Murphy, W. Wu, and S. Y. Chou, “Tunable liquid crystal-resonant grating filter fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1457–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, B. H.

B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Cho, H. S. Kim, B. H. Cheong, O. Prudnikov, W. Xianyua, J. S. Sohn, D. J. Ma, H. Y. Choi, N. C. Park, and Y. P. Park, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal color filter development,” Opt. Express17(10), 8621–8629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, E.

B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, E. H.

Cho, Y. S.

B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. Y.

B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Cho, H. S. Kim, B. H. Cheong, O. Prudnikov, W. Xianyua, J. S. Sohn, D. J. Ma, H. Y. Choi, N. C. Park, and Y. P. Park, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal color filter development,” Opt. Express17(10), 8621–8629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, S. Y.

A. S. P. Chang, K. J. Morton, H. Tan, P. F. Murphy, W. Wu, and S. Y. Chou, “Tunable liquid crystal-resonant grating filter fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1457–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

R. Magnusson and Y. Ding, “MEMS tunable resonant leaky mode filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1479–1481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellenbogen, T.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Genov, R.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. I Regular Pap.57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).

Gösele, U.

A. Szeghalmi, M. Helgert, R. Brunner, F. Heyroth, U. Gösele, and M. Knez, “Tunable guided-mode resonance grating filter,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(13), 2053–2062 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greenwell, A.

Gulak, G.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. I Regular Pap.57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).

Guo, L. J.

A. F. Kaplan, T. Xu, and L. J. Guo, “High efficiency resonance-based spectrum filters with tunable transmission bandwidth fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(59), 59 (2010).
[PubMed]

Helgert, M.

A. Szeghalmi, M. Helgert, R. Brunner, F. Heyroth, U. Gösele, and M. Knez, “Tunable guided-mode resonance grating filter,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(13), 2053–2062 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heyroth, F.

A. Szeghalmi, M. Helgert, R. Brunner, F. Heyroth, U. Gösele, and M. Knez, “Tunable guided-mode resonance grating filter,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(13), 2053–2062 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho, D.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. I Regular Pap.57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).

Jiao, X.

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. F.

A. F. Kaplan, T. Xu, and L. J. Guo, “High efficiency resonance-based spectrum filters with tunable transmission bandwidth fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. S.

S. C. Kim and E. S. Kim, “Performance analysis of stereoscopic three-dimensional projection display systems,” 3D Res.1(1), 1–16 (2010).

Kim, H. S.

Kim, S. C.

S. C. Kim and E. S. Kim, “Performance analysis of stereoscopic three-dimensional projection display systems,” 3D Res.1(1), 1–16 (2010).

Kim, S. H.

Knez, M.

A. Szeghalmi, M. Helgert, R. Brunner, F. Heyroth, U. Gösele, and M. Knez, “Tunable guided-mode resonance grating filter,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(13), 2053–2062 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ledbetter, A.

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. S.

Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, and B. S. Lee, “Nano-patterned visible wavelength filter integrated with an image sensor exploiting a 90-nm CMOS process,” Photon. Nanostructures10(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

Lee, J. Y.

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. D.

Lee, S. S.

Y. T. Yoon, C. H. Park, and S. S. Lee, “Highly efficient color filter incorporating a thin metal-dielectric resonant structure,” Appl. Phys. Express5(2), 22501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Park, Y. T. Yoon, and S. S. Lee, “Polarization-independent visible wavelength filter incorporating a symmetric metal-dielectric resonant structure,” Opt. Express20(21), 23769–23777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, and B. S. Lee, “Nano-patterned visible wavelength filter integrated with an image sensor exploiting a 90-nm CMOS process,” Photon. Nanostructures10(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Lee, Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Color filter based on a subwavelength patterned metal grating,” Opt. Express15(23), 15457–15463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

Y. Wu, Z. Xia, Z. Wang, R. Liu, P. Tang, G. Lv, and H. Wu, “Nonpolarizing and tunable perpendicular dual-grating guided-mode resonance filter,” Opt. Commun.285(12), 2840–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(59), 59 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lv, G.

Y. Wu, Z. Xia, Z. Wang, R. Liu, P. Tang, G. Lv, and H. Wu, “Nonpolarizing and tunable perpendicular dual-grating guided-mode resonance filter,” Opt. Commun.285(12), 2840–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D. J.

