Abstract

The first demonstration of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) suitable for high-rate data transmission in the 2 µm waveband is presented. The fiber has a record low loss for this wavelength region (4.5 dB/km at 1980 nm) and a >150 nm wide surface-mode-free transmission window at the center of the bandgap. Detailed analysis of the optical modes and their propagation along the fiber, carried out using a time-of-flight technique in conjunction with spatially and spectrally resolved (S2) imaging, provides clear evidence that the HC-PBGF can be operated as quasi-single mode even though it supports up to four mode groups. Through the use of a custom built Thulium doped fiber amplifier with gain bandwidth closely matched to the fiber’s low loss window, error-free 8 Gbit/s transmission in an optically amplified data channel at 2008 nm over 290 m of 19 cell HC-PBGF is reported.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 354–362 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800 – 2050 nm window,” Opt. Express21(22), 26450–26455 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, D. Byrne, C. Herbert, J. Somers, and B. Kelly, “In0.75Ga0.25As/InP multiple quantum-well discrete-mode laser diode emitting at 2 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 652–654 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

1999 (1)

J. H. Lee, U.-C. Ryu, S. J. Ahn, and N. Park, “Enhancement of power conversion efficiency for an L-band EDFA with a secondary pumping effect in the unpumped EDF section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(1), 42–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Garnham, D. G. Cunningham, and W. A. Stallard, “34 Mbit/s optical fibre transmission system experiment at a wavelength of 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett.23(20), 1063–1064 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. J.

J. H. Lee, U.-C. Ryu, S. J. Ahn, and N. Park, “Enhancement of power conversion efficiency for an L-band EDFA with a secondary pumping effect in the unpumped EDF section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(1), 42–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alam, S. U.

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800 – 2050 nm window,” Opt. Express21(22), 26450–26455 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Baddela, N. K.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Bigo, S.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Broderick, N. G.

Byrne, D.

R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, D. Byrne, C. Herbert, J. Somers, and B. Kelly, “In0.75Ga0.25As/InP multiple quantum-well discrete-mode laser diode emitting at 2 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 652–654 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Corzine, S. W.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

Cunningham, D. G.

R. A. Garnham, D. G. Cunningham, and W. A. Stallard, “34 Mbit/s optical fibre transmission system experiment at a wavelength of 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett.23(20), 1063–1064 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, J. M. O.

Dentai, A. G.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. W.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Farr, L.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 354–362 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Garnham, R. A.

R. A. Garnham, D. G. Cunningham, and W. A. Stallard, “34 Mbit/s optical fibre transmission system experiment at a wavelength of 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett.23(20), 1063–1064 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

Gray, D. R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Heidt, A. M.

Herbert, C.

R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, D. Byrne, C. Herbert, J. Somers, and B. Kelly, “In0.75Ga0.25As/InP multiple quantum-well discrete-mode laser diode emitting at 2 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 652–654 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, C.

Joyner, C. H.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Kato, M.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Kazmierski, C.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Kelly, B.

R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, D. Byrne, C. Herbert, J. Somers, and B. Kelly, “In0.75Ga0.25As/InP multiple quantum-well discrete-mode laser diode emitting at 2 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 652–654 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kish, F. A.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, U.-C. Ryu, S. J. Ahn, and N. Park, “Enhancement of power conversion efficiency for an L-band EDFA with a secondary pumping effect in the unpumped EDF section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(1), 42–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lelarge, F.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Loh, W. H.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Lyngsø, J. K.

Mangan, B.

Mangan, B. J.

Marcadet, X.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Mason, M.

Muthiah, R.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, R.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 354–362 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Numkam, E.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

O’Carroll, J.

R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, D. Byrne, C. Herbert, J. Somers, and B. Kelly, “In0.75Ga0.25As/InP multiple quantum-well discrete-mode laser diode emitting at 2 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 652–654 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

J. H. Lee, U.-C. Ryu, S. J. Ahn, and N. Park, “Enhancement of power conversion efficiency for an L-band EDFA with a secondary pumping effect in the unpumped EDF section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(1), 42–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Petrovich, M. N.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express14(17), 7974–7985 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phelan, R.

