Abstract

We report optical modulation of continuous terahertz (THz) wave in the frequency range of 570-600 GHz using photo-induced reconfigurable patterns on a silicon wafer. The patterns were implemented using programmable illumination from a commercially-available digital light processing (DLP) projector. A modulation depth of 20 dB at 585 GHz has been demonstrated. Modulation speed measurement shows a 3-dB bandwidth of ~1.3 kHz which is primarily limited by the DLP system. A photo-induced polarizer with tunable polarization angle has been demonstrated, showing a 3-dB extinction ratio. Reconfigurable aperture-arrays (4 x 4 pixels) have been attempted for room-temperature coded-aperture imaging using a single Schottky diode detector at 585 GHz. We envision that this technique will provide a simple but powerful means to realize a variety of cost-effective reconfigurable quasi-optical THz circuits and components.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Lägel, S. Wolff, J. Heinrich, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, R. Zengerle, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Polarization-independent active metamaterial for high-frequency terahertz modulation,” Opt. Express17(2), 819–827 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013

2012

S. Busch, B. Scherger, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Optically controlled terahertz beam steering and imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1391–1393 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Busch, S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and B. M. Fischer, “Optically gated tunable terahertz filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Das, C. Megaridis, L. Liu, T. Wang, and A. Biswas, “Design and synthesis of superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber composite coatings for terahertz shielding and attenuation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 174101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, B. Jin, Y. Xue, C. Zhang, H. Dai, L. Zhang, C. Cao, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Tuning of superconducting niobium nitride terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express19(13), 12021–12026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. Liu, J. Hesler, H. Xu, A. Lichtenberger, and R. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Integrated 585 GHz hot- electron mixer focal-plane arrays based on annular-slot antennas for imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(7), 1943–1951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Lägel, S. Wolff, J. Heinrich, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, R. Zengerle, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Polarization-independent active metamaterial for high-frequency terahertz modulation,” Opt. Express17(2), 819–827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yamada, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, M. Saito, and W. Watanabe, “Terahertz wire-grid polarizers with micrometer-pitch Al gratings,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 274–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Liu, Q. Xiao, H. Xu, J. C. Schultz, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a submillimeter-wave niobium HEB mixer imaging array based on the ‘reversed-microscope’ concept,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 407–411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, C.-F. Hsieh, Y.-F. Lin, and R.-P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2000

I. Valova and Y. Kosugi, “Hadamard-based image decomposition and compression,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed.4(4), 306–319 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, “Photoexcited carrier diffusion near a Si-111 surface: Non-negligible consequence of carrier-carrier scattering,” Phys. Rev. B56(23), 15252–15255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

H. Alius and G. Dodel, “Amplitude-, phase-, and frequency modulation of far-infrared radiation by optical excitation of silicon,” Infrared Phys.32, 1–11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alijabarri, N.

S. Hawasli, N. Alijabarri, and R. M. Weikle, “Schottky diode arrays for submillimeter-wave sideband generation,” 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alius, H.

H. Alius and G. Dodel, “Amplitude-, phase-, and frequency modulation of far-infrared radiation by optical excitation of silicon,” Infrared Phys.32, 1–11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

Bingham, C. M.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, A.

A. Das, C. Megaridis, L. Liu, T. Wang, and A. Biswas, “Design and synthesis of superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber composite coatings for terahertz shielding and attenuation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 174101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, M.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Booshehri, L. G.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Busch, S.

Busch, S. F.

S. F. Busch, S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and B. M. Fischer, “Optically gated tunable terahertz filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C.

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charan, K.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, C.-F. Hsieh, Y.-F. Lin, and R.-P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Cheng, L.-J.

L. Liu, R. Pathak, L.-J. Cheng, and T. Wang, “Real-time frequency-domain terahertz sensing and imaging of isopropyl alcohol-water mixtures on a microfluidic chip,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.184, 228–234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Kannegulla, Z. Jiang, S. Rahman, P. Fay, H. G. Xing, L.-J. Cheng, and L. Liu, “Coded-aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays for mapping terahertz beams,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted to).

Chua, S. J.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, “Terahertz wire-grid polarizer by nanoimprinting lithography on high resistivity silicon substrate,” The International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Rome, Italy (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

Dai, H. L.