Magnusson, R.

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Highly efficient color filter array using resonant Si3N4 gratings,” Opt. Express21(10), 12495–12506 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Efficient guided-mode resonant tunable color filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1552–1554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson and Y. Ding, “MEMS tunable resonant leaky mode filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1479–1481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt.32(14), 2606–2613 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, C.

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Moon, C. Y.

Morton, K. J.

A. S. P. Chang, K. J. Morton, H. Tan, P. F. Murphy, W. Wu, and S. Y. Chou, “Tunable liquid crystal-resonant grating filter fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1457–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, P. F.

A. S. P. Chang, K. J. Morton, H. Tan, P. F. Murphy, W. Wu, and S. Y. Chou, “Tunable liquid crystal-resonant grating filter fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1457–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nilchi, A.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. I Regular Pap.57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).

Park, C. H.

Y. T. Yoon, C. H. Park, and S. S. Lee, “Highly efficient color filter incorporating a thin metal-dielectric resonant structure,” Appl. Phys. Express5(2), 22501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Park, Y. T. Yoon, and S. S. Lee, “Polarization-independent visible wavelength filter incorporating a symmetric metal-dielectric resonant structure,” Opt. Express20(21), 23769–23777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. J.

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, N. C.

Park, Y. P.

Peeters, M.

Prudnikov, O.

Prudnikov, O. H.

B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seo, K.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, S. T.

B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. R.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. I Regular Pap.57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).

Sohn, J. S.

Suh, W.

Szeghalmi, A.

A. Szeghalmi, M. Helgert, R. Brunner, F. Heyroth, U. Gösele, and M. Knez, “Tunable guided-mode resonance grating filter,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(13), 2053–2062 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H.

A. S. P. Chang, K. J. Morton, H. Tan, P. F. Murphy, W. Wu, and S. Y. Chou, “Tunable liquid crystal-resonant grating filter fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1457–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, P.

Y. Wu, Z. Xia, Z. Wang, R. Liu, P. Tang, G. Lv, and H. Wu, “Nonpolarizing and tunable perpendicular dual-grating guided-mode resonance filter,” Opt. Commun.285(12), 2840–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uddin, M. J.

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Highly efficient color filter array using resonant Si3N4 gratings,” Opt. Express21(10), 12495–12506 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Efficient guided-mode resonant tunable color filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1552–1554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

Wang, Z.

Y. Wu, Z. Xia, Z. Wang, R. Liu, P. Tang, G. Lv, and H. Wu, “Nonpolarizing and tunable perpendicular dual-grating guided-mode resonance filter,” Opt. Commun.285(12), 2840–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

Y. Wu, Z. Xia, Z. Wang, R. Liu, P. Tang, G. Lv, and H. Wu, “Nonpolarizing and tunable perpendicular dual-grating guided-mode resonance filter,” Opt. Commun.285(12), 2840–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

A. S. P. Chang, K. J. Morton, H. Tan, P. F. Murphy, W. Wu, and S. Y. Chou, “Tunable liquid crystal-resonant grating filter fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1457–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, Z. Xia, Z. Wang, R. Liu, P. Tang, G. Lv, and H. Wu, “Nonpolarizing and tunable perpendicular dual-grating guided-mode resonance filter,” Opt. Commun.285(12), 2840–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. K.

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(59), 59 (2010).
[PubMed]

Xia, Z.

Y. Wu, Z. Xia, Z. Wang, R. Liu, P. Tang, G. Lv, and H. Wu, “Nonpolarizing and tunable perpendicular dual-grating guided-mode resonance filter,” Opt. Commun.285(12), 2840–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xianyua, W.

Xu, T.

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Kaplan, T. Xu, and L. J. Guo, “High efficiency resonance-based spectrum filters with tunable transmission bandwidth fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(59), 59 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yau, P.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. I Regular Pap.57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).

Yen, G.

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y. T.

Y. T. Yoon, C. H. Park, and S. S. Lee, “Highly efficient color filter incorporating a thin metal-dielectric resonant structure,” Appl. Phys. Express5(2), 22501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, and B. S. Lee, “Nano-patterned visible wavelength filter integrated with an image sensor exploiting a 90-nm CMOS process,” Photon. Nanostructures10(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Park, Y. T. Yoon, and S. S. Lee, “Polarization-independent visible wavelength filter incorporating a symmetric metal-dielectric resonant structure,” Opt. Express20(21), 23769–23777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Lee, Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Color filter based on a subwavelength patterned metal grating,” Opt. Express15(23), 15457–15463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, G.