R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, D. Byrne, C. Herbert, J. Somers, and B. Kelly, “In0.75Ga0.25As/InP multiple quantum-well discrete-mode laser diode emitting at 2 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 652–654 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pleumeekers, J. L.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Poletti, F.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express14(17), 7974–7985 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, S.

Richardson, D. J.

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800 – 2050 nm window,” Opt. Express21(22), 26450–26455 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 354–362 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express14(17), 7974–7985 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

Ryu, U.-C.

J. H. Lee, U.-C. Ryu, S. J. Ahn, and N. Park, “Enhancement of power conversion efficiency for an L-band EDFA with a secondary pumping effect in the unpumped EDF section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(1), 42–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sabert, H.

Sahu, J. K.

Scavennec, A.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R. P.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

Simakov, N.

Slavík, R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Somers, J.

R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, D. Byrne, C. Herbert, J. Somers, and B. Kelly, “In0.75Ga0.25As/InP multiple quantum-well discrete-mode laser diode emitting at 2 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 652–654 (2012).
[CrossRef]

St J Russell, P.

Stallard, W. A.

R. A. Garnham, D. G. Cunningham, and W. A. Stallard, “34 Mbit/s optical fibre transmission system experiment at a wavelength of 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett.23(20), 1063–1064 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, A.

Welch, D. F.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, N. V.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

Yablon, A. D.

Ziari, M.

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phys. (1)

E. Desurvire, C. Kazmierski, F. Lelarge, X. Marcadet, A. Scavennec, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, S. W. Corzine, M. Kato, P. W. Evans, M. Ziari, A. G. Dentai, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, S. Bigo, M. Nakazawa, D. J. Richardson, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, W. H. Loh, and D. N. Payne, “Science and technology challenges in XXIst century optical communications,” C. R. Phys.12(4), 387–416 (2011), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511000922 .
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. A. Garnham, D. G. Cunningham, and W. A. Stallard, “34 Mbit/s optical fibre transmission system experiment at a wavelength of 2.4 μm,” Electron. Lett.23(20), 1063–1064 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. H. Lee, U.-C. Ryu, S. J. Ahn, and N. Park, “Enhancement of power conversion efficiency for an L-band EDFA with a secondary pumping effect in the unpumped EDF section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(1), 42–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, D. Byrne, C. Herbert, J. Somers, and B. Kelly, “In0.75Ga0.25As/InP multiple quantum-well discrete-mode laser diode emitting at 2 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 652–654 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 354–362 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavík, and D. J. Richardson, “Towards high-capacity fibre optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum,” Nat. Photonics7(4), 279–284 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St J Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express13(1), 236–244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 mum,” Opt. Express14(13), 6084–6090 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express14(17), 7974–7985 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Express16(10), 7233–7243 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Lyngsø, B. J. Mangan, C. Jakobsen, and P. J. Roberts, “7-cell core hollow-core photonic crystal fibers with low loss in the spectral region around 2 microm,” Opt. Express17(26), 23468–23473 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800 – 2050 nm window,” Opt. Express21(22), 26450–26455 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2004. OFC 2004, paper PDP24. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1362294&isnumber=29847

N. K. Baddela, M. N. Petrovich, Y. Jung, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, N. Wong, F. Parmigiani, E. Numkam, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of a low loss 37-cell hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and its use for data transmission,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu2K.3.