C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, “Photoexcited carrier diffusion near a Si-111 surface: Non-negligible consequence of carrier-carrier scattering,” Phys. Rev. B56(23), 15252–15255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Das, A.

A. Das, C. Megaridis, L. Liu, T. Wang, and A. Biswas, “Design and synthesis of superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber composite coatings for terahertz shielding and attenuation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 174101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L. Y.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, “Terahertz wire-grid polarizer by nanoimprinting lithography on high resistivity silicon substrate,” The International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Rome, Italy (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dodel, G.

T. Vogel, G. Dodel, E. Holzhauer, H. Salzmann, and A. Theurer, “High-speed switching of far-infrared radiation by photoionization in a semiconductor,” Appl. Opt.31(3), 329–337 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Alius and G. Dodel, “Amplitude-, phase-, and frequency modulation of far-infrared radiation by optical excitation of silicon,” Infrared Phys.32, 1–11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fang, T.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fay, P.

A. Kannegulla, Z. Jiang, S. Rahman, P. Fay, H. G. Xing, L.-J. Cheng, and L. Liu, “Coded-aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays for mapping terahertz beams,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted to).

Fekete, L.

Fischer, B. M.

S. F. Busch, S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and B. M. Fischer, “Optically gated tunable terahertz filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hangyo, M.

Hauge, R. H.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawasli, S.

S. Hawasli, N. Alijabarri, and R. M. Weikle, “Schottky diode arrays for submillimeter-wave sideband generation,” 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, J.

Heinz, T. F.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J.

L. Liu, J. Hesler, H. Xu, A. Lichtenberger, and R. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, D. J.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hlinka, J. Y.

Höfling, S.

Holzhauer, E.

Hsieh, C.-F.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, C.-F. Hsieh, Y.-F. Lin, and R.-P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W. S.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imhof, C.

Jansen, C.

S. F. Busch, S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and B. M. Fischer, “Optically gated tunable terahertz filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jena, D.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, S. Rafique, R. Yan, M. Zhu, V. Protasenko, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Terahertz imaging employing graphene modulator arrays,” Opt. Express21(2), 2324–2330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

A. Kannegulla, Z. Jiang, S. Rahman, P. Fay, H. G. Xing, L.-J. Cheng, and L. Liu, “Coded-aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays for mapping terahertz beams,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted to).

Jin, B.

Jokerst, N. M.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, E.

Kang, L.

Kannegulla, A.

A. Kannegulla, Z. Jiang, S. Rahman, P. Fay, H. G. Xing, L.-J. Cheng, and L. Liu, “Coded-aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays for mapping terahertz beams,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted to).

Kawayama, I.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, K. F.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, M. M.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

S. F. Busch, S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and B. M. Fischer, “Optically gated tunable terahertz filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Busch, B. Scherger, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Optically controlled terahertz beam steering and imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1391–1393 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kono, J.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosugi, Y.

I. Valova and Y. Kosugi, “Hadamard-based image decomposition and compression,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed.4(4), 306–319 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzel, P.

Lägel, B.

Li, C. M.

C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, “Photoexcited carrier diffusion near a Si-111 surface: Non-negligible consequence of carrier-carrier scattering,” Phys. Rev. B56(23), 15252–15255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenberger, A.

L. Liu, J. Hesler, H. Xu, A. Lichtenberger, and R. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenberger, A. W.

L. Liu, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Integrated 585 GHz hot- electron mixer focal-plane arrays based on annular-slot antennas for imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(7), 1943–1951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Q. Xiao, H. Xu, J. C. Schultz, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a submillimeter-wave niobium HEB mixer imaging array based on the ‘reversed-microscope’ concept,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 407–411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-F.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, C.-F. Hsieh, Y.-F. Lin, and R.-P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, S. Rafique, R. Yan, M. Zhu, V. Protasenko, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Terahertz imaging employing graphene modulator arrays,” Opt. Express21(2), 2324–2330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, R. Pathak, L.-J. Cheng, and T. Wang, “Real-time frequency-domain terahertz sensing and imaging of isopropyl alcohol-water mixtures on a microfluidic chip,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.184, 228–234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Das, C. Megaridis, L. Liu, T. Wang, and A. Biswas, “Design and synthesis of superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber composite coatings for terahertz shielding and attenuation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 174101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Hesler, H. Xu, A. Lichtenberger, and R. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Integrated 585 GHz hot- electron mixer focal-plane arrays based on annular-slot antennas for imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(7), 1943–1951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Q. Xiao, H. Xu, J. C. Schultz, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a submillimeter-wave niobium HEB mixer imaging array based on the ‘reversed-microscope’ concept,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 407–411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kannegulla, Z. Jiang, S. Rahman, P. Fay, H. G. Xing, L.-J. Cheng, and L. Liu, “Coded-aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays for mapping terahertz beams,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted to).