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A.

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

3D Res. (1)

S. C. Kim and E. S. Kim, “Performance analysis of stereoscopic three-dimensional projection display systems,” 3D Res.1(1), 1–16 (2010).

ACS Nano (1)

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. Szeghalmi, M. Helgert, R. Brunner, F. Heyroth, U. Gösele, and M. Knez, “Tunable guided-mode resonance grating filter,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(13), 2053–2062 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Zhang, P. Wang, X. Jiao, C. Min, G. Yuan, Y. Deng, H. Ming, L. Zhang, and W. Liu, “Polarization properties of subwavelength metallic gratings in visible light band,” Appl. Phys. B85(1), 139–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. T. Yoon, C. H. Park, and S. S. Lee, “Highly efficient color filter incorporating a thin metal-dielectric resonant structure,” Appl. Phys. Express5(2), 22501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. F. Kaplan, T. Xu, and L. J. Guo, “High efficiency resonance-based spectrum filters with tunable transmission bandwidth fabricated using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 261109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cheong, O. H. Prudnikov, E. Cho, H. S. Kim, J. Yu, Y. S. Cho, H. Y. Choi, and S. T. Shin, “High angular tolerant color filter using subwavelength grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Efficient guided-mode resonant tunable color filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1552–1554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. S. P. Chang, K. J. Morton, H. Tan, P. F. Murphy, W. Wu, and S. Y. Chou, “Tunable liquid crystal-resonant grating filter fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1457–1459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson and Y. Ding, “MEMS tunable resonant leaky mode filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1479–1481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. I Regular Pap. (1)

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. I Regular Pap.57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).

Nano Lett. (1)

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat Commun1(59), 59 (2010).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Wu, Z. Xia, Z. Wang, R. Liu, P. Tang, G. Lv, and H. Wu, “Nonpolarizing and tunable perpendicular dual-grating guided-mode resonance filter,” Opt. Commun.285(12), 2840–2845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Nanostructures (1)

Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, and B. S. Lee, “Nano-patterned visible wavelength filter integrated with an image sensor exploiting a 90-nm CMOS process,” Photon. Nanostructures10(1), 54–59 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the proposed visible dichroic resonator enabling polarization tailored spectral filtering, with the orientations of the electric and magnetic fields for the incident light and guided modes represented.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonant wavelengths with respect to grating pitches obtained from the phase matching condition (Upper graph) and transfer characteristics resulting from FDTD based simulations for dichroic resonators (a) with different x-direction pitches Λx and Λy = 400 nm for the Lx polarization (Lower graph), and (b) with different x-direction pitches Λx and Λy = 275 nm for the Ly polarization. The indicator lines shown in the upper graphs show the respective locations of the resonant peaks due to the TE and TM guided modes for the corresponding grating pitches which are considered in the graph below.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transfer characteristics of the proposed dichroic resonator depending on the polarization angle of incident light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Configuration of proposed electrically tunable color filter capitalizing on a visible dichroic resonator with subwavelength metal-dielectric resonant structure in conjunction with a liquid crystal based polarization controller. CIE 1964 color coordinates corresponding to the spectral responses given in Fig. 3 is also displayed on the color map.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Images of the manufactured dichroic resonators producing dual transmission bands for orthogonal polarizations, including DCR-BG for blue and green, DCR-BR for blue and red, and DCR-GR for green and red. Spectral responses for (b) DCR-BG, (c) DCR-BR, and (d) DCR-GR, for orthogonal Lx and Ly polarizations. The simulated results are shown by dotted lines, while the measured results are shown by solid lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of the proposed electrically tunable color filter. (b) Image of the fabricated filter displaying its top and bottom sides.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Transmission of the polarization rotator for different applied voltages for the Lx and Ly polarizations. (b) Transmission and absorption through the polarization rotator at λ = 600 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Demonstrated transfer characteristics of the embodied tunable color filters, Dev-BG, BR, and GR. (b) Color mapping of the output spectra as a function of the applied voltages.

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