F. Poletti, E. R. Numkam Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, N. V. Wheeler, N. K. Baddela, J. R. Hayes, and D. J. Richardson, “Hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for telecommunications: opportunities and potential issues,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh1H.3.
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, M. N. Petrovich, N. V. Wheeler, J. R. Hayes, N. K. Baddela, D. R. Gray, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “1.45 Tbit/s, low latency data transmission through a 19-cell hollow core photonic band gap fibre,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Mo.2.F.2.
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, P. Leoni, M. Kuschnerov, N. V. Wheeler, N. K. Baddela, R. G. H. van Uden, C. M. Okonkwo, J. R. Hayes, J. Wooler, E. Numkam, R. Slavik, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, V. Veljanovski, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and H. de Waardt, “30.7 Tb/s (96x320 Gb/s) DP-32QAM transmission over 19-cell photonic band gap fiber, ” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1I.5.
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, N. K. Baddela, M. N. Petrovich, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, E. R. Numkam Fokoua, J. Wooler, N. Wong, F. Parmigiani, S. Alam, J. Surof, M. Kuschnerov, V. Veljanovski, H. de Waardt, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of a broadband 37-cell hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and its application to high capacity mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.3.

N. Mac Suibhne, Z. Li, B. Baeuerle, J. Zhao, J. P. Wooler, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, A. Heidt, I. Giles, D. J. Giles, B. Pálsdóttir, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, J. O'Carroll, B. Kelly, D. Murphy, A. Ellis, D. J. Richardson, and F. C. Garcia Gunning, “Wavelength division multiplexing at 2μm,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.3.A.3.
[CrossRef]

M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, J. Wooler, A. Heidt, N. K. Baddela, Z. Li, D. R. Gray, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, N. V. Wheeler, J. R. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Pálsdóttir, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, M. Becker, N. MacSuibhne, J. Zhao, F. C. Garcia Gunning, A. Ellis, P. Petropoulos, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of 2µm data transmission in a low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.3.A.5.
[CrossRef]

N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, J. R. Hayes, E. N. Fokoua, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Gas absorption between 1.8 and 2.1 µm in low loss (5.2 dB/km) HC-PBGF,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM3N.5.

M. Hirano, T. Haruna, Y. Tamura, T. Kawano, S. Ohnuki, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Koyano, and T. Sasaki, “Record low loss, record high FOM optical fiber with manufacturable process, ” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.7.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) HC-PBGF transmission loss (300 m to 5 m cutback, 2 nm resolution) superimposed on the TDFA output to illustrate the location of the signal channel at 2008 nm and extent of ASE emission as an indicator of the amplifier bandwidth. (b) SEM image of the fiber. (c) High resolution (~50 pm) transmission of 290 m of HC-PBGF at 2000-2020 nm collected using a Tm:ASE source and SMF input and output coupling fibers and normalized against input intensity. Also shown the signal wavelength (green line) tuned off the CO2 absorption lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modal analysis of the HC-PBGF carried out over a 10.7 m fiber length via S2 imaging at 2008 nm, showing the reconstructed modal profiles and values of differential group delay relative to the fundamental mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-of-flight measurement at 1940 nm over a 290 m long HC-PBGF. The expected position of higher order modes (obtained from DGD values measured via S2) is also shown, highlighting excellent suppression through optimized input and output coupling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the full transmission setup. Signal from laser diode is modulated via an external LiNbO modulator through on-off keying (OOK), passed through a Thulium fiber amplifier (TDFA), a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to remove the ASE noise, launched into the 290 m of HC-PBGF, passed through a variable optical attenuator (VOA) and finally detected by a fast photodetector and bit error rate tester and digital communications analyzer (BERT/DCA)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Discrete mode CW laser power as a function of bias current showing the threshold current and slope efficiency (SE). (b) Optical emission spectrum at a bias current of 100 mA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Performance of the optical modulator at 1 Gbit/s (top) and 8 Gbit/s (bottom): electrical driving signal (left) and optical modulated signal (right).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Detailed schematic of the Tm doped fiber amplifier shown as a single block in Fig. 4. (b) Gain and noise figure of the TDFA operating at the signal wavelength of 2008 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Amplified transmission experiments at 2008 nm over 290 m of HC-PBGF: BER characteristics at 8 Gbit/s and eye diagrams corresponding to back-to-back and transmission over the fiber.

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