Megaridis, C.

A. Das, C. Megaridis, L. Liu, T. Wang, and A. Biswas, “Design and synthesis of superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber composite coatings for terahertz shielding and attenuation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 174101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mounaix, P.

O’Hara, J. F.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. Shrekenhamer, C. M. Watts, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz single pixel imaging with an optically controlled dynamic spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express21(10), 12507–12518 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.-L.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, C.-F. Hsieh, Y.-F. Lin, and R.-P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R.-P.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, C.-F. Hsieh, Y.-F. Lin, and R.-P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, R.

L. Liu, R. Pathak, L.-J. Cheng, and T. Wang, “Real-time frequency-domain terahertz sensing and imaging of isopropyl alcohol-water mixtures on a microfluidic chip,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.184, 228–234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Paul, O.

Pint, C. L.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Protasenko, V.

Rafique, S.

Rahm, M.

Rahman, S.

A. Kannegulla, Z. Jiang, S. Rahman, P. Fay, H. G. Xing, L.-J. Cheng, and L. Liu, “Coded-aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays for mapping terahertz beams,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted to).

Ren, L.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, W. D.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, M.

Salzmann, H.

Scheller, M.

S. Busch, B. Scherger, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Optically controlled terahertz beam steering and imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1391–1393 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Busch, S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and B. M. Fischer, “Optically gated tunable terahertz filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scherger, B.

Schultz, J. C.

L. Liu, Q. Xiao, H. Xu, J. C. Schultz, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a submillimeter-wave niobium HEB mixer imaging array based on the ‘reversed-microscope’ concept,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 407–411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schumann, S.

S. F. Busch, S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and B. M. Fischer, “Optically gated tunable terahertz filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, S. Rafique, R. Yan, M. Zhu, V. Protasenko, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Terahertz imaging employing graphene modulator arrays,” Opt. Express21(2), 2324–2330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shan, J.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D.

Sjodin, T.

C. M. Li, T. Sjodin, and H. L. Dai, “Photoexcited carrier diffusion near a Si-111 surface: Non-negligible consequence of carrier-carrier scattering,” Phys. Rev. B56(23), 15252–15255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tahy, K.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takano, K.

Takeya, K.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takhar, D.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanoto, H.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, “Terahertz wire-grid polarizer by nanoimprinting lithography on high resistivity silicon substrate,” The International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Rome, Italy (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, J. H.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, “Terahertz wire-grid polarizer by nanoimprinting lithography on high resistivity silicon substrate,” The International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Rome, Italy (2010).
[CrossRef]

Theurer, A.

Tonouchi, M.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, T.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valova, I.

I. Valova and Y. Kosugi, “Hadamard-based image decomposition and compression,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed.4(4), 306–319 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, T.

Wang, T.

L. Liu, R. Pathak, L.-J. Cheng, and T. Wang, “Real-time frequency-domain terahertz sensing and imaging of isopropyl alcohol-water mixtures on a microfluidic chip,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.184, 228–234 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Das, C. Megaridis, L. Liu, T. Wang, and A. Biswas, “Design and synthesis of superhydrophobic carbon nanofiber composite coatings for terahertz shielding and attenuation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 174101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon Nanotube Terahertz Polarizer,” Nano Lett.9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, W.

Watts, C. M.

Weikle, R.

L. Liu, J. Hesler, H. Xu, A. Lichtenberger, and R. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weikle, R. M.

L. Liu, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Integrated 585 GHz hot- electron mixer focal-plane arrays based on annular-slot antennas for imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(7), 1943–1951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Q. Xiao, H. Xu, J. C. Schultz, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a submillimeter-wave niobium HEB mixer imaging array based on the ‘reversed-microscope’ concept,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 407–411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hawasli, N. Alijabarri, and R. M. Weikle, “Schottky diode arrays for submillimeter-wave sideband generation,” 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, S.

