Abstract

We propose a depth-fused display (DFD) with enhanced viewing characteristics by hybridizing the depth-fusing technology with another three-dimensional display method such as multi-view or integral imaging method. With hybridization, the viewing angle and expressible depth range can be extended without changing the size of the volume of the system compared to the conventional DFD method. The proposed method is demonstrated with experimental system.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Lee, “Three-dimensional displays, past and present,” Phys. Today66(4), 36–41 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Suyama, H. Sonobe, T. Soumiya, A. Tsunakawa, H. Yamamoto, and H. Kuribayashi, “Edge-based depth-fused 3D display,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper DM2A.3.
  5. S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).
  8. J.-W. Seo and T. Kim, “Double-layer projection display system using scattering polarizer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(3), 1602–1605 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2009), Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 1395–1398.
  10. M. Date, S. Sugimoto, H. Takada, and K. Nakazawa, “Depth-fused 3D (DFD) display with multiple viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE6778, 677817 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-g. Park, J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-fused display with enhanced viewing region,” in Biomedical Optics and 3-D Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper DSu1C.5.
  12. S.-g. Park, J.-H. Jung, and B. Lee, “Depth expansion of depth-fused display based on integral imaging method,” in Proc. 12th Int. Meeting on Inf. Display (IMID 2012) (Daegu, Korea, 2012), 473–474.
  13. J.-H. Jung, J. Yeom, J. Hong, K. Hong, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Effect of fundamental depth resolution and cardboard effect to perceived depth resolution on multi-view display,” Opt. Express19(21), 20468–20482 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Wu, H. Deng, C.-G. Luo, D.-H. Li, and Q.-H. Wang, “Dual-view integral imaging three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt.52(20), 4911–4914 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Kim, G. Park, J.-H. Jung, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Color moiré pattern simulation and analysis in three-dimensional integral imaging for finding the moiré-reduced tilted angle of a lens array,” Appl. Opt.48(11), 2178–2187 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2011

2010

2009

2008

J.-W. Seo and T. Kim, “Double-layer projection display system using scattering polarizer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(3), 1602–1605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Date, S. Sugimoto, H. Takada, and K. Nakazawa, “Depth-fused 3D (DFD) display with multiple viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE6778, 677817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akeley, K.

Bahn, J.-E.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Banks, M. S.

Chellappan, K. V.

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.-J.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Date, M.

M. Date, S. Sugimoto, H. Takada, and K. Nakazawa, “Depth-fused 3D (DFD) display with multiple viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE6778, 677817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

Erden, E.

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujikado, T.

S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).

Hong, J.

Hong, K.

Hosohata, J.

S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).

Hua, H.

Ishigure, Y.

S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).

Jung, J.-H.

Kim, J.

Y. Kim, G. Park, J.-H. Jung, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Color moiré pattern simulation and analysis in three-dimensional integral imaging for finding the moiré-reduced tilted angle of a lens array,” Appl. Opt.48(11), 2178–2187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-K.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

J.-W. Seo and T. Kim, “Double-layer projection display system using scattering polarizer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(3), 1602–1605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Lee, B.

Li, D.-H.

Liu, S.

Luo, C.-G.

Min, S.-W.

J.-H. Jung, J. Yeom, J. Hong, K. Hong, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Effect of fundamental depth resolution and cardboard effect to perceived depth resolution on multi-view display,” Opt. Express19(21), 20468–20482 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, K.

M. Date, S. Sugimoto, H. Takada, and K. Nakazawa, “Depth-fused 3D (DFD) display with multiple viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE6778, 677817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).

Ohtsuka, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, G.

Ravikumar, S.

Sakai, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saveljev, V. V.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J.-W.

J.-W. Seo and T. Kim, “Double-layer projection display system using scattering polarizer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(3), 1602–1605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, S.

M. Date, S. Sugimoto, H. Takada, and K. Nakazawa, “Depth-fused 3D (DFD) display with multiple viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE6778, 677817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Surman, P.

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, H.

M. Date, S. Sugimoto, H. Takada, and K. Nakazawa, “Depth-fused 3D (DFD) display with multiple viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE6778, 677817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takao, Y.

S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).

Uehira, K.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urey, H.

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.-H.

Wu, F.

Yeom, J.

Appl. Opt.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Seo and T. Kim, “Double-layer projection display system using scattering polarizer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(3), 1602–1605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

NTT Tech. Rev.

S. Suyama, Y. Ishigure, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, and T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue in viewing a depth-fused 3-D display in comparison with a 2-D display,” NTT Tech. Rev.3, 82–89 (2005).

Opt. Eng.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, S.-K. Kim, and H. Choi, “Parameters for designing autostereoscopic imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax barrier, and integral photography plates,” Opt. Eng.42(11), 3326–3333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Today

B. Lee, “Three-dimensional displays, past and present,” Phys. Today66(4), 36–41 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Date, S. Sugimoto, H. Takada, and K. Nakazawa, “Depth-fused 3D (DFD) display with multiple viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE6778, 677817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Suyama, H. Sonobe, T. Soumiya, A. Tsunakawa, H. Yamamoto, and H. Kuribayashi, “Edge-based depth-fused 3D display,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper DM2A.3.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2009), Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 1395–1398.

S.-g. Park, J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-fused display with enhanced viewing region,” in Biomedical Optics and 3-D Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper DSu1C.5.

S.-g. Park, J.-H. Jung, and B. Lee, “Depth expansion of depth-fused display based on integral imaging method,” in Proc. 12th Int. Meeting on Inf. Display (IMID 2012) (Daegu, Korea, 2012), 473–474.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3270 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the conventional DFD and viewing-angle-enhanced DFD: (a) Conventional DFD showing separated images for the side view, (b) DFD with multiple viewing points showing correct depth-fused image at the side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the conventional DFD and depth-enhanced DFD. (a) Conventional DFD and (b) DFD with increased depth range with the same thickness of the display system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship of the parameters of system components.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angles of viewing direction (viewing angles) from the center to each viewing point according to the magnification of the rear integral imaging system with parameters in Table 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Source images for the proposed DFD system: (a) front image, (b) rear image, and (c) converted rear image. The red box shows the enlarged elemental images, and the dashed square indicates the area of a lenslet of a lens array. The object is modeled by Kuhn Industries and used under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Elemental image set: (a) individual shifted rear images according to the viewing directions with differentiated color for the purpose of calibration, (b) combination of nine different elemental images shown in (a) (The elemental image in the red box shows the combination of nine shifted-elemental images.), and (c) combined elemental image. The red boxes show an elemental image allocated to a lenslet. The object is modeled by Kuhn Industries and used under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental system: (a) front view of the experimental setup and (b) side view of the experimental setup. The total depth of the system is 20 mm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Result of the experimental system (a) according to the different viewing angles and (b) its movie file (Media 1). The object is modeled by Kuhn Industries and used under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the depth range of the proposed system using half mirror: (a) target located at the front image plane, (b) target located at the rear plane, and (c) half-mirror setup for finding depth range. The object is modeled by Kuhn Industries and used under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters and Their Relationship of the Viewing Characteristics and System Components

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the Integral Imaging, Proposed Method, and the Depth-fused Display

Tables Icon

Table 3 Specification of the Experimental Setup

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s n = g d tan θ n ,
θ n = tan 1 ( (n1)np g l ),
d= g i f g i f ,

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