Wu, J.

Wu, P.

Xiao, Q.

L. Liu, Q. Xiao, H. Xu, J. C. Schultz, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a submillimeter-wave niobium HEB mixer imaging array based on the ‘reversed-microscope’ concept,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 407–411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xing, H. G.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, S. Rafique, R. Yan, M. Zhu, V. Protasenko, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Terahertz imaging employing graphene modulator arrays,” Opt. Express21(2), 2324–2330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kannegulla, Z. Jiang, S. Rahman, P. Fay, H. G. Xing, L.-J. Cheng, and L. Liu, “Coded-aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays for mapping terahertz beams,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted to).

Xu, H.

L. Liu, H. Xu, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Integrated 585 GHz hot- electron mixer focal-plane arrays based on annular-slot antennas for imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(7), 1943–1951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Hesler, H. Xu, A. Lichtenberger, and R. Weikle, “A broadband quasi-optical terahertz detector utilizing a zero bias schottky diode,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.20(9), 504–506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Q. Xiao, H. Xu, J. C. Schultz, A. W. Lichtenberger, and R. M. Weikle, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a submillimeter-wave niobium HEB mixer imaging array based on the ‘reversed-microscope’ concept,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 407–411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

Xue, Y.

Yamada, I.

Yan, R.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, S. Rafique, R. Yan, M. Zhu, V. Protasenko, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Terahertz imaging employing graphene modulator arrays,” Opt. Express21(2), 2324–2330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yew, S. Y.

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, “Terahertz wire-grid polarizer by nanoimprinting lithography on high resistivity silicon substrate,” The International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Rome, Italy (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zengerle, R.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, L.

J. Wu, B. Jin, Y. Xue, C. Zhang, H. Dai, L. Zhang, C. Cao, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Tuning of superconducting niobium nitride terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express19(13), 12021–12026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, J. H. Teng, H. Tanoto, S. Y. Yew, L. Y. Deng, and S. J. Chua, “Terahertz wire-grid polarizer by nanoimprinting lithography on high resistivity silicon substrate,” The International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Rome, Italy (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for CW THz modulation and reconfigurable THz quasi-optical component using photo-induced pattern on semi-insulating silicon. (b) Highlight image of the modulator setup. (c) Render of the key component in the proposed system that enables reconfigurable THz modulation. DLP projector generates reconfigurable conductive patterns on the silicon to interact with the incident THz beam. (d) Modulation types demonstrated in this work. Left column: unpatterned gray scales for THz intensity modulation; middle column: patterns for reconfigurable THz polarizer; and right column: exemplary reconfigurable aperture array patterns for potential THz coded aperture imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results for continuous THz wave modulation: (a) measured THz responses with various intensities of photoexcitation from no light to 100% (~2W/cm2), and (b) normalized transmission showing a modulation depth of 20 dB at 585 GHz for white light (100%).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Time response of photoinduced THz wave modulation (585 GHz) by switching DLP projection light at 5 Hz. (b) A zoom-in view of a pulse transition. The transition time was determined by the switching rate of the DMD panel and was measured to be ~550 μs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A THz polarizer oriented with an angle θ as respect to the E-field of the incident THz wave. In this experiment, a linear polarized detector aligned to the incident E-field was employed. (b) Measured THz response (585 GHz) versus polarization angle (empty circles) showing a ~3 dB extinction ratio. The THz wave transmits through a polarizer and is then captured by a linearly polarized detector; thus overall it experiences linear polarization twice. The detected THz energy follows a fitting curve (solid red curve) proportional to sin4θ predicted based on Malus’ Law [26].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

585 GHz 4 x 4 coded aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays: (a) normalized measurement data without any object showing the imaging procedure, (b) normalized measurement data for object with upper-half of the imaging area blocked by an absorber, (c) reconstructed image from the measurement in (a) resolving the shape of THz beam presented as the bright region at the center (~8 mm beam size), (d) reconstructed image for upper-half block from the measurement in (b), (e)-(g) reconstructed image for lower-half block, left-half block and right-half block, respectively, and (h) imaging result for upper-half block using the well-known Hadamard coding [29]. The red dashed circles represent the THz beam cross-section.

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